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Hartnoll, R.G. (1975). The Grapsidae and Ocypodidae (Decapoda: Brachyura) of Tanzania. J. Zool. London 177, 305-328
5890
Hartnoll, R. G.
1975
The Grapsidae and Ocypodidae (Decapoda: Brachyura) of Tanzania
J. Zool. London
177: 305-328
Publication
Twenty-nine species of the Grapsidae and 15 species of the Ocypodidae were collected from the littoral zone in the area around Dar es Salaam. Nine species of grapsidae and three of Ocypodidae were new records for the East African area, bringing the total of recorded species for the region to 35 and 26 respectively. The distribution of these crabs indicates a very limited endemism in the western Indian Ocean, with the majority of species forming an attenuated extension of the abundant Indo/West Pacific brachyuran fauna. The habitat preference of each species is described. Within each subfamily there is a relative uniformity in general habitat preference, mode of life and manner of feeding. The species of each subfamily are then separated by substrate choice and preferred level on the shore. The greatest numbers of species occur in the most diverse habitats - the creek mangrove, the coastal mangrove and the reef flat.
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Chiromanthes accepted as Chiromantes Gistel, 1848 (basis of record)
Dotilla Stimpson, 1858 (basis of record)
Geograpsus Stimpson, 1858 (basis of record)
Geograpsus crinipes (Dana, 1851) (basis of record)
Geograpsus grayi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) (basis of record)
Geograpsus stormi de Man, 1895 (basis of record)
Grapsus Lamarck, 1801 (additional source)
Grapsus albolineatus Latreille in Milbert, 1812 (basis of record)
Grapsus fourmanoiri Crosnier, 1965 (basis of record)
Grapsus intermedius de Man, 1888 (basis of record)
Grapsus longitarsus Dana, 1851 accepted as Grapsus longitarsis Dana, 1851 (basis of record)
Grapsus maculatus H. Milne Edwards, 1853 accepted as Grapsus grapsus (Linnaeus, 1758) (source of synonymy)
Grapsus strigosus Herbst, 1799 accepted as Grapsus albolineatus Latreille in Milbert, 1812 (source of synonymy)
Grapsus tenuicrustatus (Herbst, 1783) (basis of record)
Helice De Haan, 1833 (basis of record)
Helice leachi Hess, 1865 accepted as Helice leachii Hess, 1865 accepted as Pseudohelice subquadrata (Dana, 1851) (basis of record)
Holometopus H. Milne Edwards, 1853 accepted as Chiromantes Gistel, 1848 (basis of record)
Holometopus obesus (Dana, 1851) accepted as Metasesarma obesum (Dana, 1851) (basis of record)
Ilyograpsus paludicola (Rathbun, 1909) (basis of record)
Macrophthalmus (Macrophthalmus) grandidieri A. Milne-Edwards, 1867 (basis of record)
Macrophthalmus (Macrophthalmus) hilgendorfi Tesch, 1915 (basis of record)
Macrophthalmus (Macrophthalmus) milloti Crosnier, 1965 (basis of record)
Macrophthalmus (Macrophthalmus) parvimanus Guérin, 1834 (basis of record)
Macrophthalmus (Macrophthalmus) telescopicus (Owen, 1839) (basis of record)
Macrophthalmus (Mareotis) depressus Rüppell, 1830 (basis of record)
Metasesarma H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (basis of record)
Metasesarma rousseauxi H. Milne Edwards, 1853 accepted as Metasesarma obesum (Dana, 1851) (basis of record)
Metopograpsus H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (basis of record)
Metopograpsus messor (Forskål, 1775) (basis of record)
Metopograpsus oceanicus (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1846) (basis of record)
Metopograpsus thukuhar (Owen, 1839) (basis of record)
Nanosesarma Tweedie, 1950 (basis of record)
Nanosesarma minutum (de Man, 1887) (basis of record)
Neosarmatium Serène & Soh, 1970 (basis of record)
Neosarmatium meinerti (de Man, 1887) (basis of record)
Neosarmatium smithi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) (basis of record)
Ocypode Weber, 1795 (additional source)
Ocypode cordimana Latreille, 1818 (basis of record)
Ocypode kuhli De Haan, 1835 accepted as Ocypode kuhlii De Haan, 1835 (basis of record)
Pachygrapsus Randall, 1840 (additional source)
Pachygrapsus minutus A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 (basis of record)
Pachygrapsus planifrons de Man, 1888 (basis of record)
Parasesarma de Man, 1895 (basis of record)
Percnon Gistel, 1848 (additional source)
Percnon abbreviatum (Dana, 1851) (basis of record)
Percnon guinotae Crosnier, 1965 (basis of record)
Percnon planissimum (Herbst, 1804) (basis of record)
Plagusia Latreille, 1804 (additional source)
Plagusia immaculata Lamarck, 1818 (basis of record)
Plagusia tuberculata Lamarck, 1818 accepted as Plagusia squamosa (Herbst, 1790) (basis of record)
Pseudograpsus H. Milne Edwards, 1837 (basis of record)
Pseudograpsus elongatus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1873) (basis of record)
Ptychognathus Stimpson, 1858 (basis of record)
Ptychognathus onyx Alcock, 1900 (basis of record)
Sarmatium Dana, 1851 (basis of record)
Sarmatium crassum Dana, 1851 (basis of record)
Selatium Serène & Soh, 1970 (basis of record)
Selatium brocki (de Man, 1887) accepted as Selatium brockii (de Man, 1887) (basis of record)
Selatium elongatum (A. Milne-Edwards, 1869) (additional source)
Sesarma bidens (De Haan, 1835) accepted as Perisesarma bidens (De Haan, 1835) accepted as Parasesarma bidens (De Haan, 1835) (basis of record)
Sesarma eulimene de Man represented as Sesarma (Sesarma) eulimene de Man, 1895 accepted as Chiromantes eulimene (de Man in Weber, 1897) (additional source)
Sesarma guttatum A. Milne-Edwards, 1869 accepted as Perisesarma guttatum (A. Milne-Edwards, 1869) accepted as Parasesarma guttatum (A Milne-Edwards, 1869) (basis of record)
Sesarma impressum (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) accepted as Sesarmops impressum (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) accepted as Sesarmops impressus (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) (basis of record)
Sesarma leptosoma Hilgendorf, 1869 accepted as Parasesarma leptosoma (Hilgendorf, 1869) (additional source)
Sesarma ortmanni Crosnier, 1965 accepted as Chiromantes ortmanni Crosnier, 1965 (basis of record)
Sesarma plicatum (Latreille, 1803) accepted as Parasesarma plicatum (Latreille, 1803) (basis of record)
Sesarmops Serène & Soh, 1970 (basis of record)
Thalassograpsus Tweedie, 1950 (basis of record)
Thalassograpsus harpax (Hilgendorf, 1892) (basis of record)
Uca Leach, 1814 (additional source)
Uca (Gelasimus) tetragonon (Herbst, 1790) accepted as Gelasimus tetragonon (Herbst, 1790) (basis of record)
Uca (Gelasimus) vocans (Linnaeus, 1758) accepted as Gelasimus vocans (Linnaeus, 1758) (basis of record)
Uca (Paraleptuca) chlorophthalmus (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) accepted as Paraleptuca chlorophthalmus (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) (additional source)
Uca (Tubuca) dussumieri (H. Milne Edwards, 1852) accepted as Tubuca dussumieri (H. Milne Edwards, 1852) (additional source)
Uca marionis (Desmarest, 1823) accepted as Uca (Gelasimus) vocans (Linnaeus, 1758) accepted as Gelasimus vocans (Linnaeus, 1758) (source of synonymy)
Uca vocans excisa (Nobili, 1906) accepted as Uca (Gelasimus) vocans (Linnaeus, 1758) accepted as Gelasimus vocans (Linnaeus, 1758) (source of synonymy)
Varuna H. Milne Edwards in Audouin, Bourdon, Brongniart, Cambassèdes, De Candolle, Delafosse, Deshayes, Deslonchamps, Drapiez, Dumas, Edwards, H. Milne Edwards, Fée, E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Guérin, Guillemin, De Jussieu, Kunth, L (basis of record)
Varuna litterata (Fabricius, 1798) (basis of record)
Varuna tomentosa Pfeffer, 1889 accepted as Varuna litterata (Fabricius, 1798) (basis of record)
Aldabra for Geograpsus crinipes (Dana, 1851) 
Aldabra for Geograpsus grayi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) 
Eritrea for Macrophthalmus verreauxi H. Milne Edwards, 1848 
Eritrea for Thalassograpsus harpax (Hilgendorf, 1892) 
Madagascar for Geograpsus grayi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) 
Madagascar for Holometopus eulimene (de Man, 1898) 
Madagascar for Macrophthalmus (Macrophthalmus) milloti Crosnier, 1965 
Madagascar for Macrophthalmus (Macrophthalmus) parvimanus Guérin, 1834 
Madagascar for Macrophthalmus verreauxi H. Milne Edwards, 1848 
Madagascar for Nanosesarma minutum (de Man, 1887) 
Madagascar for Percnon abbreviatum (Dana, 1851) 
Madagascar for Plagusia immaculata Lamarck, 1818 
Madagascar for Sarmatium crassum Dana, 1851 
Seychelles for Macrophthalmus (Macrophthalmus) parvimanus Guérin, 1834 
Seychelles for Ocypode cordimana Latreille, 1818 
Tanzania for Chiromanthes guttatum (A. Milne Edwards, 1869) 
Tanzania for Dotilla fenestrata Hilgendorf, 1869 
Tanzania for Geograpsus crinipes (Dana, 1851)  (inaccurate)
Tanzania for Geograpsus grayi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) 
Tanzania for Geograpsus stormi de Man, 1895 
Tanzania for Grapsus albolineatus Latreille in Milbert, 1812  (inaccurate)
Tanzania for Grapsus fourmanoiri Crosnier, 1965 
Tanzania for Grapsus intermedius de Man, 1888  (inaccurate)
Tanzania for Grapsus longitarsus Dana, 1851  (inaccurate)
Tanzania for Grapsus tenuicrustatus (Herbst, 1783) 
Tanzania for Helice leachi Hess, 1865 
Tanzania for Holometopus eulimene (de Man, 1898) 
Tanzania for Holometopus obesus (Dana, 1851)  (doubtful)
Tanzania for Holometopus ortmanni (Crosnier, 1965) 
Tanzania for Ilyograpsus paludicola (Rathbun, 1909) 
Tanzania for Macrophthalmus (Macrophthalmus) grandidieri A. Milne-Edwards, 1867 
Tanzania for Macrophthalmus (Macrophthalmus) milloti Crosnier, 1965 
Tanzania for Macrophthalmus (Macrophthalmus) parvimanus Guérin, 1834 
Tanzania for Macrophthalmus (Macrophthalmus) telescopicus (Owen, 1839) 
Tanzania for Macrophthalmus (Mareotis) depressus Rüppell, 1830 
Tanzania for Macrophthalmus verreauxi H. Milne Edwards, 1848  (doubtful)
Tanzania for Metasesarma rousseauxi H. Milne Edwards, 1853 
Tanzania for Metopograpsus messor (Forskål, 1775) 
Tanzania for Metopograpsus oceanicus (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1846) 
Tanzania for Metopograpsus thukuhar (Owen, 1839) 
Tanzania for Nanosesarma minutum (de Man, 1887) 
Tanzania for Neosarmatium meinerti (de Man, 1887)  (inaccurate)
Tanzania for Neosarmatium smithi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) 
Tanzania for Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772) 
Tanzania for Ocypode kuhli De Haan, 1835 
Tanzania for Pachygrapsus minutus A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 
Tanzania for Pachygrapsus planifrons de Man, 1888  (doubtful)
Tanzania for Parasesarma leptosomum (Hilgendorf, 1896) 
Tanzania for Parasesarma plicatum (Latreille, 1803) 
Tanzania for Percnon abbreviatum (Dana, 1851) 
Tanzania for Percnon guinotae Crosnier, 1965 
Tanzania for Percnon planissimum (Herbst, 1804) 
Tanzania for Plagusia immaculata Lamarck, 1818 
Tanzania for Plagusia tuberculata Lamarck, 1818 
Tanzania for Pseudograpsus elongatus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1873) 
Tanzania for Sarmatium crassum Dana, 1851 
Tanzania for Selatium brocki (de Man, 1887) 
Tanzania for Selatium elongatum (A. Milne-Edwards, 1869) 
Tanzania for Sesarmops impressum (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) 
Tanzania for Thalassograpsus harpax (Hilgendorf, 1892) 
Tanzania for Uca (Cranuca) inversa (Hoffmann, 1874) 
Tanzania for Uca (Gelasimus) tetragonon (Herbst, 1790) 
Tanzania for Uca (Paraleptuca) annulipes (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) 
Tanzania for Uca (Tubuca) urvillei (H. Milne Edwards, 1852) 
Tanzania for Uca gaimardi (H. Milne Edwards, 1852) 
Tanzania for Uca vocans excisa (Nobili, 1906) 
Tanzania for Uca vocans vocans (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Tanzania for Varuna litterata (Fabricius, 1798) 
Tanzania for Varuna tomentosa Pfeffer, 1889 
 Description

Though the type locality is Somalia, it only occurs in this country in the Western Indian Ocean; rest of the ... [details]

 Description

Tropical Indo-Pacific in Kalk (1958) [details]

 Description

Tropical Indo-Pacific, also distributed in Australia in Kalk (1958) [details]

 Description

Tropical Indo-Pacific, also distributed in Australia in Kalk (1958). [details]

 Description

Tropical Indo-Pacific in Kalk (1958) [details]

 Habitat

Rocky shores. Also found in mangroves. Stands on rocky substrate. [details]

 Habitat

On mangrove trees bordering rocky cliffs. [details]

 Habitat

Rocky shores. Also found in mangroves. Stands on rocky substrate. [details]

 Habitat

Burrows in some mangrove creeks in permanently wet mud. [details]

 Habitat

Mangrove fringes, muddy shores & open beaches. [details]

 Habitat

Mangrove fringes, muddy shores & open beaches. [details]

 Habitat

Burrows in mangrove vegetation and in cleared areas. [details]

 Habitat

On mangrove trees. [details]

 Habitat

Sandy beaches. [details]

 Habitat

Mangrove fringes, muddy shores & open beaches. [details]

 Habitat

Burrows in beaches with mangrove vegetation. [details]

 Remark

Also used as subgenus of Sesarma (Vannini, pers. Comm.) [details]

 Remark

Subfamily Grapsinae [details]

 Remark

Subfamily Grapsinae [details]

 Remark

Authority given as (Catesby) in Barnard (1950) and Kalk (1958). [details]

 Remark

Subfamily Sesarminae [details]

 Remark

Species needs further revision (Pers. Comm. of Serene to Hartnoll (1975)) [details]

 Remark

Subfamily Grapsinae <88> [details]

 Remark

A number of (eastern Indian Ocean?) records for this species were based on incorrectly identified material due to ... [details]

 Remark

Subfamily Sesarminae [details]

 Remark

O. cordimana in <96>, <154>, ,<221> 479. Looks like a name in apposition, so should be cordimanus, as in Hartnoll 1975. [details]

 Remark

Subfamily Grapsinae [details]

 Remark

Validity of the genus questionable (Vaninni, pers, comm.) [details]

 Remark

Subfamily Plagusinae [details]

 Remark

Subfamily Plagusinae [details]

 Remark

Subfamily Varuninae [details]

 Remark

Also sub-genus Sesarma in Dahdouh, 1994<247>. [details]

 Remark

Subfamily Varuninae [details]

 Spelling

G. longitarsis in <153>. Type locality: Somalia Italiana [details]

 Spelling

Spelled H. leachii in Taylor 1971; H. leachii in . [details]

 Spelling

Spelled H. eulimine by several authors; correct spelling pers. Comm. Vannini [details]

 Spelling

Spelled O. Kuhlii in Barnard (1950). [details]

 synonymy

Vannini, pers. comm. [details]

 synonymy

Vannini, pers comm [details]

 synonymy

Vannini, pers comm [details]

 synonymy

Not everyone seems to agree on this. [details]

 synonymy

Vannini, pers comm. [details]

 synonymy

Vannini, pers comm. [details]

 synonymy

Vannini, Pers. Comm.; used to Chiromantes guttatum in Hartnoll (1975). [details]

 synonymy

Vannini, pers. Comm; used to be Holometopus in Hartnol (1975) [details]

 Synonymy

Possibly synonymous with Sesarma (Vannini, pers. Comm.) [details]

 synonymy

Could also be the other way round: Vannini, pers comm [details]

 Taxonomy

Listed as separate, valid species by Crosnier, 1965. [details]