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Kroh, A. & Smith, A.B. (2010): The phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 8/2: 147-212.
142482
Kroh, A.; Smith, A. B.
2010
The phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology
8(2): 147-212
Publication
The relationships of post-Palaeozoic echinoids at family level are established through phylogenetic analysis of 169 taxa and 306 skeletal characters (excluding pedicellariae). Previous phylogenetic analyses of echinoids have either examined specific subgroups in detail or have looked at a relatively small number of taxa selected from across the class, with sparse sampling potentially affecting the reliability of results adversely. Our new analyses represent a compromise between encompassing the diversity of form that exists, while keeping the number of taxa to a level that does not make rigorous analysis impossibly time-consuming. In constructing the taxon-character data matrix we have encountered a surprising lack of primary data on plating pattern, lantern, and girdle structure for many supposedly “well-known” taxa. A well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis was obtained and is used as the basis for a formal classification. Characters generally have a high retention index (>0.7) but low consistency index (<0.25) suggesting that, although characters are largely retained after they first evolve, most also undergo occasional reversal or convergence. Although parts of the resulting trees are only weakly supported (e.g. the precise sister group of the Irregularia), other parts are unambiguously resolved. Not unexpectedly, deep nodes are often not supported by unique apomorphies and higher taxa acquire their characteristic set of features over time. Diagnoses based on crown group taxa thus often fail to encompass fossil stem-group members adequately. Establishing the relationships of taxa at the root of large groups is hampered by limited character resolution. The influence of fossil taxa on the topology was explored by comparing the tree topologies obtained with and without their inclusion. We show that removal of fossils from stem groups makes no difference where their crown group is morphologically conservative, but has a major influence where extant sister groups are separated by large morphological gaps. Completeness of the echinoid record and its match to the stratigraphical record of first occurrences is tested using various metrics and found to be highly congruent, with irregular echinoids showing a higher congruence than regular ones. Keywords: Echinoids; phylogeny; cladistics; evolution; classification
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Abertellidae Durham, 1955 † (basis of record)
Acroechinoidea (basis of record)
Acrolusiidae Mintz, 1968 † (basis of record)
Acropeltidae Lambert & Thiéry, 1914 † (basis of record)
Acrosaleniidae Gregory, 1900 † (basis of record)
Aeropsidae Lambert, 1896 (additional source)
Ammotrophinae Durham, 1955 (basis of record)
Anorthopygidae Wagner & Durham, 1966 † (basis of record)
Antillasteridae Lambert in Lambert & Thiéry, 1924 † (basis of record)
Apatopygidae Kier, 1962 (basis of record)
Arachnoididae Duncan, 1889 accepted as Arachnoidinae Duncan, 1889 (basis of record)
Arachnoidinae Duncan, 1889 (basis of record)
Arbaciidae Gray, 1855 (additional source)
Arbacioida (additional source)
Archaeocidaridae McCoy, 1844 † (basis of record)
Archiaciidae Cotteau & Triger, 1869 † (basis of record)
Aspidodiadematidae Duncan, 1889 (additional source)
Aspidodiadematoida (basis of record)
Asterostomatidae Pictet, 1857 (additional source)
Astriclypeidae Stefanini, 1912 (basis of record)
Atelostomata (basis of record)
Aulodonta (basis of record)
Breyninæ Lambert, 1905 accepted as Loveniidae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Brisasterinae Markov, 1994 accepted as Schizasteridae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Brissidae Gray, 1855 (additional source)
Brissidina (basis of record)
Brissopsinae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Calycina (basis of record)
Calymnidae Mortensen, 1907 (additional source)
Camarodonta (basis of record)
Cardiasteridae Lambert, 1917 † (basis of record)
Cardiasterina † (basis of record)
Cardiotaxinae Smith & Jeffery, 2000 † (basis of record)
Carinacea (basis of record)
Carnarechininae Mironov, 1993 accepted as Carnarechinidae Mironov, 1993 (basis of record)
Cassidulidae L. Agassiz & Desor, 1847 (basis of record)
Cassidulina Philip, 1963 (basis of record)
Cassiduloida (additional source)
Cassiduloida incertae sedis (basis of record)
Cidaridae Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Cidaridea Gray, 1825 accepted as Cidaroidea Gray, 1825 (basis of record)
Cidarinae Mortensen, 1928 accepted as Cidarinae Gray, 1825 (basis of record)
Cidaroida (additional source)
Cidaroidea (basis of record)
Circopeltinae Smith & Jeffery, 2000 † (basis of record)
Claviasteridae Ali, 1992 † accepted as Archiaciidae Cotteau & Triger, 1869 † (basis of record)
Clypeasteridae L. Agassiz, 1835 (basis of record)
Clypeasterina (basis of record)
Clypeasterinae L. Agassiz, 1835 (basis of record)
Clypeasteroida (additional source)
Clypeidae Lambert, 1898 † (basis of record)
Clypeolampadidae Kier, 1962 † (basis of record)
Coelopleuridae Märkel, 1969 accepted as Arbaciidae Gray, 1855 (basis of record)
Coenholectypidae Smith & Wright, 1999 † (basis of record)
Collyritidae d'Orbigny, 1853 † (basis of record)
Conoclypidae von Zittel, 1879 † (basis of record)
Conulidae Lambert, 1911 † (basis of record)
Conulidea Kroh & Smith, 2010 † accepted as Conuloidea Lambert, 1911 † (original description)
Corasterinae Lambert & Thiéry, 1924 (basis of record)
Corystusidae Foster & Philip, 1978 (basis of record)
Ctenocidaridae Mortensen, 1928 (basis of record)
Cyclasterinae Poslavskaya, 1964 (basis of record)
Dendrasteridae Lambert, 1900 (basis of record)
Desorellidae Lambert, 1911 † (basis of record)
Diadematacea (basis of record)
Diadematidae Gray, 1855 (additional source)
Diadematoida (basis of record)
Diplocidaridae Gregory, 1900 † (basis of record)
Diplopodiidae Smith & Wright, 1993 † (basis of record)
Disasteridae Gras, 1848 † (basis of record)
Discoididae Lambert, 1900 (basis of record)
Echinacea (basis of record)
Echinarachniidae Lambert in Lambert & Thiéry, 1914 (basis of record)
Echinidae Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Echinidea (basis of record)
Echinocardiidae Cooke, 1942 accepted as Echinocardiinae Cooke, 1942 (basis of record)
Echinocardiinae Cooke, 1942 (basis of record)
Echinocorythidae Wright, 1857 † (basis of record)
Echinocyamidae Lambert & Thiéry, 1914 (basis of record)
Echinoidea (additional source)
Echinolampadidae Gray, 1851 (basis of record)
Echinolampadoida (basis of record)
Echinometridae Gray, 1855 (basis of record)
Echinoneidae L. Agassiz & Desor, 1847 (basis of record)
Echinoneoida (basis of record)
Echinothuriidae Thomson, 1872 (basis of record)
Echinothurioida (basis of record)
Emiratiidae Ali, 1990 † (basis of record)
Eoscutellidae Durham, 1955 † (basis of record)
Euechinoidea (basis of record)
Eupatagidae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Eupatangidae accepted as Eupatagidae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Eurypatagidae Kroh, 2007 (basis of record)
Faujasiidae Lambert, 1905 † (basis of record)
Fibulariidae Gray, 1855 (basis of record)
Fossulasteridae Philip & Foster, 1971 † (basis of record)
Galeritidae Gray, 1825 † (basis of record)
Galeropygidae Lambert, 1911 † (basis of record)
Glyphocyphidae Duncan, 1889 † (basis of record)
Glyphopneustidae Smith & Wright, 1993 † (basis of record)
 Authority

sometimes erroneously cited as L. Agassiz & Desor, 1847 [details]

 Classification

Although represented here as sister groups, Acroechinoidea, Carinacea and Irregularia actually form a set of nested ... [details]

 Classification
 for Carinacea

Although represented here as sister groups, Acroechinoidea, Carinacea and Irregularia actually form a set of nested ... [details]

 Classification

Although represented here as sister groups, Acroechinoidea, Carinacea and Irregularia actually form a set of nested ... [details]

 Classification

Although represented here as sister groups, Acroechinoidea, Carinacea and Irregularia actually form a set of nested ... [details]

 Description
 for Carinacea

This group units the traditional groups of Camarodonta, Stirodonta and Irregularia. Although primitive irregular ... [details]

 Status

Scutelliformes incertae sedis - juvenile features [details]

 Taxonomy

The type-genus, Anisocidaris, is a poorly known taxon falling inside the crown group Cidaroida, but cannot be ... [details]

 Taxonomy

This clade was established as Superfamily Brissidea by Stockley et al. (2005) but following Kroh & Smith (2010) is ... [details]

 Taxonomy
 for Brissidina

This clade was established as Superfamily Brissidea by Stockley et al. (2005) but following Kroh & Smith (2010) is ... [details]

 Taxonomy

The type-genus, Paurocidaris, is a poorly known taxon falling inside the crown group Cidaroida, but cannot be ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Taxon not employed in the classification of Kroh & Smith (2010), but compatible with their phylogenetic tree. [details]