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Reiswig, H.M.; Kelly, M. (2011). The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Hexasterophoran Glass Sponges of New Zealand (Porifera: Hexactinellida: Hexasterophora): Orders Hexactinosida, Aulocalycoida and Lychiniscosida. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir. 124: 1-176.
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Reiswig, H.M.; Kelly, M.
2011
The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Hexasterophoran Glass Sponges of New Zealand (Porifera: Hexactinellida: Hexasterophora): Orders Hexactinosida, Aulocalycoida and Lychiniscosida.
NIWA Biodiversity Memoir
124: 1-176
Publication
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
The Hexactinellida of New Zealand, orders Hexactinosida, Aulocalycoida, and Lychniscosida, are reviewed, inventoried from existing and new collections, and revised where necessary. Collections within the NIWA Invertebrate Collection and the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, both in Wellington, and specimens from the NORFANZ mid-Tasman Sea survey housed at the Queensland Museum, yielded well over 300 catalogued specimens, some of which are from the Australian EEZ. The previous list of four known species in New Zealand, Farrea occa Bowerbank, 1862, Euryplegma auriculare Schulze, 1886, Chonelasma hamatum Schulze, 1886, and C. lamella Schulze, 1886, has now been expanded to 30, including 21 new species, within 15 genera, one of which is new (Homoieurete n. gen.). The neglected family Auloplacidae (Schrammen, 1912) is resurrected. All four species previously known from New Zealand waters are well represented in the newly surveyed material. Five species known from elsewhere, Anomochone expansa Ijima, 1927, Aphrocallistes beatrix beatrix Gray, 1858, Lefroyella ceramensis Ijima, 1927, Periphragella elisae Marshall, 1875, and Psilocalyx wilsoni Ijima, 1927, but previously unknown in the New Zealand area, are reported and described, extending their distribution ranges. The 21 new species include six in Farreidae, seven in Euretidae, four in Tretodictyidae, two in Auloplacidae, one in Aulocalycidae, and one in Aulocystidae; the new genus Homoieurete belongs to Euretidae. One of the new species described here, Neoaulocystis cristata n. sp., has been recorded only near the Kingdom of Tonga, but is included here for the sake of a complete review of the genus. Similarly, two new species of the genus Anomochone collected on the NORFANZ voyage are found thus far only in Australian waters (northern Norfolk Ridge and Lord Howe Rise), but are included in this work for the sake of completeness of the review of the genus in this region. Similarly, two new species have been described from the Australian EEZ surrounding Macquarie Island, on Macquarie Ridge, and have been included here, as the species are also found in the New Zealand EEZ. The moderate number of washed-out specimens whose dictyonal skeleton are incompatible with any known species in New Zealand waters indicates that several species remain unknown and are yet to be collected in condition needed for full species level determination and description.
New Zealand
Systematics, Taxonomy
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Anomochone expansa Ijima, 1927 (additional source)
Anomochone furcata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Aphrocallistes beatrix beatrix Gray, 1858 (additional source)
Aulocalyx australis Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Auloplacidae Schrammen, 1912 (basis of record)
Auloplax breviscopulata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Auloplax sonnae Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Chonelasma australe Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Chonelasma biscopulatum Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Chonelasma chathamense Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Chonelasma glaciale Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Chonelasma hamatum Schulze, 1886 (basis of record)
Chonelasma lamella Schulze, 1886 (additional source)
Conorete gordoni Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Euretidae Zittel, 1877 (additional source)
Euryplegma auriculare Schulze, 1886 (additional source)
Farrea ananchorata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Farrea anoxyhexastera Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Farrea medusiforma Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Farrea occa occa Bowerbank, 1862 (additional source)
Farrea onychohexastera Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Farrea raoulensis Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Farrea similaris Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Farreidae Gray, 1872 (additional source)
Gymnorete pacificum Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Gymnorete stabulatum Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Heterochone hamata (Schulze, 1886) accepted as Chonelasma hamatum Schulze, 1886 (source of synonymy)
Hexactinella acanthacea Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Hexactinella aurea Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Hexactinella simplex Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Homoieurete Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Homoieurete macquariense Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Lefroyella ceramensis Ijima, 1927 (additional source)
Neoaulocystis cristata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 (original description)
Periphragella elisae Marshall, 1875 (additional source)
Psilocalyx wilsoni Ijima, 1927 (additional source)
Auckland Island for Euryplegma auriculare Schulze, 1886 
Bounty and Antipodes Islands for Aulocalyx australis Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Bounty and Antipodes Islands for Chonelasma australe Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Bounty and Antipodes Islands for Chonelasma biscopulatum Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Bounty and Antipodes Islands for Farrea similaris Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Central New Zealand for Aphrocallistes beatrix beatrix Gray, 1858 
Central New Zealand for Chonelasma lamella Schulze, 1886 
Central New Zealand for Farrea ananchorata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Central New Zealand for Farrea occa occa Bowerbank, 1862 
Central New Zealand for Farrea similaris Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Central New Zealand for Gymnorete pacificum Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Central New Zealand for Hexactinella acanthacea Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Chatham Island for Aphrocallistes beatrix beatrix Gray, 1858 
Chatham Island for Chonelasma chathamense Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Chatham Island for Chonelasma lamella Schulze, 1886 
Chatham Island for Euryplegma auriculare Schulze, 1886 
Chatham Island for Farrea ananchorata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Chatham Island for Farrea anoxyhexastera Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Chatham Island for Farrea occa occa Bowerbank, 1862 
Chatham Island for Farrea onychohexastera Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Chatham Island for Farrea similaris Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Chatham Island for Gymnorete pacificum Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Chatham Island for Hexactinella simplex Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Chatham Island for Homoieurete macquariense Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Chatham Island for Psilocalyx wilsoni Ijima, 1927 
East Antarctic Wilkes Land for Homoieurete macquariense Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Kermadec Island for Aphrocallistes beatrix beatrix Gray, 1858 
Kermadec Island for Auloplax breviscopulata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Kermadec Island for Auloplax sonnae Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Kermadec Island for Conorete gordoni Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Kermadec Island for Farrea ananchorata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Kermadec Island for Farrea anoxyhexastera Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Kermadec Island for Farrea medusiforma Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Kermadec Island for Farrea occa Bowerbank, 1862 
Kermadec Island for Farrea occa occa Bowerbank, 1862 
Kermadec Island for Farrea raoulensis Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Kermadec Island for Farrea similaris Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Kermadec Island for Gymnorete pacificum Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Kermadec Island for Gymnorete stabulatum Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Kermadec Island for Neoaulocystis cristata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Anomochone expansa Ijima, 1927 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Anomochone furcata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Aphrocallistes beatrix beatrix Gray, 1858 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Chonelasma glaciale Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Chonelasma hamatum Schulze, 1886 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Chonelasma lamella Schulze, 1886 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Farrea raoulensis Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Farrea similaris Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Hexactinella simplex Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Lefroyella ceramensis Ijima, 1927 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Psilocalyx wilsoni Ijima, 1927 
Macquarie Island for Aphrocallistes beatrix beatrix Gray, 1858 
Macquarie Island for Aulocalyx australis Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Macquarie Island for Farrea medusiforma Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Macquarie Island for Farrea occa occa Bowerbank, 1862 
Macquarie Island for Homoieurete macquariense Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Aulocalyx australis Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Chonelasma australe Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Chonelasma biscopulatum Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Chonelasma chathamense Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Chonelasma glaciale Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Conorete gordoni Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Farrea ananchorata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Farrea anoxyhexastera Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Farrea medusiforma Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Farrea onychohexastera Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Farrea raoulensis Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Farrea similaris Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Gymnorete pacificum Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Gymnorete stabulatum Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Homoieurete macquariense Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Lefroyella ceramensis Ijima, 1927 
Northeastern New Zealand for Aphrocallistes beatrix beatrix Gray, 1858 
Northeastern New Zealand for Auloplax breviscopulata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Northeastern New Zealand for Chonelasma lamella Schulze, 1886 
Northeastern New Zealand for Euryplegma auriculare Schulze, 1886 
Northeastern New Zealand for Farrea ananchorata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Northeastern New Zealand for Farrea medusiforma Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Northeastern New Zealand for Farrea occa occa Bowerbank, 1862 
Northeastern New Zealand for Farrea similaris Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Northeastern New Zealand for Hexactinella aurea Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Northeastern New Zealand for Hexactinella simplex Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Northeastern New Zealand for Periphragella elisae Marshall, 1875 
Northeastern New Zealand for Psilocalyx wilsoni Ijima, 1927 
South New Zealand for Farrea anoxyhexastera Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Three Kings-North Cape for Aphrocallistes beatrix beatrix Gray, 1858 
Three Kings-North Cape for Auloplax breviscopulata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Three Kings-North Cape for Chonelasma hamatum Schulze, 1886 
Three Kings-North Cape for Chonelasma lamella Schulze, 1886 
Three Kings-North Cape for Euryplegma auriculare Schulze, 1886 
Three Kings-North Cape for Farrea ananchorata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Three Kings-North Cape for Farrea onychohexastera Reiswig & Kelly, 2011 
Three Kings-North Cape for Lefroyella ceramensis Ijima, 1927 
Holotype NIWA 31490, geounit Kermadec Island, identified as Auloplax breviscopulata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NIWA 32124, geounit Kermadec Island, identified as Neoaulocystis cristata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NIWA 32133, geounit Kermadec Island, identified as Auloplax sonnae Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NIWA 34861, geounit Kermadec Island, identified as Farrea anoxyhexastera Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NIWA 43403, geounit Three Kings-North Cape, identified as Farrea ananchorata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NIWA 43425, geounit Northeastern New Zealand, identified as Hexactinella aurea Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NIWA 43426, geounit Kermadec Island, identified as Conorete gordoni Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NIWA 49244, geounit Northeastern New Zealand, identified as Hexactinella simplex Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NIWA 51941, geounit Chatham Island, identified as Farrea onychohexastera Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NIWA 52483, geounit Bounty and Antipodes Islands, identified as Chonelasma australe Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NIWA 52485, geounit Bounty and Antipodes Islands, identified as Chonelasma biscopulatum Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NIWA 62114, geounit Kermadec Island, identified as Gymnorete stabulatum Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NIWA 70546, geounit Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands, identified as Chonelasma glaciale Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype QM G316368, geounit Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands, identified as Anomochone furcata Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype QM G331847, geounit Macquarie Island, identified as Homoieurete macquariense Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype QM G331850, geounit Macquarie Island, identified as Aulocalyx australis Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NMNZ POR 000460, geounit Chatham Island, identified as Farrea similaris Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NMNZ POR 000482, geounit Kermadec Island, identified as Gymnorete pacificum Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NMNZ POR 000488, geounit Northeastern New Zealand, identified as Farrea medusiforma Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NMNZ POR 000520, geounit Kermadec Island, identified as Farrea raoulensis Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NMNZ POR 000710, geounit Chatham Island, identified as Chonelasma chathamense Reiswig & Kelly, 2011
Holotype NMNZ POR 000722, geounit Central New Zealand, identified as Hexactinella acanthacea Reiswig & Kelly, 2011