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author: Joris van der Ham

World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS)

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Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant, 1777)

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  1. Subspecies Cereus pedunculatus conspersa (uncertain > nomen dubium)
  2. Subspecies Cereus pedunculatus fusca (uncertain > nomen dubium)
  3. Subspecies Cereus pedunculatus histronica (uncertain > nomen dubium)
  4. Subspecies Cereus pedunculatus interrupta (uncertain > nomen dubium)
  5. Subspecies Cereus pedunculatus olivacea (uncertain > nomen dubium)
  6. Subspecies Cereus pedunculatus rhodostyla (uncertain > nomen dubium)
  7. Subspecies Cereus pedunculatus sordida (uncertain > nomen dubium)
  8. Subspecies Cereus pedunculatus variegata (uncertain > nomen dubium)
  9. Subspecies Cereus pedunculatus versicolor (uncertain > nomen dubium)
marine, terrestrial
(of Actinia pedunculata Pennant, 1777) Pennant, T. (1777). British Zoology, vol. IV. Crustacea. Mollusca. Testacea. <em>London.</em> i-viii, 1-154, pls. 1-93., available online at
page(s): 49 [details]   
Rodríguez, E.; Fautin, D; Daly, M. (2024). World List of Actiniaria. Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant, 1777). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: on 2024-07-24
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
2015-10-13 10:34:41Z

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

original description  (of Actinia brevicirrhata Risso, 1827) Risso, A. (1827). Histoire Naturelle des Principales Productions de l'Europe Méridionale et Particulièrement de Celles des Environs de Nice et des Alpes Maritimes. Tome V. <em>Paris: F.-G. Levrault.</em> i-viii + 1-403 pp., [pls. 1-10], figs. 1-62., available online at
page(s): 287 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Actinia pedunculata Pennant, 1777) Pennant, T. (1777). British Zoology, vol. IV. Crustacea. Mollusca. Testacea. <em>London.</em> i-viii, 1-154, pls. 1-93., available online at
page(s): 49 [details]   

original description  (of Hydra calyciflora Gaertner, 1762) Gaertner J. (1762). An account of the urtica marina. <em>Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.</em> 52(1): 75-85., available online at
page(s): 79 [details]   

original description  (of Actinia bellis Ellis & Solander, 1786) Ellis, J.; Solander, D. (1786). The Natural History of many curious and uncommon Zoophytes, collected from various parts of the Globe. Systematically arranged and described by the late Daniel Solander. 4.(Benjamin White & Son: London): 1-206, pls 1-63., available online at
page(s): 2 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Actinia johnstoni Cocks) Cocks, W. P. (1851). Actiniæ (or sea-anemones), procured in Falmouth and its neighbourhood, by W. P. Cocks, Esq., from 1843-1849. Annual Report of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, 19, 3-11
page(s): 9 [details]   

original description  (of Actinia templetonii Couch, 1844) Couch, R. Q. (1838). A Cornish Fauna, Being a Compendium of the Natural History of the County. L. E. Gillet. Truro., volume Part III, pp. 164.
page(s): 80 [details]   

original description  (of Actinia bellis var. fusca) Wright, T. S. (1856). On two new Actinias from Arran. Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, 1, 70-72
page(s): 72 [details]   

context source (Hexacorallia) Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record van der Land, J.; den Hartog, J.H. (2001). Actiniaria, <B><I>in</I></B>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,</i> 50: pp. 106-109 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Wirtz, P.; Ocana, O.; Molodtsova, T. (2003). Actiniaria and Ceriantharia of the Azores (Cnidaria Anthozoa). <em>Helgol. Mar. Res.</em> 57: 114-117.
page(s): 115 [details]   

additional source Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. <em>Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France.</em> 307 pp., available online at [details]   

additional source Moore, H. B. (1937). Marine fauna of the Isle of Man. <em>Proceedings and Transactions of the Liverpool Biological Society.</em> 50: 1-293, maps 1-3. (Crustacea: 87-142).
page(s): 56 [details]   

additional source Hamond, R. & B.G. Williams, 1977. The Ctenophora, Scyphozoa and Anthozoa of Norfolk, with additional notes on the Hydrozoa. Trans. Norfolk Norwich Nat. Soc. 24 : 58-74..
page(s): 64-65 [details]   

additional source Robins, M.W., 1969. The marine flora and fauna of the Isles of Scilly. Cnidaria e Ctenophora. J. nat. Hist. 3 : 329-343.
page(s): 341 [details]   

additional source Teissier, G., 1950. Inventaire de la faune marine de Roscoff. Cnidaires et cténaires. Trav. biol. Roscoff. n. ser. suppl. 1: 1-43.
page(s): 38 [details]   

additional source Weill, R., 1934. Contribution à l'étude des Cnidaires et de leurs nématocystes. II. Valeur taxonomique du cnidôme. Trav. Stn zool. Wimereux 11 : 349-701.
page(s): 576 [details]   

additional source Schmidt, H., 1969. Die nesselkapseln der aktinien und ihre differentialdiagnostische bedeutung. The nematocysts of the sea anemones and their importance for differential-diagnosis. Helgoländer wiss. Meeresunters. 19 : 284-317.
page(s): 296, Fig. 7g, 297, 306, 308 [details]   

additional source Dixon, G.Y. & A.F. Dixon, 1891. Report on the marine Invertebrate fauna near Dublin. Proc R. Ir. Acad. -32 : 19-33.
page(s): 23-26 [details]   

additional source Stephens, J. (1905). A list of Irish Coelenterata, including the Ctenophora. <em>Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy.</em> 25: 25-92.
page(s): 75 [details]   

additional source Williams, R.B. (1979). A survey of the littoral Anthozoa, with additional notes on some other marine invertebrates of Gower, South Wales. Nature in Wales 16(4):253-266.
page(s): 256 [details]   

additional source Ates, R. M. L.; Dekker, R.; Faasse, M. A.; den Hartog, J. C. (1998). The occurrence of Sagartia elegans (Dalyell, 1848) (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) in the Netherlands. <em>Zoologische Verhandelingen.</em> 323: 263-276.
page(s): 264 [details]   

additional source Dunn, Daphne Fautin (1982) Sexual reproduction of two intertidal sea anemone (Coelenterata: Actinaria) in Malaysia, Biotropica 14: 262-271
page(s): 267 [details]   

additional source Ocaña, Oscar; Den Hartog, J.C. (2002). A catalogue of Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia from the Canary Islands and from Madeira, Arquipelago. <em>Life and Marine Sciences.</em> 19A: 33-54.
page(s): 42-43, 49 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Stephenson, T. A. (1935). The British Sea Anemones. Volume II. <em>The Ray Society. London.</em> pp. 426.
page(s): 363-370 [details]   

additional source Yanagi, K. & Daly, M. (2004). The hermaphroditic sea anemone Anthopleura atodai n. sp. (Anthozoa: Actiniaria : Actiniidae) from Japan, with a redescription of A. hermaphroditica. <em>Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington.</em> 117(3): 408-422.
page(s): 408, 420 [details]   

additional source Manuel, R. L. (1981). British Anthozoa. <em>London: Academic Press.</em> 241 pp. (Synopses of the British Fauna).
page(s): 150-152 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1949). A survey of the Ptychodactiaria, Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria. <em>Kungliga Svenska Vet- enskapsakadamiens Handlingar.</em> 1: 1–121.
page(s): 102 [details]   

additional source Fischer, P. (1889). Nouvelle contribution à l actinologie française. <em>Actes de la Société linnéenne de Bordeaux.</em> 43(5): 251-309. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 252, 278, 306-307 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Stephenson, T. A. (1920). On the classification of Actiniaria. Part I. -- Forms with acontia and forms with a mesogloeal sphincter. <em>Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science.</em> 64, 2, (256): 425-574., available online at
page(s): 546 [details]   

additional source Abel, E.F. (1959). Zur Kenntnis der marinen Hohlenfauna unter besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Anthozoen. <em>Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli.</em> 30 (Suppl. 1): 1-94.
page(s): 22 [details]   

additional source den Hartog, J. C. (1977). The marginal tentacles of Rhodactis sanctithomae (Corallimorpharia) and the sweeper tentacles of Montastrea cavernosa (Scleractinia); their cnidom and possible function . Proceedings of the Third International Coral Reef Symposium Miami, Florida, 464-469
page(s): 468 [details]   

additional source Ottaway, J. R. (1979). Population Ecology of the Intertidal Anemone *Actinia tenebrosa.* II. * Geographical Distribution, Synonymy, Reproductive Cycle and Fecundity. <em>Australian Journal of Zoology.</em> 27(2), 273-290.
page(s): 285 [details]   

additional source Manuel, R. L. (1977). A redescription of Edwardsia beautempsi and E. timida (Actiniaria: Edwardsidae). Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 18, 483-497
page(s): 484 [details]   

additional source den Hartog, J. C. (1995). The genus Telmatactis Gravier, 1916 (Actiniaria: Acontiaria: Isophelliidae) in Greece and the eastern Mediterranean. Zoologische Mededelingen, Leiden, 69(14): 153-176
page(s): 156 [details]   

additional source Nafilyan, Z. (1912). Matériaux pour la faune des Actinies des côtes de France. Les Actinies de Roscoff. Memoirs of the Society of Zoology of France, 25, 5-44
page(s): 6, 31-32 [details]   

additional source Doumenc, D. A. (1975). Actinies bathyales et abyssales de l'océan Atlantique nord familles des Hormathiidae (genres Paracalliactis et Phelliactis) et des Actinostolidae (genres Actinoscyphia et Sicyonis). Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris), 197, 3, (287): 157-204
page(s): 200 [details]   

additional source Doumenc, D. A.; Koukouras, A. (1985). Actinies de la mer Égée: méthodes d'identification, zoogéographie. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris), 7A, 4, (3): 497-529
page(s): 518-519, 525 [details]   

additional source Fischer, P. (1887). Contribution a l'actinologie française. Archives de Zoologie Expérimentale et Générale, 5, 2, 381-442
page(s): 399-402, 413, 423-425 [details]   

additional source Schmidt, H. (1972). Prodromus zu einer Monographie der mediterranean Aktinien. Zoologica, 42(121): 1-121
page(s): 51-54 [details]   

additional source Stephenson, T. A. (1918). On certain Actiniaria collected off Ireland by the Irish Fisheries Department, during the years of 1899-1913. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 34B(7): 106-164
page(s): 135 [details]   

additional source Stephenson, T. A. (1929). On methods of reproduction as specific characters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 16(1): 131-172
page(s): 132-167 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1945). Further contributions to the knowledge of the cnidom in the Anthozoa especially in the Actiniaria. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets Handlingar, 56, N.F., (9): 1-24
page(s): 20 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1959). Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria with description of a new genus and species from Peru. Reports of the Lund University Chile Expedition 1948-49 38. Arkiv für Zoologi, 71, N.F., (6): 1-38
page(s): 32 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Haddon, A. C. (1889). A revision of the British Actiniae. Part I. Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society, 4, 2, 297-361
page(s): 298, 302, 323, 342, 348, 351, Pl. XXXVII fig. 18 [details]   

additional source Haddon, A. C. (1898). The Actiniaria of Torres Straits. Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society, 6, 2, 393-520
page(s): 452 [details]   

additional source Haddon, A. C. (1888). On two species of Actiniae from the Mergui Archipelago, collected for the Trustees of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, by Dr. John Anderson, F.R.S., Superintendent of the Museum. Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Zoology), 21(131): 247-255
page(s): 250 [details]   

additional source McMurrich, J. P. (1901). Report on the Hexactiniæ of the Columbia University Expedition to Puget Sound during the summer of 1896. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 14(1): 1-52
page(s): 20 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1952). Die Antipatharien, Zoantharien und Actiniarien der ?Hvar"-Expedition. Izvjesca-Reports, 6(1): 3-24
page(s): 21 [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Müller, I. (1955). Gli Antozoi del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Trieste Parte I: Antipatharia, Ceriantharia, Zoantharia, Actiniaria, Alcyonaria, e Pennatularia. Atti del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Trieste, 20(7-8): 103-129
page(s): 122 [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Müller, I. (1962). Die Anthozoenfauna der Adria / Fauna antozoa Jadrana. Fauna et Flora Adriatica, 3, 1-343
page(s): 216-220 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (1975). Catch-tentacles in sea anemones: occurrence in Haliplanella luciae (Verrill) and a review of current knowledge. Journal of Natural History, 9, 241-248
page(s): 241, 244-246 [details]   

additional source Stephenson, T. A. (1928). The British Sea Anemones. Volume I. The Ray Society. London., volume 1, pp. 148.
page(s): 112 [details]   

additional source Edmands, S. (1995). Mating systems in the sea anemone genus Epiactis. Marine Biology, 123, 723-733
page(s): 725 [details]   

additional source Schmidt, H. (1972). Die Nesselkapseln der Anthozoen und ihre Bedeutung fur die phylogenetische Systematik. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 23, 422-458
page(s): 439 [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Mueller, I. (1954). Die Korallentiere der Adria. Die Aquarien-und Terrarien-Zeitschrift, 7, 10-13
page(s): 11, 33, 61, 204-205 [4, 7, 9, 25-26] [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Mueller, I. (1953). Die Anthozoenfauna der bucht von Ka?tela bei Split. Acta Adriatica, 5(1): 3-35
page(s): 10-11, 13-14, 18, 27 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1953). Cereus pedunculatus in der Adria. Acta Adriatica, 5(2): 3-15 (39-51)
page(s): 39-46, 50 [details]   

additional source Müllegger, S. (1938). Die Aktinien: Beschreibung der vornehmlich im aquarium gehaltenen Aktinien. Wochenschrift für Aquarien und Tarrarienkunde, 39-44, 1-16
page(s): 9-11 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (1998). Measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria), II: further studies of differences amongst sample means and their taxonomic relevance. Scientia Marina, 62(4): 361-372
page(s): 361, 363-368 [details]   

additional source Pei, Z. (1998). Coelenterata Actiniaria Ceriantharia Zoanthidea. Science Press. Beijing., pp. 286.
page(s): 169, 230 [details]   

additional source Häussermann, V.; Försterra, G. (2003). First evidence for coloniality in sea anemones. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 257, 291-294
page(s): 293 [details]   

additional source Chintiroglou, C. C.; Doumenc, D. A.; Zamponi, M. O. (1997). Commented list of the Mediterranean Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Anthozoa). Acta Adriatica, 38(1): 65-70
page(s): 66, 67 [details]   

additional source Füller, H. (1957). Exkursionsfauna von Deutschland. Wirbellose I. Volk und Wissen Volkseigener. Berlin., pp. 30-34 (485 total pages in volume).
page(s): 32-33 [details]   

additional source Loukmidou, S.; Chintiroglou, C. C.; Doumenc, D. A. (1997). Inventaire du cnidome des actiniaires et corallimorphaires de Mediterranee (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Bios, 4, 63-114
page(s): 101-102 [details]   

additional source Riemann-Zürneck, K. (1969). Sagartia troglodytes (Anthozoa). Biologie und Morphologie einer schlickbewohnenden Aktinie. Veröffentlichungen des Institutes für Meeresforschung Bremerhaven, 12, 169-230
page(s): 178, 187, 210 [details]   

additional source Ates, R. M. L. (1997). Bloemdieren: De Zeeanemonen En Hun Verwanten Van De Nederlandse Kust. C. Moerman. Zeeanjer., pp. 31.
page(s): 27, 28 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (2000). Measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria), III: ranges and other measures of statistical dispersion, their interrelations and taxonomic relevance. Scientia Marina, 64(1): 49-68
page(s): 49-68 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (1980). A further note on catch-tentacles in sea anemones. Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalist's Society, 25, 84-86
page(s): 86 [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Müller, I. (1955). Gli Antozoi del Golfo di Trieste. Atti del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Trieste, 20(6): 49-102
page(s): 82-84 [details]   

additional source Schmidt, H. (1974). On evolution in the Anthozoa. Proceedings of the Second International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 533-560
page(s): 547 [details]   

additional source Patzner, R. A. (2004). Associations with sea anemones in the Mediterranean Sea: a review. Ophelia, 58(1): 1-11
page(s): 4-8 [details]   

additional source Teissier, G. (1965). Inventaire de la faune marine de Roscoff. Station Biologique de Roscoff. Roscoff., pp. 62.
page(s): 52 [details]   

additional source Rossi, L. (1975). Sexual races in Cereus pedunculatus (Boad.). Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli, 39, 462-470
page(s): 1-9 [details]   

additional source Rossi, L.; Varallo, G. (1979). Variabilita' riproduttiva in Cereus pedunculatus della Laguna di Orbetello. Natura, 70(3): 185-192
page(s): 185, 186, 188, 190-191 [details]   

additional source Riedel, B.; Stachowitsch, M.; Zuschin, M. (2008). Sea anemones and brittle stars: unexpected predatory interactions during induced in situ oxygen crises. Marine Biology, 153, 1075-1085
page(s): 1075-1080, 1082, 1083 [details]   

additional source Rossi, L.; Calenda, G. (1974). Variabilitá riproduttiva e sessuale in popolazioni di Cereus pedunculatus (Boad.) (Actiniaria). Doriana, 5(209): 1-6
page(s): 1-6 [details]   

additional source Daly, M.; Chaudhuri, A.; Gusmão, L.; Rodríguez, E. (2008). Phylogenetic relationships among sea anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 48, 292-301
page(s): 295 [details]   

additional source Schmidt, H.; Béress, L. (1971). Phylogenetische betrachtungen zur toxizität und nesselwirkung einiger Actiniaria (Anthozoa) im vergleich zur morphologie ihrer nesselkapseln. Kieler Meeresforschungen, XXVII(2): 166-170
page(s): 168, 169 [details]   

additional source Schmidt, H. (1972). Bionomische studien an Mediterranen Anthozoen: die Anthozoenfauna des Strombolicchio (Äolische Inseln). Marine Biology, 15, 265-278
page(s): 265, 271, 272, 274, 275, 276, 277 [details]   

additional source Verde, E. A.; McCloskey, L. R. (2007). A comparative analysis of the photobiology of zooxanthellae and zoochlorellae symbiotic with the temperate clonal anemone Anthopleura elegantissima (Brandt). III. Seasonal effects of natural light and temperature on photosynthesis and respiration. Marine Biology, 152, 775-792
page(s): 788 [details]   

additional source Daly, M.; Gusmão, L.; Reft, A. J.; Rodríguez, E. (2010). Phylogenetic signal in mitochondrial and nuclear markers in sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria). Integrative and Comparative Biology, 50(3): 371-388
page(s): 374 [details]   

additional source Chen, C.; Soong, K.; Chen, C. A. (2008). The smallest oocytes among broadcast-spawning actiniarians and a unique lunar reproductive cycle in a unisexual population of the sea anemone, Aiptasia pulchella (Anthozoa: Actiniaria). Zoological Studies, 47(1): 37-45
page(s): 38, 39 [details]   

additional source Kramer, A.; Francis, L. (2004). Predation resistance and nematocyst scaling for Metridium senile and M. farcimen. Biological Bulletin, 207, 130-140
page(s): 138 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (1978). Some recent observations on the acrorhagi of sea anemones. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 58, 787-788
page(s): 787 [details]   

additional source Stephenson, T. A. (1929). On the nematocysts of sea anemones. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 16(1): 173-201
page(s): 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 189, 198 [details]   

additional source Ramil Blanco, F.; Pulpeiro, E. F. (1990). Inventario de los antozoos de Galicia. A checklist of the Anthozoa from Galicia. Boletin de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 86(1-4): 17-30
page(s): 24 [details]   

additional source Delphy, J. (1939). Sur quelques problèmes d' Actinologie. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris), XI, 2, (5): 479-483
page(s): 480 [details]   

additional source Stephens, J. (1912). Coelenterata. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 31(58): 1-10
page(s): 1, 8 [details]   

additional source Hayward, P.J. & J.S. Ryland (Eds.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. <em>Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK.</em> 627 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS[details]   
 Present  Present in aphia/obis/gbif/idigbio   Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 

Nontype (of Cereus pendunculatus) RMNH Coel. 18604, geounit Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Cereus pendunculatus) RMNH Coel. 23844, geounit Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Cereus pendunculatus) RMNH Coel. 23845, geounit Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Unknown type (of Cereus bellis) MNB, geounit Croatian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Unknown type (of Cereus pendunculatus) RMNH Coel. 18629, geounit Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
From other sources
Habitat littoral [details]

Dutch zonneroosknikkende zeeanjelier  [details]
English daisy anemone  [details]
French solaireanémone palmée  [details]
German SonnenroseSeemaßliebchenSeemannsliebchen  [details]
Italian anemone margherita  [details]
Spanish actinia solar  [details]
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