Current number of accepted species in our list: 339


This World Database of all species of Kinorhyncha ever described, is part of the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), a global initiative to provide a register of all marine organism names. The aim of the World Kinorhyncha Database is to mirror the full hierarchical classification system of Kinorhyncha including unaccepted names and synonymy, the etymology of all scientific names, the distribution data of all published specimens including their deposition or non-deposition in which reference collection, access to molecular data, and all published references on any topic about Kinorhyncha at species level. In this way, the database will hopefully contribute to the stability of taxonomic names and facilitate information and research on all aspects of Kinorhyncha including taxonomy, phylogeny, morphology, development, biology, biogeography, ecology, and molecular biology.

Introduction

Kinorhyncha (mud dragons) is a group of marine and sometimes brackish water meiofaunal animals living on algae, sea grass, kelp, on or in other invertebrates, or in sediments from the intertidal to abyssal depths. Species may occupy the surface of muddy or sandy habitats or dwell up to about one meter deep in the sediment. Kinorhyncha may represent 1–8% of the meiofauna at a given locality and in extreme cases 0.1% or 15–33%.

Whereas species with more original characters use both their head spinoscalids and their trunk for a caterpillar-like forward movement, species with more advanced characters use mainly their head spinoscalids for moving around. Kinorhynchs feed on detritus, bacteria, algae, or diatoms.

The species develop via a series of possibly six juvenile stages to the adult. The adult life history stage can moult at least once in species of a range of genera. The different adult stages may agree or disagree in their morphology. Several studies revealed considerable variation for species of several genera within populations of a sample from a single or from various locations. These more recent findings complicate identification of kinorhynchs and description of new species. It can be expected that a range of species will have to be synonymized, if a larger number of specimens will have been studied in more details.

Currently, the World Kinorhyncha Database contains 339 accepted species names, the species number of all accepted and synonymized species is 580, and 657 taxonomic names of all ranks including synonyms contribute or have contributed to the classification of Kinorhyncha as a whole. The number of accepted species includes two fossil species, five taxa inquirenda and 50 species described from juvenile stages, which are usually considered as nomina dubia.

No guarantee for the correctness of the data can be given. Please inform the editor of any omissions, errors, or typos you come across, or if you need to confirm some crucial data. If you disagree with a synonym or other taxonomic decision, please send in your reasoned argument to the editor. Each contribution will be evaluated and corrections will be incorporated as quickly as possible.

Specimens

Type and non-type specimens of Kinorhyncha were and are mainly deposited in the following museum collections:

Citation

Usage of data from the World Kinorhyncha Database in scientific publications should be acknowledged by citing as follows:

  • Neuhaus, B. (2022). World Kinorhyncha Database. Accessed at https://www.marinespecies.org/kinorhyncha on 2022-12-08. doi:10.14284/457
If the data from the World Kinorhyncha Database constitute a substantial proportion of the records used in analyses, the chief editor(s) of the database should be contacted. There may be additional data which may prove valuable to such analyses.

Individual pages are individually authored and dated. These can be cited separately: the proper citation is provided at the bottom of each page.

References

This reference list is grouped in order to facilitate quick access to specific topics about Kinorhyncha.

Historical and current classification

This site provides the classification systems of Kinorhyncha published from 1907 until today.

Zelinka 1907

Class

Order

Suborder

Family

 

Genus

Echinodera

Homalorhagae

 

Pycnophyidae

 

Pycnophyes

 

 

 

Trachydemidae

 

Trachydemus

 

 

 

larval genera

 

Hyalophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Centrophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Leptodemus

 

Conchorhagae

 

Pentacontidae

 

Semnoderes

 

Cyclorhagae

Nomosomata

Echinoderidae

 

Echinoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Echinoderella

 

 

 

 

larval genera

Habroderes

 

 

 

 

 

Habroderella

 

 

 

 

 

Centropsis

 

 

 

 

 

Hapaloderes

 

 

 

Centroderidae

 

Centroderes

 

 

Xenosomata

Mesitoderidae

 

Campyloderes

Zelinka 1928

Order

Suborder

Tribus

Family

 

Genus

Echinodera

Cyclorhagae

Nomosomata

Echinoderidae

 

Echinoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Echinoderella

 

 

 

 

larval genera

Habroderes

 

 

 

 

 

Habroderella

 

 

 

Centroderidae

 

Centroderes

 

 

 

 

larval genera

Centropsis

 

 

 

 

 

Hapaloderes

 

 

Xenosomata

Mesitoderidae

 

Campyloderes

 

Conchorhagae

 

Pentacontidae

 

Semnoderes

 

Homalorhagae

 

Trachydemidae

 

Trachydemus

 

 

 

 

larval genus

Leptodemus

 

 

 

Pycnophyidae

 

Pycnophyes

 

 

 

 

larval genus

Hyalophyes

 

 

larval genus

 

 

Centrophyes

Remane 1929

Class

Order

Suborder

Tribus

Family

Genus

Kinorhyncha

Echinodera

Cyclorhagae

Nomosomata

Echinoderidae

Echinoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Echinoderella

 

 

 

 

Centroderidae

Centroderes

 

 

 

 

larval genera

Centropsis

 

 

 

 

 

Hapaloderes

 

 

 

 

 

Habroderes

 

 

 

 

 

Habroderella

 

 

 

Xenosomata

Campyloderidae (Mesitoderidae)

Campyloderes

 

 

Conchorhagae

 

Semnoderidae (Pentacontidae)

Semnoderes

 

 

Homalorhagae

 

Trachydemidae

Trachydemus

 

 

 

 

Pycnophyidae

Pycnophyes

 

 

 

larval genera

 

Leptodemus

 

 

 

 

 

Centrophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Hyalophyes

Remane 1936

Class

Order

Suborder

Tribus

Family

Genus

Kinorhyncha (= Echinodera = Echinocephala)

Kinorhyncha

Cyclorhagae

Nomosomata

Echinoderidae

Echinoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Echinoderella

 

 

 

 

Centroderidae

Centroderes

 

 

 

Xenosomata

Mesitoderidae (= Campyloderidae)

Campyloderes

 

 

 

larval genera Cyclorhagae

 

Habroderes

 

 

 

 

 

Habroderella

 

 

 

 

 

Centropsis

 

 

 

 

 

Hapaloderes

 

 

Conchorhagae

 

Semnoderidae (Pentacontidae)

Semnoderes

 

 

Homalorhagae

 

Pycnophyidae

Pycnophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Trachydemus

 

 

 

larval genera Homalorhagae

 

Hyalophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Centrophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Leptodemus

Lang 1949

Order

Suborder

Tribus

Family

Genus

 

Echinodera

Homalorhagae

 

Pycnophyidae

Pycnophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Trachydemus

 

 

Heterorhagae

Conchorhagata

Semnoderidae

Semnoderes

 

 

 

Cyclorhagata

Echinoderidae

Echinoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Echinoderella

 

 

 

 

Centroderidae

Campyloderes

 

 

 

 

 

Centroderes

 

Chitwood 1959

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

 

Kinorhyncha

Homalorhagea

Homalorhagida

Pycnophyidae

Pycnophyes

 

 

 

 

Trachydemidae

Trachydemus

 

 

 

 

 

Hyalophyes

larval genus

 

 

 

 

Centrophyes

larval genus

 

 

 

 

Leptodemus

larval genus

 

Conchorhagea

Conchorhagida

Semnoderidae

Semnoderes

 

 

 

 

Cateriidae

Cateria

 

 

Cyclorhagea

Nomosomatida

Echinoderidae

Echinoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Echinoderella

 

 

 

 

 

Habroderes

larval genus

 

 

 

 

Habroderella

larval genus

 

 

 

 

Centropsis

larval genus

 

 

 

 

Haploderes [sic!]

larval genus

 

 

Xenosomatida

Campyloderidae

Campyloderes

 

Higgins 1990, Higgins & Shirayama 1990

Phylum

Order

Suborder

Family

Genus

 

Kinorhyncha

Cyclorhagida

Cyclorhagae

Echinoderidae

Echinoderes

 

 

 

 

Dracoderidae

Dracoderes

 

 

 

 

Centroderidae

Centroderes

 

 

 

 

 

Campyloderes

 

 

 

 

 

Condyloderes

 

 

 

 

Zekinkaderidae

Zelinkaderes

 

 

 

Conchorhagae

Semnoderidae

Semnoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Sphenoderes

 

 

 

Cryptorhagae

Cateriidae

Cateria

 

 

Homalorhagida

Homalorhagae

Neocentrophyidae

Neocentrophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Paracentrophyes

 

 

 

 

Pycnophyidae

Pycnophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Kinorhynchus

 

Adrianov & Malakhov 1994, 1996, 1999a

Class

Order

Suborder

Family

Genus

 

Kinorhyncha

Cyclorhagida

Protorhagae

Antigomonidae [sic!]

Antigomonas [sic!]

 

 

 

 

Zekinkaderidae

Zelinkaderes

 

 

 

Cryptorhagae

Cateriidae

Cateria

 

 

 

Conchorhagae

Semnoderidae

Semnoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Sphenoderes

 

 

 

Cyclorhagae

Cephalorhynchidae

Cephalorhyncha

 

 

 

 

Centroderidae

Centroderes

 

 

 

 

 

Campyloderes

 

 

 

 

 

Condyloderes

 

 

 

 

Dracoderidae

Dracoderes

 

 

 

 

Echinoderidae

Echinoderes

 

 

Homalorhagida

Homalorhagae

Neocentrophyidae

Neocentrophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Paracentrophyes

 

 

 

 

Pycnophyidae

Kinorhynchus

 

 

 

 

 

Pycnophyes

 

Sørensen 2013

Phylum

Order

Family

Genus

 

 

Kinorhyncha

Cyclorhagida

Antygomonidae

Antygomonas

 

 

 

 

Cateriidae

Cateria

 

 

 

 

Centroderidae

Campyloderes

 

 

 

 

 

Centroderes

 

 

 

 

 

Condyloderes

 

 

 

 

Echinoderidae

Cephalorhyncha

 

 

 

 

 

Echinoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Fissuroderes

 

 

 

 

 

Meristoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Polacanthoderes

 

 

 

 

Dracoderidae

Dracoderes

 

 

 

 

Semnoderidae

Semnoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Sphenoderes

 

 

 

 

Zelinkaderidae

Triodontoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Zelinkaderes

 

 

 

Homalorhagida

Neocentrophyidae

Neocentrophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Paracentrophyes

 

 

 

 

Pycnophyidae

Kinorhynchus

 

 

 

 

 

Pycnophyes

 

 

 

 

unplaced family

Franciscideres

 

 

 

 

 

Tubulideres

 

 

 

 

 

Wollunquaderes

 

 

Sørensen et al. 2015, Sánchez et al. 2016, Yamasaki 2016, 2019, Adrianov & Maiorova 2018

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

 

Kinorhyncha

Allomalorhagida

 

Dracoderidae

Dracoderes

 

 

 

 

Franciscideridae

Franciscideres

 

 

 

 

 

Gracilideres

 

 

 

 

Pycnophyidae

Cristaphyes

 

 

 

 

 

Fujuriphyes

 

 

 

 

 

Higginsium

 

 

 

 

 

Krakenella

 

 

 

 

 

Leiocanthus

 

 

 

 

 

Pycnophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Setaphyes

 

 

 

 

Neocentrophyidae

Mixtophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Neocentrophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Paracentrophyes

 

 

Cyclorhagida

Echinorhagata

Echinoderidae

Cephalorhyncha

 

 

 

 

 

Echinoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Fissuroderes

 

 

 

 

 

Meristoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Polacanthoderes

 

 

 

Kentrorhagata

Antygomonidae

Antygomonas

 

 

 

 

Cateriidae

Cateria

 

 

 

 

Centroderidae

Centroderes

 

 

 

 

 

Condyloderes

 

 

 

 

Semnoderidae

Parasemnoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Semnoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Sphenoderes

 

 

 

 

Zelinkaderidae

Triodontoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Zelinkaderes

 

 

 

 

incertae sedis

Tubulideres

 

 

 

 

 

Wollunquaderes

 

 

 

Xenosomata

Campyloderidae

Campyloderes

 

 

 

 

 

Ryuguderes

 

Herranz et al. 2022

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

 

Kinorhyncha

Allomalorhagida

Anomoirhaga

Cateriidae

Cateria

 

 

 

 

Dracoderidae

Dracoderes

 

 

 

 

Franciscideridae

Franciscideres

 

 

 

 

 

Gracilideres

 

 

 

 

Neocentrophyidae

Mixtophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Neocentrophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Paracentrophyes

 

 

 

incertae sedis

Pycnophyidae

Cristaphyes

 

 

 

 

 

Fujuriphyes

 

 

 

 

 

Higginsium

 

 

 

 

 

Krakenella

 

 

 

 

 

Leiocanthus

 

 

 

 

 

Pycnophyes

 

 

 

 

 

Setaphyes

 

 

Cyclorhagida

Echinorhagata

Echinoderidae

Cephalorhyncha

 

 

 

 

 

Echinoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Fissuroderes

 

 

 

 

 

Meristoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Polacanthoderes

 

 

 

Kentrorhagata

Centroderidae

Centroderes

 

 

 

 

 

Condyloderes

 

 

 

 

Semnoderidae

Antygomonas

 

 

 

 

 

Parasemnoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Semnoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Sphenoderes

 

 

 

 

Zelinkaderidae

Triodontoderes

 

 

 

 

 

Zelinkaderes

 

 

 

 

incertae sedis

Tubulideres

 

 

 

 

incertae sedis

Wollunquaderes

 

 

 

Xenosomata

Campyloderidae

Campyloderes

 

 

 

 

 

Ryuguderes