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Poss, S. G.; Boschung, H. T. (1996). Lancelets (Cephalochordata: Branchiostomatidae): How many species are valid?. Isr. J. Zool. 42 (Suppl): S13-S66.
6155
Poss, S. G.; Boschung, H. T.
1996
Lancelets (Cephalochordata: Branchiostomatidae): How many species are valid?
Isr. J. Zool
42 (Suppl): S13-S66
Publication
Fifty specific and ten generic names have been applied to lancelets living in tropical and subtropical oceans. About 29 of the names represent valid taxa, distinguishable on the basis of meristic variation and assignable to the genera Branchiostoma and Epigonichthys. Branchiostoma has gonads on both sides of the body and its bilateral metapleural folds terminate immediately posterior to the atriopore. Epigonichthys normally has gonads present on the right side only and the metapleural fold of the left side is confluent with the anterior terminus of the caudal fin. Traditionally, myomere counts, counts of fin chambers, position of atriopore and anus, and qualitative differences in notochord and caudal fin shape have been used to distinguish species. Multivariate analysis of meristic variation, using primarily American species, reveals considerable intraspecific variability in key taxonomic features. Some species exhibit wide variation in countable segments, whereas others are characterized by a narrow range. This report includes primary synonymies, diagnoses, distributions, and nomenclatural remarks for all taxa recognized.
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Amphioxus japonicus Willey, 1897 accepted as Branchiostoma japonicum (Willey, 1897) (basis of record)
Amphioxus japonicus Willey, 1897 accepted as Branchiostoma japonicum (Willey, 1897) (additional source)
Amphioxus lanceolatus (Pallas, 1774) accepted as Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas, 1774) (source of synonymy)
Amphioxus lanceolatus (Pallas, 1774) accepted as Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas, 1774) (additional source)
Asymmetron caudatum Willey, 1896 accepted as Asymmetron lucayanum Andrews, 1893 (basis of record)
Asymmetron caudatum Willey, 1896 accepted as Asymmetron lucayanum Andrews, 1893 (source of synonymy)
Asymmetron lucayanum Andrews, 1893 (additional source)
Asymmetron macricaudatum Parker, 1904 accepted as Asymmetron lucayanum Andrews, 1893 (basis of record)
Asymmetron macricaudatum Parker, 1904 accepted as Asymmetron lucayanum Andrews, 1893 (source of synonymy)
Asymmetron orientale Parker, 1904 accepted as Asymmetron lucayanum Andrews, 1893 (basis of record)
Asymmetron orientale Parker, 1904 accepted as Asymmetron lucayanum Andrews, 1893 (source of synonymy)
Bathyamphioxus franzi Whitley, 1932 accepted as Epigonichthys cultellus Peters, 1877 (source of synonymy)
Branchiostoma arabiae Webb, 1957 (basis of record)
Branchiostoma bazarutense Gilchrist, 1923 (basis of record)
Branchiostoma belcheri (Gray, 1847) (basis of record)
Branchiostoma belcheri japonicum (Willey, 1897) accepted as Branchiostoma japonicum (Willey, 1897) (basis of record)
Branchiostoma belcheri japonicum (Willey, 1897) accepted as Branchiostoma japonicum (Willey, 1897) (source of synonymy)
Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense Tchang-Shi & Koo, 1936 accepted as Branchiostoma japonicum (Willey, 1897) (basis of record)
Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense Tchang-Shi & Koo, 1936 accepted as Branchiostoma japonicum (Willey, 1897) (source of synonymy)
Branchiostoma capense Gilchrist, 1902 (basis of record)
Branchiostoma haecklii Franz, 1922 accepted as Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas, 1774) (basis of record)
Branchiostoma haecklii Franz, 1922 accepted as Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas, 1774) (source of synonymy)
Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas, 1774) (additional source)
Branchiostoma lanceolatum belcheri Tattersall, 1903 accepted as Branchiostoma belcheri (Gray, 1847) (basis of record)
Branchiostoma lanceolatum belcheri Tattersall, 1903 accepted as Branchiostoma belcheri (Gray, 1847) (source of synonymy)
Branchiostoma lubricum Costa, 1834 accepted as Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas, 1774) (basis of record)
Branchiostoma lubricum Costa, 1834 accepted as Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas, 1774) (source of synonymy)
Branchiostoma minucauda Whitley, 1932 accepted as Branchiostoma belcheri (Gray, 1847) (basis of record)
Branchiostoma minucauda Whitley, 1932 accepted as Branchiostoma belcheri (Gray, 1847) (source of synonymy)
Branchiostoma nakagawae Jordan & Snyder, 1901 accepted as Branchiostoma japonicum (Willey, 1897) (basis of record)
Branchiostoma nakagawae Jordan & Snyder, 1901 accepted as Branchiostoma japonicum (Willey, 1897) (source of synonymy)
Branchiostoma pelagicum Gunther, 1889 accepted as Asymmetron lucayanum Andrews, 1893 (basis of record)
Branchiostoma pelagicum Gunther, 1889 accepted as Asymmetron lucayanum Andrews, 1893 (source of synonymy)
Epigonichthys Peters, 1876 (additional source)
Epigonichthys cultellus Peters, 1877 (basis of record)
Epigonichthys lucayanus (Andrews, 1893) accepted as Asymmetron lucayanum Andrews, 1893 (basis of record)
Epigonichthys maldivensis (Forster Cooper, 1903) (basis of record)
Epigonichthys pulchellus Gunther, 1880 accepted as Epigonichthys cultellus Peters, 1877 (basis of record)
Epigonichthys pulchellus Gunther, 1880 accepted as Epigonichthys cultellus Peters, 1877 (source of synonymy)
Heteropleuron Kirkaldy, 1895 accepted as Epigonichthys Peters, 1876 (basis of record)
Heteropleuron agassizii Parker, 1904 accepted as Epigonichthys maldivensis (Forster Cooper, 1903) (basis of record)
Heteropleuron agassizii Parker, 1904 accepted as Epigonichthys maldivensis (Forster Cooper, 1903) (source of synonymy)
Heteropleuron hedleyi Haswell, 1908 accepted as Epigonichthys cultellus Peters, 1877 (basis of record)
Heteropleuron hedleyi Haswell, 1908 accepted as Epigonichthys cultellus Peters, 1877 (source of synonymy)
Heteropleuron maldivense Forster Cooper, 1903 accepted as Epigonichthys maldivensis (Forster Cooper, 1903) (basis of record)
Heteropleuron maldivense Forster Cooper, 1903 accepted as Epigonichthys maldivensis (Forster Cooper, 1903) (source of synonymy)
Heteropleuron parvum Parker, 1904 accepted as Epigonichthys maldivensis (Forster Cooper, 1903) (basis of record)
Heteropleuron parvum Parker, 1904 accepted as Epigonichthys maldivensis (Forster Cooper, 1903) (source of synonymy)
Limax lanceolatus Pallas, 1774 accepted as Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas, 1774) (basis of record)
Limax lanceolatus Pallas, 1774 accepted as Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas, 1774) (source of synonymy)
 Remark

Subgenus: Amphipleurichthys [details]