WoRMS name details

Ensis directus (Conrad, 1844) sensu Abbott, 1954

140732  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:140732)

 unaccepted
Species
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
(ofSolen directus Conrad, 1843) Conrad, T.A. (1843 [1844]). Descriptions of nineteen species of Tertiary fossils of Virginia and North Carolina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 1: 323-329., available online at https://www.jstor.org/stable/4058712
page(s): 325 [details]   
Nomenclature This species is better known under the name Ensis directus (Conrad, 1844) but van Urk (1984, 1987) and Lee (2009) have...  
Nomenclature This species is better known under the name Ensis directus (Conrad, 1844) but van Urk (1984, 1987) and Lee (2009) have shown that the real directus is an extinct Pliocene fossil species. The next available name Solen ensis americanus Gould in Binney, 1870 is a primary homonym of Solen americanus Chenu, 1843 and therefore Huber (2015) proposed the replacement name Ensis leei. The name Solen americanus Chenu has apparently never been used but Solen americanus Gould does not seem to have enough usage (25 citations by at least 10 different authors) to clain a status of nomen protectum [details]

Distribution A recent immigrant from America, this species is now very common along the European coasts. First discovered on German...  
Distribution A recent immigrant from America, this species is now very common along the European coasts. First discovered on German North Sea Coasts in 1979, it had reached NE Denmark and the Dutch Wadden Sea by 1982, and NE France by 1991. [details]

Distribution Labrador to Florida   
Distribution Labrador to Florida  [details]
MolluscaBase (2018). Ensis directus (Conrad, 1844) sensu Abbott, 1954. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=140732 on 2018-07-20
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2009-09-05 11:22:23Z
changed
2017-01-10 16:55:41Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description  (ofSolen directus Conrad, 1843) Conrad, T.A. (1843 [1844]). Descriptions of nineteen species of Tertiary fossils of Virginia and North Carolina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 1: 323-329., available online at https://www.jstor.org/stable/4058712
page(s): 325 [details]   

basis of record Cosel R. von, 2009. The razor shells of the eastern Atlantic, part 2. Pharidae II: the genus Ensis Schumacher, 1817 (Bivalvia, Solenoidea). Basteria, 73: 9-56 , available online at http://natuurtijdschriften.nl/download?type=document&docid=597354 [details]   

additional source Vierna J., Cuperus J., Martínez-Lage A., Jansen J.M., Perina A., Van Pelt H. & González-Tizón, A.M. (2014) Species delimitation and DNA barcoding of Atlantic Ensis (Bivalvia, Pharidae). Zoologica Scripta 43(2): 161–171. [Published online 3 September 2013; Code-compliant paper version published March 2014], available online at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/zsc.12038/abstract [details]   

additional source Vierna, J.; Jensen, K. T.; González-Tizón, A. M.; Martínez-Lage, A. (2012). Population genetic analysis of Ensis directus unveils high genetic variation in the introduced range and reveals a new species from the NW Atlantic. Marine Biology. 159(10): 2209–2227. [Published online 31 July 2012; Code-compliant version published in October 2012]. [details]   

basis of record  (ofSolen directus Conrad, 1843) Check List of European Marine Mollusca (CLEMAM). , available online at http://www.somali.asso.fr/clemam/index.clemam.html [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofSolen directus Conrad, 1843) Check List of European Marine Mollusca (CLEMAM). , available online at http://www.somali.asso.fr/clemam/index.clemam.html [details]   

context source (Introduced species) Katsanevakis, S.; Bogucarskis, K.; Gatto, F.; Vandekerkhove, J.; Deriu, I.; Cardoso A.S. (2012). Building the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN): a novel approach for the exploration of distributed alien species data. BioInvasions Records. 1: 235-245., available online at http://easin.jrc.ec.europa.eu [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

context source (Schelde) Maris, T.; Beauchard, O.; Van Damme, S.; Van den Bergh, E.; Wijnhoven, S.; Meire, P. (2013). Referentiematrices en Ecotoopoppervlaktes Annex bij de Evaluatiemethodiek Schelde-estuarium Studie naar “Ecotoopoppervlaktes en intactness index”. Monitor Taskforce Publication Series, 2013-01. NIOZ: Yerseke. 35 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
 

From editor or global species database
Nomenclature This species is better known under the name Ensis directus (Conrad, 1844) but van Urk (1984, 1987) and Lee (2009) have shown that the real directus is an extinct Pliocene fossil species. The next available name Solen ensis americanus Gould in Binney, 1870 is a primary homonym of Solen americanus Chenu, 1843 and therefore Huber (2015) proposed the replacement name Ensis leei. The name Solen americanus Chenu has apparently never been used but Solen americanus Gould does not seem to have enough usage (25 citations by at least 10 different authors) to clain a status of nomen protectum [details]

From regional or thematic species database
Introduced species impact in United Kingdom (Nation) : Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space [details]

Introduced species remark In United Kingdom part of the English Channel (Marine Region) : Potential fishery [details]

Introduced species remark In United Kingdom part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Potential fishery [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in United Kingdom part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Natural dispersal [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in United Kingdom part of the North Sea (Marine Region) : Natural drift.  [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal in United Kingdom part of the English Channel (Marine Region) : Natural drift.  [details]

From other sources
Alien species The American jack knife clam Ensis directus originates from the American east coast, and came to Europe through transport (of its larvae) in ballast water of cargo ships. In 1987, the first shells of the American jack knife clam were found on the beach of Oostduinkerke. Soon, the whole coastline was populated. The American jack knife clam is an opportunistic species. The impact on the ecosystem is twofold. Local economy can benefit from this species, as it can be fished and consumed, although the clam is also known to damage fishing nets. Although the species may serve as food for sea birds, its also feared that the American jack knife clam might negatively influence biodiversity. [details]

Biology The unclosed side is turned up when burrowed into the substrate, mostly sand or muddy sand, in which it forms a hole. Goes up and down into the substrate with a respectable speed (disappears into sand within 15 seconds). [details]

Distribution A recent immigrant from America, this species is now very common along the European coasts. First discovered on German North Sea Coasts in 1979, it had reached NE Denmark and the Dutch Wadden Sea by 1982, and NE France by 1991. [details]

Distribution Labrador to Florida  [details]

Habitat In sand or muddy sand. [details]

Habitat infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary [details]

Morphology Whitish-grey mollusc with brown drawings. Length six times as wide, slightly curved, and can attain at least 20 cm long. Both tips equally wide.With many growing bands and a scaly surface. As with all Ensis spp. one side is never completely closed. [details]
 

LanguageName 
Danish Amerikansk knivmusling  [details]
Dutch Amerikaanse zwaardschede  [details]
English Atlantic razor clamAtlantic jack knife clamAmerican jack knife clam  [details]
French couteau droitcouteau de l'Atlantiquecouteau américaincouteau  [details]
German Amerikanische SchwertmuschelAmerikanische Scheidenmuschel  [details]