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Kelly, M.; Sim-Smith, C. (2012). A review of Ancorina, Stryphnus, and Ecionemia (Demospongiae, Astrophorida, Ancorinidae), with descriptions of new species from New Zealand waters. Zootaxa. 3480: 1–47.
163953
urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:51EB9328-9954-4017-9CA0-11E7D0E2DBF9 [view]
Kelly, M.; Sim-Smith, C.
2012
A review of Ancorina, Stryphnus, and Ecionemia (Demospongiae, Astrophorida, Ancorinidae), with descriptions of new species from New Zealand waters
Zootaxa
3480: 1–47
Publication
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
New collections of New Zealand ancorinid sponges with sanidasters regular and sanidaster-like microrhabds, and amphiaster-like microscleres, has prompted us to review the integrity of ancorinid genera Ancorina Schmidt, Ecionemia Bowerbank, and Stryphnus Sollas (Demospongiae, Astrophorida, Ancorinidae). The varietal name in Ancorina progressa (von Lendenfeld 1907) var. diplococcus Dendy, 1924 has been elevated to full species status, and A. stalagmoides (Dendy, 1924) has been redescribed. Two new species, A. bellae sp. nov., from the Three Kings Islands, and A. globosa sp. nov., from Campbell Rise, have been described. Two New Zealand species previously assigned to Ancorina by Dendy (1924) have been transferred to Ecionemia: E. alata (Dendy 1924) and E. novaezelandiae (Dendy 1924). The genus Stryphnus is recorded for the first time in New Zealand waters, and 6 new species are described here; S. poculum sp. nov., S. levis sp. nov., S. novaezealandiae sp. nov., S. spelunca sp. nov., and S. atypicus sp. nov. Specimens identified as Asteropus simplex (Carter 1879) by Dendy (1924) and Bergquist (1968), a genus without triaenes, have been transferred to Stryphnus and renamed as S. ariena sp. nov., as all specimens contained rare triaenes. Discovery and description of new species, and re-evaluation of known New Zealand species, has enabled us to broaden and strengthen the diagnostic differences between Ancorina, Ecionemia, and Stryphnus, through comparison with related genera Asteropus Sollas and Melophlus Thiele, and Stellettinopsis Carter, genera in which triaenes are rare of absent. The phylogenetic origins of the microrhabds, sanidaster- and amphiaster-like microscleres of the group is considered, whether euasterose or streptasterose. The discovery of a suite of characters in the holotype of Stellettinopsis, shared with this subset of Ecionemia species, has resulted in a proposal to resurrect Stellettinopsis to accommodate them.
New Zealand
Systematics, Taxonomy
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Ancorina Schmidt, 1862 (additional source)
Ancorina alba (Alcolado & Gotera, 1986) accepted as Asteropus albus (Alcolado & Gotera, 1986) (source of synonymy)
Ancorina bellae Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 (original description)
Ancorina diplococcus Dendy, 1924 (additional source)
Ancorina fenimorea Laubenfels, 1934 accepted as Stellettinopsis fenimorea (Laubenfels, 1934) (source of synonymy)
Ancorina geodides (Carter, 1886) (basis of record)
Ancorina globosa Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 (original description)
Ancorina novaezealandiae Dendy, 1924 accepted as Ecionemia novaezealandiae (Dendy, 1924) (source of synonymy)
Ancorina robusta (Carter, 1883) (additional source)
Ancorina stalagmoides Dendy, 1924 (additional source)
Ancorina suina Wiedenmayer, 1989 accepted as Stryphnus suinus (Wiedenmayer, 1989) (source of synonymy)
Asteropus albus (Alcolado & Gotera, 1986) (new combination reference)
Ecionemia alata (Dendy, 1924) (new combination reference)
Ecionemia cherbonnieri (Lévi, 1961) accepted as Stellettinopsis cherbonnieri Lévi, 1961 (basis of record)
Ecionemia laviniensis Dendy, 1905 accepted as Stellettinopsis laviniensis (Dendy, 1905) (basis of record)
Ecionemia megastylifera Wintermann-Kilian & Kilian, 1984 accepted as Stellettinopsis megastylifera (Wintermann-Kilian & Kilian, 1984) (source of synonymy)
Ecionemia metastrosa (Lebwohl, 1914) accepted as Penares metastrosa (Lebwohl, 1914) (source of synonymy)
Ecionemia novaezealandiae (Dendy, 1924) (new combination reference)
Penares hilgendorfi (Thiele, 1898) (basis of record)
Penares metastrosa (Lebwohl, 1914) (new combination reference)
Stelletta geodides Carter, 1886 accepted as Ancorina geodides (Carter, 1886) (source of synonymy)
Stellettinopsis Carter, 1879 (basis of record)
Stellettinopsis album Alcolado & Gotera, 1986 accepted as Asteropus albus (Alcolado & Gotera, 1986) (source of synonymy)
Stellettinopsis cherbonnieri Lévi, 1961 (basis of record)
Stellettinopsis corticata Carter, 1879 (basis of record)
Stellettinopsis fenimorea (Laubenfels, 1934) (redescription)
Stellettinopsis laviniensis (Dendy, 1905) (basis of record)
Stellettinopsis megastylifera (Wintermann-Kilian & Kilian, 1984) (basis of record)
Stellettinopsis solida Lévi, 1965 (basis of record)
Stryphnus ariena Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 (original description)
Stryphnus atypicus Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 (original description)
Stryphnus levis Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 (original description)
Stryphnus novaezealandiae Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 (original description)
Stryphnus poculum Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 (original description)
Stryphnus spelunca Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 (original description)
Stryphnus suinus (Wiedenmayer, 1989) (new combination reference)
Campbell Island for Ancorina globosa Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
Central New Zealand for Ancorina diplococcus Dendy, 1924 
Central New Zealand for Ecionemia alata (Dendy, 1924) 
Central New Zealand for Stryphnus ariena Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
Central New Zealand for Stryphnus atypicus Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
Central New Zealand for Stryphnus levis Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
Central New Zealand for Stryphnus novaezealandiae Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
Central New Zealand for Stryphnus spelunca Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Ancorina bellae Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Ancorina globosa Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Stryphnus ariena Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Stryphnus atypicus Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Stryphnus levis Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Stryphnus novaezealandiae Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Stryphnus poculum Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Stryphnus spelunca Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
Northeastern New Zealand for Ancorina stalagmoides Dendy, 1924 
Northeastern New Zealand for Ecionemia alata (Dendy, 1924) 
Northeastern New Zealand for Ecionemia novaezealandiae (Dendy, 1924) 
Northeastern New Zealand for Stryphnus ariena Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
Northeastern New Zealand for Stryphnus levis Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
Northeastern New Zealand for Stryphnus novaezealandiae Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
Northeastern New Zealand for Stryphnus spelunca Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
Three Kings-North Cape for Ancorina bellae Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
Three Kings-North Cape for Ecionemia alata (Dendy, 1924) 
Three Kings-North Cape for Stryphnus ariena Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
Three Kings-North Cape for Stryphnus novaezealandiae Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
Three Kings-North Cape for Stryphnus poculum Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012 
Holotype NIWA 44225, locality Central New Zealand, identified as Stryphnus atypicus Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012
Holotype NIWA 52582, locality Northeastern New Zealand, identified as Stryphnus spelunca Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012
Holotype NIWA 54501, locality Northeastern New Zealand, identified as Stryphnus levis Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012
Holotype NIWA 57285, locality Northeastern New Zealand, identified as Stryphnus ariena Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012
Holotype NIWA 62005, locality Three Kings-North Cape, identified as Ancorina bellae Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012
Holotype NIWA 62046, locality Three Kings-North Cape, identified as Stryphnus poculum Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012
Holotype NIWA 76782, locality Campbell Island, identified as Ancorina globosa Kelly & Sim-Smith, 2012