Asteroidea taxon details
Toraster tuberculatus (Gray, 1847)
|Parent|| ||Toraster A.M. Clark, 1952|
|Orig. name|| ||Goniaster tuberculatus Gray, 1847|
Astrogonium tuberculatum Gray, 1847 (synonym)|
Goniaster tuberculatus Gray, 1847 (Subsequent combinationn by vonMartens, 1869)
Pentagonaster granulatus Bell, 1905 (Synonym according to Mortensen (1933))
Tosia tuberculata (Gray, 1847) (Subsequent combination from H.L. Clark (1923))
basis of record Clark, A.M. (1993). An index of names of recent Asteroidea, part 2: Valvatida, in: Jangoux, M.; Lawrence, J.M. (Ed.) (1993). Echinoderm Studies, 4: pp. 187-366 (look up in IMIS) [details]|
additional source Clark, A.M.; Downey, M.E. (1992). Starfishes of the Atlantic. Chapman & Hall Identification Guides, 3. Chapman & Hall. London, UK. ISBN 0-412-43280-3. xxvi, 794 pp. (look up in IMIS) [details]
additional source Clark, A.M. & Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. [details]
additional source Mah, C. (2007). Systematics, phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Pentagonaster clade (Asteroidea: Valvatida: Goniasteridae). Invertebrate Systematics 21: 311-339., available online at https://doi.org/10.1071/IS06049 [details]
original description (of Astrogonium tuberculatum Gray, 1847) Gray J.E. (1847). Descriptions of some new genera and species of Asteriadae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 72-83., available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12862856
page(s): 79 [details]
context source (Deepsea) Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO. The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), available online at http://www.iobis.org/ [details]
|Environment|| ||marine, |brackish, fresh, terrestrial
|Fossil range|| ||recent only|
type locality contained in Port Natal [details]|
From editor or global species database
South Africa (country) [details]
From other sources
South Angola [details]
False Bay (South Africa) [details]
South East Africa [details]
Present Inaccurate Introduced: alien
|Links|| ||To Encyclopedia of Life |
To USNM Invertebrate Zoology Echinodermata Collection
From editor or global species database
Description Body form weakly to strongly stellate, relatively thin relative to Tosia or Pentagonaster. Arm tip, rapidly narrowing, pointed.
Abactinal plates extremely convex, swollen, mostly bare, smooth, round to polygonal in outline. Abactinal surface covered with large, evenly round, spherical granules covering some secondary plate surfaces and plate periphery, especially at lateral contact with superomarginal plate series. Abactinal plates all relatively uniform in size, radial/interradial plates not distinctive, not enlarged. Primary circlet plates sometimes enlarged. Abactinal plates relatively small compared to Tosia or Pentagonaster. Large bivalve-pedicellariae present, commonly bisect abactinal plates. Madreporite polygonal. Double to multiple papular pores present, but absent interradially.
Fasciolar grooves between abactinal plates well-developed. Marginal plates convex, longer than wide, interradially, becoming more wider distally, relatively small compared to Pentagonaster or Tosia, decreasing in size distally. Enlarged bivalve pedicellariae similar to those on abactinal plate surface irregularly present on superomarginal plates. Large, spherical granules, similar to those on abactinal surface form periphery and cover partial superomarginal and inferomarginal surface, especially on lateral marginal plate surface. Granules sometimes distributed patchily over plate surface. Fasciolar grooves between marginal plates, well-developed. Swollen penultimate marginal plates absent. Multiple (3-6) superomarginal plates in contact across midradius adjacent to armtip, becoming more swollen, wider distally.
Actinal plates polygonal, obscured by spherical granules identical to those on abactinal, marginal plate surface, relatively small in size compared to those in Tosia or Pentagonaster. Furrow spines enlarged, relatively few (1-3) in number per plate. Subambulacrals also thickened, granular, becoming indistinguishable from actinal granulation. Adambulacral plate surface facing furrow-straight in outline. Adambulacral “divider” directed horizontally, oriented symmetrically.
Living color described by Mortensen (1933: 243) as a “beautiful red’.
Type locality Port Natal (Durban) [details]
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| || ||Citation: Mah, C. (2009). Toraster tuberculatus (Gray, 1847). In: Mah, C.L. (2017). World Asteroidea database. Accessed at http://www.marinespecies.org/asteroidea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=178147 on 2017-04-28|
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