WoRMS name details

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEnsis directus (Conrad, 1844) sensu Abbott, 1954

140732 (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:140732)
Unaccepted: synonym, or anything that is not accepted unaccepted
Species
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
(ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorSolen directus Conrad, 1843) Conrad, T.A. (1843 [1844]). Descriptions of nineteen species of Tertiary fossils of Virginia and North Carolina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 1: 323-329., available online at https://www.jstor.org/stable/4058712
page(s): 325 [details]   
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNomenclature This species is better known under the name...  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNomenclature This species is better known under the name Ensis directus (Conrad, 1844) but van Urk (1984, 1987) and Lee (2009) have shown that the real directus is an extinct Pliocene fossil species. The next available name Solen ensis americanus Gould in Binney, 1870 is a primary homonym of Solen americanus Chenu, 1843 and therefore Huber (2015) proposed the replacement name Ensis leei. The name Solen americanus Chenu has apparently never been used but Solen americanus Gould does not seem to have enough usage (25 citations by at least 10 different authors) to clain a status of nomen protectum [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorDistribution A recent immigrant from America, this species...  
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorDistribution A recent immigrant from America, this species is now very common along the European coasts. First discovered on German North Sea Coasts in 1979, it had reached NE Denmark and the Dutch Wadden Sea by 1982, and NE France by 1991. [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorDistribution Labrador to Florida   
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorDistribution Labrador to Florida  [details]
Gofas, S.; von Cosel, R. (2017). Ensis directus (Conrad, 1844) sensu Abbott, 1954. In: MolluscaBase (2017). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=140732 on 2017-11-24

Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2009-09-05 11:22:23Z
changed
2017-01-10 16:55:41Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License



original description  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorSolen directus Conrad, 1843) Conrad, T.A. (1843 [1844]). Descriptions of nineteen species of Tertiary fossils of Virginia and North Carolina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 1: 323-329., available online at https://www.jstor.org/stable/4058712
page(s): 325 [details]   

basis of record Cosel R. von, 2009. The razor shells of the eastern Atlantic, part 2. Pharidae II: the genus Ensis Schumacher, 1817 (Bivalvia, Solenoidea). Basteria, 73: 9-56 , available online at http://natuurtijdschriften.nl/download?type=document&docid=597354 [details]   

additional source Vierna J., Cuperus J., Martínez-Lage A., Jansen J.M., Perina A., Van Pelt H. & González-Tizón, A.M. (2014) Species delimitation and DNA barcoding of Atlantic Ensis (Bivalvia, Pharidae). Zoologica Scripta 43(2): 161–171. [Published online 3 September 2013; Code-compliant paper version published March 2014], available online at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/zsc.12038/abstract [details]   

additional source Vierna J., Jensen K.T., González-Tizón A.M. & Martínez-Lage A. (2012) Population genetic analysis of Ensis directus unveils high genetic variation in the introduced range and reveals a new species from the NW Atlantic. Marine Biology 159(10): 2209–2227. [Published online 31 July 2012; Code-compliant version published in October 2012] [details]   

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorSolen directus Conrad, 1843) Check List of European Marine Mollusca (CLEMAM). , available online at http://www.somali.asso.fr/clemam/index.clemam.html [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorSolen directus Conrad, 1843) Check List of European Marine Mollusca (CLEMAM). , available online at http://www.somali.asso.fr/clemam/index.clemam.html [details]   

context source (Introduced species) Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. BioInvasions Records. 1: 235-245., available online at http://easin.jrc.ec.europa.eu [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

context source (Schelde) Maris, T.; Beauchard, O.; Van Damme, S.; Van den Bergh, E.; Wijnhoven, S.; Meire, P. (2013). Referentiematrices en Ecotoopoppervlaktes Annex bij de Evaluatiemethodiek Schelde-estuarium Studie naar “Ecotoopoppervlaktes en intactness index”. Monitor Taskforce Publication Series, 2013-01. NIOZ: Yerseke. 35 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien 
 

From editor or global species database
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNomenclature This species is better known under the name Ensis directus (Conrad, 1844) but van Urk (1984, 1987) and Lee (2009) have shown that the real directus is an extinct Pliocene fossil species. The next available name Solen ensis americanus Gould in Binney, 1870 is a primary homonym of Solen americanus Chenu, 1843 and therefore Huber (2015) proposed the replacement name Ensis leei. The name Solen americanus Chenu has apparently never been used but Solen americanus Gould does not seem to have enough usage (25 citations by at least 10 different authors) to clain a status of nomen protectum [details]

From regional or thematic species database
Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species impact in United Kingdom (Nation) : Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species remark In United Kingdom part of the English Channel (Marine Region) : Potential fishery [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species remark In United Kingdom part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Potential fishery [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in United Kingdom part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Natural dispersal [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in United Kingdom part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Natural drift.  [details]

Trusted: edited by a thematic editorIntroduced species vector dispersal in United Kingdom part of the English Channel (Marine Region) : Natural drift.  [details]

From other sources
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorAlien species The American jack knife clam Ensis directus originates from the American east coast, and came to Europe through transport (of its larvae) in ballast water of cargo ships. In 1987, the first shells of the American jack knife clam were found on the beach of Oostduinkerke. Soon, the whole coastline was populated. The American jack knife clam is an opportunistic species. The impact on the ecosystem is twofold. Local economy can benefit from this species, as it can be fished and consumed, although the clam is also known to damage fishing nets. Although the species may serve as food for sea birds, its also feared that the American jack knife clam might negatively influence biodiversity. [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorBiology The unclosed side is turned up when burrowed into the substrate, mostly sand or muddy sand, in which it forms a hole. Goes up and down into the substrate with a respectable speed (disappears into sand within 15 seconds). [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorDistribution A recent immigrant from America, this species is now very common along the European coasts. First discovered on German North Sea Coasts in 1979, it had reached NE Denmark and the Dutch Wadden Sea by 1982, and NE France by 1991. [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorDistribution Labrador to Florida  [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorHabitat In sand or muddy sand. [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorHabitat infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorMorphology Whitish-grey mollusc with brown drawings. Length six times as wide, slightly curved, and can attain at least 20 cm long. Both tips equally wide.With many growing bands and a scaly surface. As with all Ensis spp. one side is never completely closed. [details]
 

Feeding Type
suspension feeder [details]
Host of
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMyocheres major (Williams, 1907) (parasitic: ectoparasitic)
LanguageName 
Danish Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorAmerikansk knivmusling  [details]
Dutch Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorAmerikaanse zwaardschede  [details]
English Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorAtlantic razor clamUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorAtlantic jack knife clamUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorAmerican jack knife clam  [details]
French Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorcouteau droitUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorcouteau de l'AtlantiqueUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorcouteau américainUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorcouteau  [details]
German Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorAmerikanische SchwertmuschelUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorAmerikanische Scheidenmuschel  [details]