WoRMS source details

Coats, D.W.; Clamp, J.C. (2009). Ciliated Protists (Ciliophora) of the Gulf of Mexico. Pp. 57-79 in D.L. Felder and D.K. Camp (eds.). Gulf of Mexico. Origin, Waters, and Biota. Volume 1, Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
141212
Coats, D.W.; Clamp, J.C.
2009
Ciliated Protists (Ciliophora) of the Gulf of Mexico. Pp. 57-79 in D.L. Felder and D.K. Camp (eds.)
Gulf of Mexico. Origin, Waters, and Biota. Volume 1, Biodiversity.
Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
Publication
[None. Publication starts as:]
The ciliates represent a ubiquitous group of protists with representatives inhabiting most marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats (Corliss 1979). Their small size, rapid reproductive rate, and ability to form desiccation-resistant resting stages ensure easy dispersal of species and colonization of suitable habitats (Fenchel and Finlay 2004). Ciliates occur from the poles to the tropics and from alpine regions to the deep sea. They survive in extreme environments, including hot springs, hypersaline lakes, and desert settings, with many species adapted to anaerobic conditions. Free-living species can be found swimming in the water column, living within interstices of flocculent sediment or tidal sands, attached to hard or soft substrates, and creeping along soil particles or epiphytic mosses. Symbiotic and parasitic species live in association with a wide variety of hosts, including other protists, planktonic and benthic invertebrates, reptiles, fish, and mammals. Most ciliates feed on bacteria, microalgae, or other protists; however, some are photosynthetic, and others consume host tissues. Ciliates are generally viewed as playing pivotal roles in microbial food webs, as they regenerate nutrients through excretion (Caron and Goldman 1990) and transform bacterial and microalgal biomass into larger particles that are easily exploited by metazoan grazers (Azam et al. 1983, Stoecker and Capuzzo 1990, Gifford 1991). The number of ciliate species inhabiting the biosphere is uncertain, but estimates range as high as 30,000 (Foissner 1999), with about 7,200 species being formally described (Corliss 1979). Of these, a relatively small percentage has been reported from the Gulf of Mexico.
Gulf of Mexico
Fauna and Flora, Faunistic inventories, Checklists, Catalogues
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Acanthostomella lata Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (basis of record)
Acanthostomella minutissima Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (additional source)
Acanthostomella obtusa Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (basis of record)
Acineta corophii Collin, 1912 (basis of record)
Acineta craterellus Collin, 1909 accepted as Anthacineta craterellus (Collin, 1909) Jankowski, 1978 (basis of record)
Acineta foetida Maupas, 1881 (basis of record)
Acineta tuberosa Ehrenberg, 1833 (additional source)
Amphileptus claparedii Stein, 1867 (basis of record)
Amphileptus fusidens Kahl, 1926 (basis of record)
Amphisiella annulata (Kahl, 1928) Borror, 1972 (basis of record)
Amphisiella lithophora Fauré-Fremiet, 1954 accepted as Marginotricha lithophora (Fauré-Fremiet, 1954) (basis of record)
Amphisiella milnei Kahl, 1932 (basis of record)
Amphorellopsis acuta (Schmidt, 1902) (basis of record)
Amphorides amphora (Claparède & Lachmann, 1858) (additional source)
Amphorides minor Jörgensen, 1924 (basis of record)
Amphorides quadrilineata (Claparède & Lachmann, 1858) (additional source)
Anoplophrya macronucleata Wichterman, 1942 (basis of record)
Aristerostoma marinum Kahl, 1931 (basis of record)
Ascampbelliella armilla (Kofoid & Campbell, 1929) (basis of record)
Ascampbelliella obscura (Brandt, 1906) (basis of record)
Ascampbelliella urceolata (Ostenfeld, 1899) (basis of record)
Askenasia stellaris Leegaard, 1920 (basis of record)
Aspidisca aculeata (Ehrenberg, 1838) Kahl, 1932 (basis of record)
Aspidisca baltica Borror, 1965 accepted as Aspidisca pulcherrima Kahl, 1932 (basis of record)
Aspidisca costata (Dujardin, 1841) Stein, 1859 accepted as Aspidisca cicada O. F. Müller, 1786 (basis of record)
Aspidisca fusca Kahl, 1928 (basis of record)
Aspidisca leptaspis Fresenius, 1865 (basis of record)
Aspidisca lyncaster (O.F. Müller, 1773) von Stein, 1859 (basis of record)
Aspidisca lynceus O.F. Müller, 1773 (basis of record)
Aspidisca magna Kahl, 1932 (basis of record)
Aspidisca polypoda (Dujardin, 1841) (additional source)
Aspidisca polystyla Stein, 1859 (basis of record)
Aspidisca steini (Buddenbrock, 1920) (basis of record)
Aspidisca turrita (Ehrenberg, 1831) Claparède & Lachmann, 1858 (basis of record)
Balladyna euplotes Dragesco, 1950 (basis of record)
Balladyna parvula Kowalewskiego, 1882 (basis of record)
Biggaria bermudensis (Biggar & Wenrich, 1932) Aescht, 2001 (basis of record)
Biggaria echinometris (Biggar & Wenrich, 1932) Aescht, 2001 (basis of record)
Blepharisma melana Borror, 1963 (basis of record)
Brandtiella palliata (Brandt, 1906) Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (basis of record)
Canthariella brevis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (basis of record)
Cardiostomatella vermiforme (Kahl, 1928) accepted as Cardiostomatella vermiformis (Kahl, 1928) Aescht, 2001 (basis of record)
Caryotricha convexa Kahl, 1932 (basis of record)
Chaenea limicola Kahl, 1928 accepted as Chaenea teres (Dujardin, 1841) Kent, 1881 (basis of record)
Chaenea teres (Dujardin, 1841) Kent, 1881 (additional source)
Chaenea vorax Quennerstedt, 1867 (basis of record)
Chaetospira monilata Jones, 1974 (basis of record)
Chaetospira muelleri Lachmann, 1856 (basis of record)
Chilodonella capucina Penard, 1922 (basis of record)
Chilodonella caudata Stokes, 1885 (basis of record)
Chilodonella cucullus (O. F. Müller) Ehrenberg, 1833 (basis of record)
Chilodonella helgolandica Kahl, 1935 (basis of record)
Chilodonella uncinata (Ehrenberg, 1838) (basis of record)
Chilodontopsis vorax (Stokes, 1886) Kahl, 1931 (additional source)
Chilophrya utahensis (Pack, 1919) Kahl, 1930 (basis of record)
Chlamydodon mnemosyne Ehrenberg, 1835 (basis of record)
Chlamydodon obliquus Kahl, 1931 (basis of record)
Chlamydodon triquetrus (Müller, 1786) (additional source)
Ciliofaurea ornata (Dragesco, 1954) Dragesco, 1960 (basis of record)
Cinetochilum margaritaceum Perty, 1852 (basis of record)
Cinetochilum marinum Kahl, 1931 (basis of record)
Climacocylis scalaria Brandt, 1906 (basis of record)
Climacocylis scalaroides Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (basis of record)
Climacostomum virens Ehrenberg, 1833 (basis of record)
Codonaria cristellula (Fol, 1884) Kofoid & Campbell, 1939 accepted as Codonaria cistellula (Fol, 1884) Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (basis of record)
Codonaria fimbriata (Meunier, 1931) accepted as Tintinnopsis fimbriata Meunier, 1919 (basis of record)
Codonella acuta Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (basis of record)
Codonella amphorella Biedermann, 1893 (basis of record)
Codonella apicata Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (basis of record)
Codonella aspera Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (additional source)
Codonella cratera Leidy, 1887 (additional source)
Codonella cuspidata Kofoid & Campbell, 1939 (basis of record)
Codonella galea Haeckel, 1873 (basis of record)
Codonella olla Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (basis of record)
Codonella perforata Entz Sr., 1884 (basis of record)
Codonellopsis americana Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (basis of record)
Codonellopsis contracta Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (basis of record)
Codonellopsis ecaudata (Brandt, 1906) (basis of record)
Codonellopsis lusitanica Jörgensen, 1924 (additional source)
Codonellopsis obesa Balech, 1948 (basis of record)
Codonellopsis orthoceras (Haeckel, 1873) Jörgensen, 1924 (basis of record)
Codonellopsis pusilla (Cleve) Jörgensen, 1924 (additional source)
Codonellopsis schabi (Brandt, 1906) Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (basis of record)
Codonellopsis turgida Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 (basis of record)
Cohnilembus caeci Powers, 1935 (basis of record)
Cohnilembus velifer Cohn, 1866 (basis of record)
Cohnilembus verminus (Müller, 1786) Kahl, 1933 (basis of record)
Coleps heteracanthus Noland, 1937 (basis of record)
Coleps hirtus (O.F. Müller, 1786) Nitzsch, 1827 (basis of record)
Coleps pulcher Spiegel, 1926 (basis of record)
Coleps spiralis Noland, 1937 (basis of record)
Coleps tesselatus Kahl, 1930 (additional source)
Colpoda aspera Kahl, 1926 (basis of record)
Condylostentor auriculatus (Kahl, 1932) Jankowski, 1978 (additional source)
Condylostoma arenarium Spiegel, 1926 (additional source)
Condylostoma enigmatica Dragesco, 1954 (basis of record)
Condylostoma granulosum Bullington, 1940 (additional source)
Condylostoma magnum Spiegel, 1926 (basis of record)
Condylostoma minutum Bullington, 1940 (basis of record)
Condylostoma patens O.F. Müller, 1786 (basis of record)
 Environment

Found in the Gulf of Mexico (bay and near-shore). Also observations in thermal water streams (very little gas in ... [details]