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Morrow, C.; Cárdenas, P. (2015). Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera). Frontiers in Zoology. 12: 7.
10.1186/s12983-015-0099-8 [view]
Morrow, C.; Cárdenas, P.
Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera)
Frontiers in Zoology
12: 7
Available for editors  PDF available
Background Demospongiae is the largest sponge class including 81% of all living sponges with nearly 7,000 species worldwide. Systema Porifera (2002) was the result of a large international collaboration to update the Demospongiae higher taxa classification, essentially based on morphological data. Since then, an increasing number of molecular phylogenetic studies have considerably shaken this taxonomic framework, with numerous polyphyletic groups revealed or confirmed and new clades discovered. And yet, despite a few taxonomical changes, the overall framework of the Systema Porifera classification still stands and is used as it is by the scientific community. This has led to a widening phylogeny/classification gap which creates biases and inconsistencies for the many end-users of this classification and ultimately impedes our understanding of today’s marine ecosystems and evolutionary processes. In an attempt to bridge this phylogeny/classification gap, we propose to officially revise the higher taxa Demospongiae classification. Discussion We propose a revision of the Demospongiae higher taxa classification, essentially based on molecular data of the last ten years. We recommend the use of three subclasses: Verongimorpha, Keratosa and Heteroscleromorpha. We retain seven (Agelasida, Chondrosiida, Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, Haplosclerida, Poecilosclerida, Verongiida) of the 13 orders from Systema Porifera. We recommend the abandonment of five order names (Hadromerida, Halichondrida, Halisarcida, lithistids, Verticillitida) and resurrect or upgrade six order names (Axinellida, Merliida, Spongillida, Sphaerocladina, Suberitida, Tetractinellida). Finally, we create seven new orders (Bubarida, Desmacellida, Polymastiida, Scopalinida, Clionaida, Tethyida, Trachycladida). These added to the recently created orders (Biemnida and Chondrillida) make a total of 22 orders in the revised classification. We propose the abandonment of the haplosclerid and poecilosclerid suborders. The family content of each order is also revised. Summary The deletion of polyphyletic taxa, the use of resurrected or new names for new clades and the proposal of new family groupings will improve the comparability of studies in a wide range of scientific fields using sponges as their object of study. It is envisaged that this will lead to new and more meaningful evolutionary hypotheses for the end-users of the Demospongiae classification.
Cladism, Cladistics, Phylogenetics
Molecular systematics, Molecular biology
Systematics, Taxonomy
RIS (EndNote, Reference Manager, ProCite, RefWorks)
BibTex (BibDesk, LaTeX)
2015-04-21 07:20:09Z
2015-04-21 10:18:47Z
2018-02-09 09:47:49Z

Acantheurypon Topsent, 1927 (additional source)
Acanthochaetetidae Fischer, 1970 (additional source)
Acanthostylotella Burton & Rao, 1932 (basis of record)
Agelasida (basis of record)
Amphinomia Hooper, 1991 (basis of record)
Astrophorina (basis of record)
Auletta Schmidt, 1870 (taxonomy source)
Axinellida (basis of record)
Biemnida (basis of record)
Biemnidae Hentschel, 1923 (basis of record)
Bubarida (original description)
Bubaridae Topsent, 1894 (basis of record)
Chondrillida (basis of record)
Chondrillidae Gray, 1872 (basis of record)
Chondrosiida (basis of record)
Clionaida (original description)
Clionaidae d'Orbigny, 1851 (basis of record)
Demospongiae (basis of record)
Dendroceratida (basis of record)
Desmacellida (original description)
Desmacellidae Ridley & Dendy, 1886 (basis of record)
Desmanthidae Topsent, 1893 (basis of record)
Desmoxyidae Hallmann, 1917 (basis of record)
Dictyonellidae van Soest, Diaz & Pomponi, 1990 (basis of record)
Halicnemia Bowerbank, 1864 (basis of record)
Hamacanthidae Gray, 1872 (basis of record)
Haplosclerida (basis of record)
Hemiasterellidae Lendenfeld, 1889 (basis of record)
Heteroscleromorpha (basis of record)
Heteroscleromorpha incertae sedis (original description)
Heteroxyidae Dendy, 1905 (basis of record)
Higginsia Higgin, 1877 (basis of record)
Hymerhabdiidae Morrow, Picton, Erpenbeck, Boury-Esnault, Maggs & Allcock, 2012 (basis of record)
Janulum de Laubenfels, 1936 (basis of record)
Janulum spinispiculum (Carter, 1876) (basis of record)
Keratosa (basis of record)
Merliida (basis of record)
Paratimea Hallmann, 1917 (status source)
Phakellia Bowerbank, 1862 (taxonomy source)
Poecilosclerida (basis of record)
Polymastiida (original description)
Raspailiidae Nardo, 1833 (basis of record)
Rhabderemiidae Topsent, 1928 (basis of record)
Scleritodermidae Sollas, 1888 (additional source)
Scopalinida (original description)
Scopalinidae Morrow, Picton, Erpenbeck, Boury-Esnault, Maggs & Allcock, 2012 (basis of record)
Siphonidiidae Lendenfeld, 1903 (additional source)
Sphaerocladina (basis of record)
Spirastrellidae Ridley & Dendy, 1886 (basis of record)
Spirophorina (basis of record)
Spongillida (basis of record)
Stelligeridae Lendenfeld, 1898 (additional source)
Suberitida (basis of record)
Suberitidae Schmidt, 1870 (basis of record)
Tethyida (original description)
Tethyidae Gray, 1848 (basis of record)
Tetractinellida (basis of record)
Thymosia Topsent, 1895 (basis of record)
Timeidae Topsent, 1928 (basis of record)
Trachycladida (original description)
Verongiida (basis of record)
Verongimorpha (basis of record)