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Aguado, M.T.; Nygren, A.; Siddall, M.E. 2007. Phylogeny of Syllidae (Polychaeta) based on combined molecular analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Cladistics 23(6): 552-564
The phylogeny of Syllidae is assessed in a combined analysis of molecular data from nuclear 18S rDNA and mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I. In total, 103 terminal taxa are examined: 88 syllids in the four classical subfamilies Eusyllinae, Exogoninae, Syllinae and Autolytinae, as well as 15 outgroup taxa from Phyllodocida and Eunicida. Maximum parsimony analysis of the combined data set indicates that Syllidae, as currently delineated, is monophyletic, though not with very high support values. Astreptosyllis Kudenov & Dorsey, 1982, Streptosyllis Webster & Benedict, 1884 and Syllides Orsted, 1845 comprise a monophyletic group well differentiated from the rest of the Syllidae. The subfamilies Autolytinae and Syllinae are monophyletic. Exogoninae is monophyletic, although not well supported, and Eusyllinae is clearly paraphyletic [only because of Streptosyllis group]. Results corroborate previous studies about the evolution of reproductive modes in that epigamy is the plesiomorphic condition and schizogamy appeared independently in Autolytinae and Syllinae.