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author: Curt Bowen (ADM Foundation)
author: Thomas Iliffe & Brett Gonzalez

World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS)

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WoRMS name details

Aiptasia pallida (Agassiz in Verrill, 1864)

283486  (

 unaccepted (new genus created by Grajales & Rodriguez 2014)
marine, terrestrial
(of Dysactis pallida Agassiz in Verrill, 1864) Verrill, A.E. (1864). Revision of the *Polypi* of the eastern coast of the United States. <em>Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History.</em> 1: 1-45., available online at
page(s): 26 [details]   
Rodríguez, E.; Fautin, D; Daly, M. (2024). World List of Actiniaria. Aiptasia pallida (Agassiz in Verrill, 1864). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: on 2024-07-25
2008-01-16 10:35:54Z
2009-09-14 12:31:43Z
2015-10-13 10:34:41Z
2016-10-31 17:15:54Z

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

original description  (of Dysactis pallida Agassiz in Verrill, 1864) Verrill, A.E. (1864). Revision of the *Polypi* of the eastern coast of the United States. <em>Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History.</em> 1: 1-45., available online at
page(s): 26 [details]   

context source (Bermuda) Schneider, C. W. (2003). An annotated checklist and bibliography of the marine macroalgae of the Bermuda Islands. Nova Hedwigia, 76(3-4): 275-361 [details]   

context source (Hexacorallia) Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record den Hartog, J. C. & van der Land, J. (2000-2007). As a contribution to UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Fautin, D. G.; Daly, M. (2009). Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia, and Zoanthidea (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 349-357. <em>in: Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico-Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity.</em> A&M University Press, College Station, Texas., available online at [details]   

additional source Cairns, S.D., J.C. den Hartog & C. Arneson. (1986). Class Anthozoa (Corals, Anemones). <em>In: Sterrer, W. (ed.). Marine fauna and flora of Bermuda, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, USA.</em> pp. 159-194.
page(s): 174, 175 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Carlgren, O.; Hedgepeth, J. W. A. (1952). Actinaria, Zoantharia, and Ceriantharia from shallow water in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Publications of the Institute of Marine Science. 2, 141-172.
page(s): 147, 162-163 [details]   

additional source Hand, C. (1955). The sea anemones of central California. Part III: The Acontiarian anemones. <em>The Wasmann Journal of Biology.</em> 13, 189-251., available online at
page(s): 229, 237 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Carlgren, O. (1949). A survey of the Ptychodactiaria, Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria. <em>Kungliga Svenska Vet- enskapsakadamiens Handlingar.</em> 1: 1–121.
page(s): 107 [details]   

additional source Stephenson, T. A. (1920). On the classification of Actiniaria. Part I. -- Forms with acontia and forms with a mesogloeal sphincter. <em>Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science.</em> 64, 2, (256): 425-574., available online at
page(s): 530 [details]   

additional source Verrill, A.E. (1907). The Bermuda Islands. Part IV. Geology and paleontology, and part V. An account of the coral reefs. <em>Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences.</em> 12: 45-348., available online at
page(s): 253, 254 [details]   

additional source Goulet, T. L.; Cook, C. B.; Goulet, D. (2005). Effect of short-term exposure to elevated temperatures and light levels on photosynthesis of different host-symbiont combinations in the Aiptasia pallidal Symbiodinium symbiosis. Limnol. Oceanogr., 50(5): 1490-1498
page(s): 1490, 1491-1497 [details]   

additional source den Hartog, J. C. (1977). Notes on the little known sea anemone Cataphellia brodricii and on the closely allied Hormathia coronata and Paraphellia expansa (Actiniaria, Hormathiidae). Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 27(3): 237-244
page(s): 243 [details]   

additional source Hedgpeth, J. W. (1954). Anthozoa: the anemones. Fisheries Bulletin of the Fish and Wildlife Service (U.S.), 55 (Gulf of Mexico: Its Origin, Waters, and Marine Life), 285-290
page(s): 289-290 [details]   

additional source Parker, G. H. (1900). Synopses of North-American invertebrates. XIII. The Actiniaria. American Naturalist, 34, 747-758
page(s): 755 [details]   

additional source Corrêa, D. D. (1973). Sobre anêmonas-do-mar (Actiniaria) do Brasil. Boletim de Zoologia e Biologia Marinha, N.S., (30): 457-468
page(s): 458 [details]   

additional source Sebens, K. P. (1998). Anthozoa: Actiniaria, Zoanthidea, Corallimorpharia, and Ceriantharia. National Marine Fisheries Service. Seattle., volume 141, pp. 1-67
page(s): 13, 16, 34, 55-56 [details]   

additional source Atoda, K. (1954). The development of the sea anemone, Diadumene luciae, reproduced by the pedal laceration. Science Reports of the Tohoku University. Fourth series (Biology) [Tohoku Daigaku Rika Hokoku], 20, 4, (2): 123-129
page(s): 123 [details]   

additional source Zeiller, W. (1974). Phylum Coelenterata. The polyp animals. Wiley-Interscience Publ., John Wiley and Sons. New York and other cities., pp. 29-08
page(s): 19 [details]   

additional source Field, L. R. (1949). Sea Anemones and Corals of Beaufort, North Carolina. Duke University Press. Durham., pp. 39.
page(s): 2. 20 [details]   

additional source Fautin, D. G.; Bucklin, A. (1988). Anthozoan dominated benthic environments. volume 3, pp. 231-236
page(s): 231 [details]   

additional source Haddon, A. C. (1898). The Actiniaria of Torres Straits. Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society, 6, 2, 393-520
page(s): 448 [details]   

additional source McMurrich, J. P. (1887). Notes on the fauna of Beaufort, North Carolina. Studies at the Biological Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore), 4(2): 55-63
page(s): 59-61 [details]   

additional source McMurrich, J. P. (1893). Report on the Actiniæ collected by the United States Fish Commission Steamer Albatross during the winter of 1887-1888. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 16(930): 119-216
page(s): 179 [details]   

additional source Herrera Moreno, A. (1981). Nuevos registros de anémonas (Coelenterata: Actiniaria y Corallimorpharia) para aguas cubanas. Poeyana: Instituto de Zoologia, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, (214): 1-3
page(s): 3 [details]   

additional source Zamponi, M. O.; Belém, M. J. D.; Schlenz, E.; Acuña, F. H. (1998). Distribution and some ecological aspects of Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria from shallow waters of the South American Atlantic coasts. Physis (Buenos Aires), 55, 31-45
page(s): 34, 37-38, 40 [details]   

additional source Carlos, A. A.; Baillie, B. K.; Kawachi, M.; Maruyama, T. (1999). Phylogenetic position of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) isolates from tridacnids (Bivalvia), cardiids (Bivalvia), a sponge (Porifera), a soft coral (Anthozoa), and a free-living strain. Journal of Phycology, 35, 1054-1062
page(s): 1055, 1057, 1058, 1061 [details]   

additional source Hand, C. H.; Uhlinger, K. R. (1992). The culture, sexual and asexual reproduction, and growth of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Biological Bulletin, 182, 169-176
page(s): 169 [details]   

additional source Castro, C. B.; Echeverría, C. A.; Pires, D. de Oliveira; Mascarenhas, B. J. de A.; Freitas, S. G. (1995). Distribuição de Cnidaria e echinodermata no infralitoral de costões rochosos de arraial do cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia (Rio de Janeiro), 55(3): 471-480
page(s): 471-472, 476-478 [details]   

additional source Echeverría, C. A.; Pires, D. de Oliveira; Medeiros, M. S.; Castro, C. B. (1997). Cnidarians of the Atol das Rocas, Brazil. Proceedings of the Eighth International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 443-446
page(s): 444-445 [details]   

additional source Hermansen, T. D.; Arvedlund, M.; Fiedler, G. C. (2005). Calcium antagonists inhibit the discharge of cnidae in response to electrical stimulation in the giant tropical sea anemone Heteractis crispa Ehrenberger (Anthozoa). Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 38, 4, 269-274
page(s): 270, 272 [details]   

additional source Gunter, G.; Geyer, R. A. (1955). Studies on fouling organisms of the northwest Gulf of Mexico. Publications of the Institute of Marine Science (University of Texas), 4(1): 38-67
page(s): 60, 63 [details]   

additional source Cary, L. R. (1906). A contribution to the fauna of the coast of Louisiana. Gulf Biologic Station Bulletin, 6, 50-59
page(s): 51 [details]   

additional source Ilyna, A. P.; Monastyrnaya, M. M.; Sokotun, I. N.; Egorov, T. A.; Nazarenko, Y. A.; Likhatskaya, G. N.; Kozlovskaya, E. P. (2005). Actinoporins from the Sea of Japan anemone Oulactis orientalis: isolation and partial characterization. Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry, 31(1): 34-42
page(s): 34 [details]   

additional source Klyshko, E. V.; Ilyna, A. P.; Monastyrnaya, M. M.; Burtseva, Y. V.; Kostina, E. E.; Zykova, T. A.; Menzorova, N. I.; Kozlovskaya, E. P. (2003). Biologically active polypeptides and hydrolytic enzymes in sea anemones of northern temperate waters. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 29(3): 161-166
page(s): 164 [details]   

additional source Östman, C.; Kultima, J. R.; Wong, S. Y. G. (2010). Dart formation in nematocysts of the sea anemone Metridium senile (Linnaeus, 1761) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Scientia Marina, 74(3): 499-510
page(s): 500 [details]   

additional source Adhikari, D.; Samanta, S. K.; Dutta, A.; Roy, A.; Vedasiromoni, J. R.; Sen, T. (2007). In vitro hemolysis and lipid peroxidation-inducing activity of the tentacle extract of the sea anemone (Paracondylactis indicus Dave) in rat erythrocytes. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 39, 3, 155-159
page(s): 158 [details]   

additional source Reimer, J. D.; Takishita, K.; Ono, S.; Maruyama, T.; Tsukahara, J. (2006). Latitudinal and intracolony ITS-rDNA sequence variation in the symbiotic dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) in Zoanthus sansibaricus (Anthozoa:Hexacorallia). Phycological Research, 54, 122-132
page(s): 125 [details]   

additional source Day, R. J. (1994). Algal symbiosis in Bunodeopsis: sea anemones with "auxiliary" structures. Biological Bulletin, 186, 182-194
page(s): 183, 190, 192 [details]   

additional source Farrapeira, C. M. R.; de Melo, A. V. de O.; Barbosa, D. F.; da Silva, K. M. E. (2007). Ship hull fouling in the Port of Recife, Pernambuco. Brazilian Journal of Oceanography, 55, 207-221
page(s): 211, 213, 215 [details]   

additional source Zamponi, M. O. (1979). El desarrollo asexual de Pseudoparactis tenuicollis McMurrich, 1904 (Actiniaria: Actinostolidae) y algunas consideraciones sobre su ecologia. Acta Zoologica Lilloana, XXXV, 596-602
page(s): 595 [details]   

additional source Schuett, C.; Doepke, H.; Grathoff, A.; Gedde, M. (2007). Bacterial aggregates in the tentacles of the sea anemone Metridium senile. Helgoländer Marine Research, 61, 211-216
page(s): 212, 215 [details]   

additional source Sunagawa, S.; Choi, J.; Forman, H. J.; Medina, M. (2008). Hyperthermic stress-induced increase in the expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase and glutathione levels in the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pallida. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part B, 151, 133-138
page(s): 133-137 [details]   

additional source Cary, L. R. (1911). A study of pedal laceration in actinians. Biological Bulletin, 20(2): 81-108
page(s): 81, 82, 86, 102 [details]   

additional source Thorington, G. U.; McAuley, V.; Hessinger, D. A. (2010). Effects of satiation and starvation on nematocyst discharge, prey killing, and ingestion in two species of sea anemone. Biological Bulletin, 219, 122-131
page(s): 122, 123, 124, 127, 128, 129, 130 [details]   

additional source Corrêa, D. D. (1964). Corallimorpharia e Actiniaria do Atlantico Oeste Tropical. Universidade de São Paulo (Dissertation). São Paulo., pp. 139.
page(s): 50, 86, 118-122, 129, 130 [details]   

additional source Pires, D. de Oliveira; Castro, C. B.; Migotto, Á. E.; Marques, A. C. (1992). Cnidários bentônicos do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Brasil. Boletim do Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro), N.S., (354): 1-21
page(s): 9, 15, 17-18 [details]   

additional source Palincsar, E. E.; Jones, W. R.; Palincsar, J. S.; Glogowski, M. A.; Mastro, J. L. (1989). Bacterial aggregates within the epidermis of the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida. Biological Bulletin, 177, 130-140
page(s): 130-132, 135-136, 138-139 [details]   

additional source Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Amaral, F. D.; Hudson, M. M.; da Silveira, F. L.; Migotto, A. E.; Pinto, S. M.; Longo, L. (2002). Cnidarians of Saint Peter and St. Paul Archipelago, Northeast Brazil. <em>Proceedings of the Ninth International Coral Reef Symposium.</em> 1, 567-571.
page(s): 567, 569, 570 [details]  OpenAccess publication 
 Present  Present in aphia/obis/gbif/idigbio   Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 

Nontype CCIO 4, geounit Cuban Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Syntype (of Dysactis pallida Agassiz in Verrill, 1864) MCZ 1004, geounit United States Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
English white speckled anemonepale anemoneglass anemonebrown glass anemone  [details]
French anémone transparenteanémone de verreaiptasie jaune  [details]
German Blasse Glasrose  [details]
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