The family Trichobranchidae is represented in Australian waters by ten species (Artacamella dibranchiata Knox & Cameron, 1971, A. torulosa sp. nov., A. tribranchiata sp. nov., Terebellides kowinka sp. nov., T. mundora sp. nov., T. narribri sp. nov., T. woolawa sp. nov., Octobranchus myunus sp. nov., Trichobranchus bunnabus sp. nov. and T. gorreekis sp. nov.) in four genera, of which nine species are new. Previously the ‘cosmopolitan species’ Terebellides stroemii Sars, 1835 had been widely reported from Australia; examination of material from near the type locality, Norway, revealed that the Australian material differed and represented four new species. Terebellides stroemii does not occur in Australian waters. Terebellides stroemii is redescribed. Additional characters are described for the genus which may also facilitate the separation of these species. A key to the genera and species present in Australia is given, as well as tables summarising the characters of all described species in these genera.