Difference between revisions of "Future marine biotechnology research"

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A major challenge in the field of marine biotechnology is to develop an efficient
 
A major challenge in the field of marine biotechnology is to develop an efficient
 
procedure for the discovery of novel biomolecules in the marine environment. The high level of [[biodiversity]] of marine organisms makes them a prime target for bio-prospecting: a wide range of novel biomolecules are produced by these organisms, ranging from bioactive molecules and enzymes of interest for medicine to biopolymers with
 
procedure for the discovery of novel biomolecules in the marine environment. The high level of [[biodiversity]] of marine organisms makes them a prime target for bio-prospecting: a wide range of novel biomolecules are produced by these organisms, ranging from bioactive molecules and enzymes of interest for medicine to biopolymers with
diverse industrial applications. Microbes are particularly under-sampled and have great
+
diverse industrial applications. [[Microbial_research|Microbes are particularly under-sampled]] and have great potential, since a recent survey of proteins in the ocean has found thousands of new families with unknown functions.  
potential, since a recent survey of proteins in the ocean has found thousands of new families with unknown functions.  
 
  
There already exist some elements which can help to efficiently exploit this resource. These include marine stations with extensive biological expertise and sample-collection facilities and companies with the facility to develop novel biomolecules for industrial applications. An effort is required to bridge the gap between these elements and their potential industrial partners.
+
There already exist some elements which can help to efficiently exploit this resource. These include marine stations with extensive biological expertise and sample-collection facilities and companies with the facility to develop novel biomolecules for industrial applications. An effort is required to bridge the gap between these elements and their potential industrial partners<ref name="ma">[https://www.researchgate.net/publication/306030378_Marine_Biodiversity_and_Ecosystem_Functioning Heip, C., Hummel, H., van Avesaath, P., Appeltans, W., Arvanitidis, C., Aspden, R., Austen, M., Boero, F., Bouma, TJ., Boxshall, G., Buchholz, F., Crowe, T., Delaney, A., Deprez, T., Emblow, C., Feral, JP., Gasol, JM., Gooday, A., Harder, J., Ianora, A., Kraberg, A., Mackenzie, B., Ojaveer, H., Paterson, D., Rumohr, H., Schiedek, D., Sokolowski, A., Somerfield, P., Sousa Pinto, I., Vincx, M., Węsławski, JM., Nash, R. (2009). Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Printbase, Dublin, Ireland ISSN 2009-2539]</ref>.
 
<P>
 
<P>
 
<BR>
 
<BR>
 +
 
===Secondary metabolites, chemical biodiversity and biodiversity===
 
===Secondary metabolites, chemical biodiversity and biodiversity===
  
Biochemical studies on marine organisms are very important, not only for the discovery of new drugs and biological tools, but also for better comprehension of ecosystems and, hence, better management of biodiversity. However, during the last twenty years, the study
+
Biochemical studies on marine organisms are very important, not only for the discovery of new drugs and biological tools, but also for better comprehension of ecosystems and hence, better management of biodiversity. However, during the last twenty years, the study
 
of the chemistry of natural products from biodiversity became dominated by the search
 
of the chemistry of natural products from biodiversity became dominated by the search
for active molecules directed towards drug production. This has sometimes sidetracked the scientific investigation of chemical effects and reduced the potential for this
+
for active molecules directed towards drug production. This has sometimes sidetracked the scientific investigation from solving crucial questions in areas such as:
approach to solve crucial questions in areas
+
 
such as:- examination of the interactions
+
*examination of the interactions between [[species]]
between species; chemical indications of
+
*chemical indications of environmental variation
environmental variation; understanding
+
*understanding biodiversity at the molecular scale
biodiversity at the molecular scale, and
+
*comprehending the molecular reactivity and its impact on biological functions.
comprehending the molecular reactivity and its
+
 
impact on biological functions.
+
The challenge for the next ten years will be to explore how model organisms, including microbes, vary their production of metabolites in interaction with the environment and as a response to environmental changes ([[Effects of global climate change on European marine biodiversity|climatic]], [[pollution]], exceptional phenomena).  
The challenge for the next ten years will be to
+
 
explore the significance of the variation in rates
+
To achieve this goal, it will be necessary to study the role of the bioactive molecules within communities, their roles in competition for space and resources, and their role in defence against predators and pathogens. This will promote parallel studies in [[taxonomy]],
of metabolite production in model organisms,
+
[[phylogeny]], phylogeography and chemistry and clarify the link between biodiversity and
including microbes, in terms of interaction with
+
chemodiversity<ref name="ma"/>.
the environment and of response to
+
<P>
environmental changes (climatic, pollution,
+
<BR>
exceptional phenomena). To achieve this goal,
 
it will be necessary to study the role of the
 
bioactive molecules within communities, their
 
roles in inter/intra-specific competition for
 
space and resources, and their role in defence
 
against predators and pathogens. This will
 
promote parallel studies in taxonomy,
 
phylogeny, phylogeography and chemistry and
 
clarify the link between biodiversity and
 
chemodiversity.
 
  
 +
== See also ==
 +
*[[Chemical ecology]]
 +
*[[Marine Functional Metabolites|Functional Metabolites]]
 +
**[[Functional metabolites and macroalgal-herbivore interactions|Macroalgal-herbivore interactions]]
 +
**[[Functional metabolites in benthic invertebrates|Benthic invertebrates]]
 +
**[[Functional metabolites in phytoplankton|Phytoplankton]]
 +
**[[Chemical and physical properties of functional metabolites]]
 +
<P>
 +
<BR>
  
===Model development===
+
==References==
 +
<references/>
  
In many areas of research, modelling is proving
+
[[Category: MarBEF Wiki]]
very effective, particularly with respect to slowly
+
[[Category:Marine Biotechnology]]
developing and predictable systems. However,
 
in a period of rapid change such as we are
 
experiencing, irregularities are extremely
 
important. Ecosystems are non-linear and
 
inherently unpredictable, and we must develop
 
models that cope with episodic and irregular
 
events and identify trends and depict scenarios.
 
It should be emphasised, however, that
 
empirical data and mechanistic understanding
 
derived from experiments are essential to
 
underpin models, particularly where regionally focused
 
models are required.
 

Latest revision as of 19:25, 10 September 2020

Sustainable exploitation of the marine environment, and bio-prospecting

A major challenge in the field of marine biotechnology is to develop an efficient procedure for the discovery of novel biomolecules in the marine environment. The high level of biodiversity of marine organisms makes them a prime target for bio-prospecting: a wide range of novel biomolecules are produced by these organisms, ranging from bioactive molecules and enzymes of interest for medicine to biopolymers with diverse industrial applications. Microbes are particularly under-sampled and have great potential, since a recent survey of proteins in the ocean has found thousands of new families with unknown functions.

There already exist some elements which can help to efficiently exploit this resource. These include marine stations with extensive biological expertise and sample-collection facilities and companies with the facility to develop novel biomolecules for industrial applications. An effort is required to bridge the gap between these elements and their potential industrial partners[1].


Secondary metabolites, chemical biodiversity and biodiversity

Biochemical studies on marine organisms are very important, not only for the discovery of new drugs and biological tools, but also for better comprehension of ecosystems and hence, better management of biodiversity. However, during the last twenty years, the study of the chemistry of natural products from biodiversity became dominated by the search for active molecules directed towards drug production. This has sometimes sidetracked the scientific investigation from solving crucial questions in areas such as:

  • examination of the interactions between species
  • chemical indications of environmental variation
  • understanding biodiversity at the molecular scale
  • comprehending the molecular reactivity and its impact on biological functions.

The challenge for the next ten years will be to explore how model organisms, including microbes, vary their production of metabolites in interaction with the environment and as a response to environmental changes (climatic, pollution, exceptional phenomena).

To achieve this goal, it will be necessary to study the role of the bioactive molecules within communities, their roles in competition for space and resources, and their role in defence against predators and pathogens. This will promote parallel studies in taxonomy, phylogeny, phylogeography and chemistry and clarify the link between biodiversity and chemodiversity[1].


See also


References