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Kelly, M. (2007). The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Porifera: lithistid Demospongiae (Rock Sponges). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir. 121: 1-100.
43022
Kelly, M.
2007
The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Porifera: lithistid Demospongiae (Rock Sponges).
NIWA Biodiversity Memoir
121: 1-100.
Publication
The lithistid Demospongiae fauna of New Zealand has been inventoried from existing and new collections, and is reviewed here and revised where necessary. Most of the 282 specimens examined were recorded from the largest collection of sponges in New Zealand, in the NIWA Invertebrate Collection, Wellington. Significant collections were also examined from the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. The lithistid Demospongiae (formerly order Lithistida Schmidt, 1870) is represented in the New Zealand region by nine families, 18 genera (one of which is new to science), and 30 species (12 of which are new to science): Theonellidae (1 genus, 1 species), Phymatellidae (3 genera, 6 species), Corallistidae (3 genera, 7 species), Neopeltidae (4 genera, 4 species), Macandrewiidae (1 genus, 1 species), Pleromidae (1 genus, 3 species), Isoraphiniidae (1 genus, 1 species), Scleritodermiidae (3 genera, 5 species), and Azoriciidae (1 genus, 2 species). This work records the first lithistid species, Neoschrammeniella antarctica n. sp., known from polar regions, and provides the first record of the genus Leiodermatium further south than the Philippines. Two additional species of Leiodermatium described here are found only in the west-central Pacific and Micronesian deep waters, but are included for the sake of a complete review of the genus in the Pacific. New species of the previously monospecific phymatellid genera Neoaulaxinia and Neosiphonia are described, and a new corallistid genus, Awhiowhio, is recognised from New Zealand waters. All specimens were dredged from between 80 and 1700 m, but were commonest between 200 and 800 m. With the exception of one specimen from the eastern edge of the Challenger Plateau on New Zealand’s west coast, and a new species from the Ross Sea, Antarctica, all were found north of the southern edge of the Chatham Rise and in New Zealand’s northernmost waters. Known and new species are redescribed from representative New Zealand material and, in some cases, the characters used to define genera and species are redefined and clarified. In particular, ornamentation of the desma skeleton and morphology of the augmenting microscleres are emphasised for distinction at the species level.
New Zealand
Systematics, Taxonomy
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Aciculites manawatawhi Kelly, 2007 (original description)
Aciculites pulchra Dendy, 1924 (additional source)
Aciculites sulcus Kelly, 2007 (original description)
Awhiowhio Kelly, 2007 (original description)
Awhiowhio osheai Kelly, 2007 (original description)
Awhiowhio sepulchrum Kelly, 2007 (original description)
Awhiowhio unda Kelly, 2007 (original description)
Azorica pfeifferae var. tenuilaminaris Sollas, 1888 accepted as Leiodermatium lynceus Schmidt, 1870 (basis of record)
Callipelta punctata Lévi & Lévi, 1983 accepted as Sollasipelta punctata (Lévi & Lévi, 1983) (additional source)
Costifer wilsoni Lévi, 1993 (additional source)
Discodermia proliferans Lévi & Lévi, 1983 (additional source)
Herengeria auriculata Lévi & Lévi, 1988 (additional source)
Herengeria vasiformis Schlacher-Hoenlinger, Pisera & Hooper, 2005 (additional source)
Homophymia stipitata Kelly, 2000 (additional source)
Leiodermatium colini Kelly, 2007 (original description)
Leiodermatium dampieri Kelly, 2007 (original description)
Leiodermatium intermedia (Sollas, 1888) (new combination reference)
Leiodermatium linea Kelly, 2007 (original description)
Lepidothenea incrustans (Dendy, 1924) (additional source)
Macandrewia spinifoliata Lévi & Lévi, 1983 (additional source)
Microscleroderma novaezelandiae Kelly, 2007 (original description)
Neoaulaxinia clavata (Lévi & Lévi, 1988) (additional source)
Neoaulaxinia persicum Kelly, 2007 (original description)
Neoaulaxinia zingiberadix Kelly, 2007 (original description)
Neopelta pulvinus Kelly, 2007 (original description)
Neoschrammeniella antarctica Kelly, 2007 (original description)
Neoschrammeniella fulvodesmus (Lévi & Lévi, 1983) (additional source)
Neosiphonia motukawanui Kelly, 2007 (original description)
Neosiphonia superstes Sollas, 1888 (additional source)
Pleroma aotea Kelly, 2003 (additional source)
Pleroma menoui Lévi & Lévi, 1983 (additional source)
Pleroma turbinatum Sollas, 1888 (additional source)
Reidispongia coerulea Lévi & Lévi, 1988 (additional source)
Scleritoderma flabelliformis Sollas, 1888 (additional source)
Bismarck Sea for Leiodermatium colini Kelly, 2007 
Central New Zealand for Reidispongia coerulea Lévi & Lévi, 1988 
Chatham Island for Awhiowhio sepulchrum Kelly, 2007 
Chatham Island for Neoaulaxinia persicum Kelly, 2007 
Kermadec Islands for Awhiowhio unda Kelly, 2007 
Kermadec Islands for Neoaulaxinia persicum Kelly, 2007 
Kermadec Islands for Neopelta pulvinus Kelly, 2007 
Kermadec Islands for Neosiphonia superstes Sollas, 1888 
Kermadec Islands for Pleroma menoui Lévi & Lévi, 1983 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Aciculites manawatawhi Kelly, 2007 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Costifer wilsoni Lévi, 1993 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Neoschrammeniella fulvodesmus (Lévi & Lévi, 1983) 
New Caledonia for Costifer wilsoni Lévi, 1993 
New Caledonia for Discodermia proliferans Lévi & Lévi, 1983 
New Caledonia for Herengeria vasiformis Schlacher-Hoenlinger, Pisera & Hooper, 2005 
New Caledonia for Neoaulaxinia clavata (Lévi & Lévi, 1988) 
New Caledonia for Pleroma turbinatum Sollas, 1888 
New Zealand-Kermadec Lower Bathyal Province for Aciculites pulchra Dendy, 1924 
New Zealand-Kermadec Lower Bathyal Province for Discodermia proliferans Lévi & Lévi, 1983 
New Zealand-Kermadec Lower Bathyal Province for Herengeria auriculata Lévi & Lévi, 1988 
New Zealand-Kermadec Lower Bathyal Province for Herengeria auriculata Lévi & Lévi, 1988 
New Zealand-Kermadec Lower Bathyal Province for Neoschrammeniella fulvodesmus (Lévi & Lévi, 1983) 
New Zealand-Kermadec Lower Bathyal Province for Scleritoderma flabelliformis Sollas, 1888 
Northeastern New Zealand for Aciculites pulchra Dendy, 1924 
Northeastern New Zealand for Aciculites pulchra Dendy, 1924 
Northeastern New Zealand for Aciculites sulcus Kelly, 2007 
Northeastern New Zealand for Aciculites sulcus Kelly, 2007 
Northeastern New Zealand for Awhiowhio osheai Kelly, 2007 
Northeastern New Zealand for Callipelta punctata Lévi & Lévi, 1983 
Northeastern New Zealand for Costifer wilsoni Lévi, 1993 
Northeastern New Zealand for Discodermia proliferans Lévi & Lévi, 1983 
Northeastern New Zealand for Herengeria vasiformis Schlacher-Hoenlinger, Pisera & Hooper, 2005 
Northeastern New Zealand for Herengeria vasiformis Schlacher-Hoenlinger, Pisera & Hooper, 2005 
Northeastern New Zealand for Leiodermatium linea Kelly, 2007 
Northeastern New Zealand for Macandrewia spinifoliata Lévi & Lévi, 1983 
Northeastern New Zealand for Macandrewia spinifoliata Lévi & Lévi, 1983 
Northeastern New Zealand for Neoaulaxinia clavata (Lévi & Lévi, 1988) 
Northeastern New Zealand for Neoaulaxinia persicum Kelly, 2007 
Northeastern New Zealand for Neoaulaxinia persicum Kelly, 2007 
Northeastern New Zealand for Neosiphonia motukawanui Kelly, 2007 
Northeastern New Zealand for Neosiphonia superstes Sollas, 1888 
Northeastern New Zealand for Reidispongia coerulea Lévi & Lévi, 1988 
Northern New Zealand for Pleroma aotea Kelly, 2003 
Ross Sea for Neoschrammeniella antarctica Kelly, 2007 
Three Kings-North Cape for Aciculites manawatawhi Kelly, 2007 
Three Kings-North Cape for Neoaulaxinia zingiberadix Kelly, 2007 
Tweed-Moreton for Leiodermatium dampieri Kelly, 2007 
Tweed-Moreton for Neoaulaxinia persicum Kelly, 2007 
West Caroline Islands for Leiodermatium colini Kelly, 2007 
West Caroline Islands for Leiodermatium intermedia (Sollas, 1888) 
Holotype NIWA 18125, geounit Northeastern New Zealand, identified as Neoaulaxinia persicum Kelly, 2007
Holotype NIWA 18261, geounit Northeastern New Zealand, identified as Neosiphonia motukawanui Kelly, 2007
Holotype NIWA 18299, geounit Ross Sea, identified as Neoschrammeniella antarctica Kelly, 2007
Holotype NIWA 18332, geounit Northeastern New Zealand, identified as Awhiowhio osheai Kelly, 2007
Holotype NIWA 18337, geounit Kermadec Islands, identified as Awhiowhio unda Kelly, 2007
Holotype NIWA 18338, geounit Chatham Island, identified as Awhiowhio sepulchrum Kelly, 2007
Holotype NIWA 18367, geounit Northeastern New Zealand, identified as Microscleroderma novaezelandiae Kelly, 2007
Holotype BMNH 1995.3.30.3, geounit Three Kings-North Cape, identified as Neoaulaxinia zingiberadix Kelly, 2007