Karaseva, N. P.; Rimskaya-Korsakova, N. N.; Galkin, S. V.; Malakhov, V. V. (2016). Taxonomy, geographical and bathymetric distribution of vestimentiferan tubeworms (Annelida, Siboglinidae). Biology Bulletin. 43(9): 937-969.
A review of the taxonomy and distribution of vestimentiferan tubeworms has been performed. The subfamily Vestimentifera comprises three infrafamilies: Lamellibrachiinae, Escarpiinae, and Tevniinae. The complete descriptions and illustrations of 19 vestimentiferan species known to date are given. Comparative tables of the morphological characteristics of all vestimentiferan genera have been compiled. Lamellibrachiinae appear to be the most eurybathic group, representatives of which inhabit depths of 82-3200 m. Most representatives of Tevniinae reside deeper than 1500 m (except A. spiralis, which can be found at a depth of 750 m). Tevniinae live exclusively on the rocky substrate of hydrothermal vents. Lamellibrachiinae and Escarpiinae inhabit both soft and rocky substrates of cold seeps and the periphery of hydrothermal vents. Tevniinae occur only in the hydrothermal vents of the Pacific Ocean. Escarpiinae are found in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Lamellibrachiinae is the most widespread group that inhabits the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, including the Mediterranean Sea. The hypothesis on the Pacific origin on vestimentiferan tubeworms has been discussed. The eurybathic Lamellibrachiinae and Escarpiinae penetrated into the Atlantic Ocean through shallow-water basins of the Tethys Ocean and channels in the place of Mesoamerica, while the deep-sea Tevniinae were not able to do that.