WoRMS taxon details

Ctenactis echinata (Pallas, 1766)

216132  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:216132)

accepted
Species
Ctenactis gigantea (Dana, 1846) · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Fungia (Ctenactis) echinata (Pallas, 1766) · unaccepted > superseded combination
Fungia (Ctenactis) ehrenbergi (Leuckart, 1841) · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Fungia (Haliglossa) echinata (Pallas, 1866) · unaccepted > superseded combination
Fungia asperata Dana, 1846 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766) · unaccepted > superseded combination
Fungia echinata f. neogenica Gerth, 1923 † · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Fungia echinata var. gigantea Dana, 1846 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Fungia echinata var. parvispina Döderlein, 1902 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Fungia echinata var. undulata Döderlein, 1902 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Fungia ehrenbergi (Leuckart, 1841) · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Fungia ehrenbergii (Leuckart, 1841) · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Fungia ehrenbergii var. gigantea Dana, 1846 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Fungia gigantea Dana, 1846 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Fungia limacina var. lobata Lamarck, 1816 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Fungia limacina var. lobata bifurcata Lamarck, 1816 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Fungia pectinata Ehrenberg, 1834 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Fungia ruepelli (Leuckart, 1841) · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Fungia ruppelii (Leuckart, 1841) · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Haliglossa echinata (Pallas, 1766) · unaccepted > superseded combination
Haliglossa pectinata (Ehrenberg, 1834) · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Herpetolitha ruepellii (Leuckart, 1841) · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Herpetolithas ehrenbergii Leuckart, 1841 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Herpetolithas ruepellii Leuckart, 1841 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Herpetolithus ehrenbergii (Leuckart, 1841) · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym
Herpetolithus ruppelii Leuckart, 1841 · unaccepted > junior subjective synonym (misspelling)
Madrepora echinata Pallas, 1766 · unaccepted > superseded combination (basionym)
marine, fresh, terrestrial
(of Madrepora echinata Pallas, 1766) Pallas, P. S. (1766). Elenchus zoophytorum sistens generum adumbrationes generaliores et specierum cognitarum succintas descriptiones, cum selectis auctorum synonymis. <em>[book].</em> pp. 451, Fransiscum Varrentrapp, Hagae., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/6019361 [details]  OpenAccess publication 
Lectotype  (of Madrepora echinata Pallas, 1766) USNM...  
Lectotype (of Madrepora echinata Pallas, 1766) USNM 275, geounit Fijian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Type locality contained in Indian Ocean  
type locality contained in Indian Ocean [details]
Note  "Mare Indicus" Indian Sea. Neotype from...  
From editor or global species database
Type locality  "Mare Indicus" Indian Sea. Neotype from Thousand Islands, Java Sea [details]
Description Septa are striking, with triangular, large and very regular teeth. Coralla are elongate and large (up to 50 cm long). The...  
Description Septa are striking, with triangular, large and very regular teeth. Coralla are elongate and large (up to 50 cm long). The central groove may contain one, two, or more centres. Rarely the coral may attain a "star" pattern, possibly due to breakage and uneven regrowth, and in these cases the central furrow, and usually another centre, continues into each of the three arms. This is one of the commonest and most widespread of the free living fungiids. It occupies fore and back reef slopes, rubble, but not soft substrate, from 5 to 25 m deep. Ctenactis simplex is probably the same species. [details]
Hoeksema, B. W.; Cairns, S. (2022). World List of Scleractinia. Ctenactis echinata (Pallas, 1766). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=216132 on 2022-08-09
Date
action
by
1997-10-31 09:33:07Z
created
1998-06-18 15:42:37Z
changed
2008-01-16 10:35:54Z
changed
2013-01-21 22:25:02Z
changed
2022-05-23 20:32:15Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description  (of Madrepora echinata Pallas, 1766) Pallas, P. S. (1766). Elenchus zoophytorum sistens generum adumbrationes generaliores et specierum cognitarum succintas descriptiones, cum selectis auctorum synonymis. <em>[book].</em> pp. 451, Fransiscum Varrentrapp, Hagae., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/6019361 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Fungia pectinata Ehrenberg, 1834) Ehrenberg, C. G. (1834). Beiträge zur physiologischen Kenntniss der Corallenthiere im allgemeinen, und besonders des rothen Meeres, nebst einem Versuche zur physiologischen Systematik derselben. <em>Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin.</em> 1: 225-380., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/29725862 [details]   

original description  (of Herpetolithas ehrenbergii Leuckart, 1841) Leuckart, F.S. 1841. Observations zoologicae de Zoophytis coralliis, speciatim de genere Fungia, p. 1-60, pls. 1-4. Emmerling, Friburgi Brisigavorum. [details]   

original description  (of Herpetolithas ruepellii Leuckart, 1841) Leuckart, F.S. 1841. Observations zoologicae de Zoophytis coralliis, speciatim de genere Fungia, p. 1-60, pls. 1-4. Emmerling, Friburgi Brisigavorum. [details]   

original description  (of Fungia asperata Dana, 1846) Dana, J.D. (1846-1849). Zoophytes. United States Exploring Expedition during the years 1838-1842. <em>Lea and Blanchard, Philadelphia.</em> 7: 1-740, 61 pls. (1846: 1-120, 709-720; 1848: 121-708, 721-740; 1849: atlas pls. 1-61)., available online at http://www.sil.si.edu/digitalcollections/usexex/navigation/ScientificText/USExEx19_08select.cfm [details]   

original description  (of Fungia echinata var. parvispina Döderlein, 1902) Döderlein, L. 1902. Die Korallengattung Fungia. Abhandlungen herausgegeben von der senckenbergischen naturforschenden Gesellschaft 27: 1–162, I–XXV. [details]   

original description  (of Fungia echinata var. undulata Döderlein, 1902) Döderlein, L. 1902. Die Korallengattung Fungia. Abhandlungen herausgegeben von der senckenbergischen naturforschenden Gesellschaft 27: 1–162, I–XXV. [details]   

original description  (of Fungia limacina var. lobata Lamarck, 1816) Lamarck, J.-B. M. de. (1816). Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. Tome second. Paris: Verdière, 568 pp., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/47698 [details]   

original description  (of Fungia limacina var. lobata bifurcata Lamarck, 1816) Lamarck, J.-B. M. de. (1816). Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. Tome second. Paris: Verdière, 568 pp., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/47698 [details]   

original description  (of Herpetolithus ruppelii Leuckart, 1841) Leuckart, F.S. 1841. Observations zoologicae de Zoophytis coralliis, speciatim de genere Fungia, p. 1-60, pls. 1-4. Emmerling, Friburgi Brisigavorum. [details]   

original description  (of Fungia echinata f. neogenica Gerth, 1923 †) Gerth H. (1923). Die Anthozoënfauna des Jungtertiars von Borneo. <em>Sammlungen des Geologischen Reichs-Museums in Leiden, Serie 1. Beiträge zur Geologie Ost-Asiens und Australiens.</em> 10 (1): 37-136, pls. 1-9. [details]   

original description  (of Fungia ehrenbergii var. gigantea Dana, 1846) Dana, J.D. (1846-1849). Zoophytes. United States Exploring Expedition during the years 1838-1842. <em>Lea and Blanchard, Philadelphia.</em> 7: 1-740, 61 pls. (1846: 1-120, 709-720; 1848: 121-708, 721-740; 1849: atlas pls. 1-61)., available online at http://www.sil.si.edu/digitalcollections/usexex/navigation/ScientificText/USExEx19_08select.cfm [details]   

context source (Hexacorallia) Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record Hoeksema BW. (1989). Taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography of mushroom corals (Scleractinia: Fungiidae. <em>Zoologische Verhandelingen, Leiden.</em> 254: 1-295., available online at http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/document/149013 [details]   

additional source Gittenberger A, Reijnen BT, Hoeksema BW. (2011). A molecularly based phylogeny reconstruction of mushroom corals (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) with taxonomic consequences and evolutionary implications for life history traits. <em>Contributions to Zoology.</em> 80: 107-132., available online at https://brill.com/downloadpdf/journals/ctoz/80/2/article-p107_2.xml [details]   

additional source Hoeksema, B.W., 1993. Mushroom corals (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) of Madang Lagoon, northern Papua New Guinea: an annotated checklist with the description of Cantharellus jebbi spec. nov. Zoologische Mededelingen, Leiden 67: 1-19., available online at http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/document/150656
page(s): 8, 16 [details]   

additional source Veron JEN. (2000). Corals of the World. Vol. 1–3. <em>Australian Institute of Marine Science and CRR, Queensland, Australia.</em>  [details]   

additional source Hoeksema, B.W. & Dai,C.F. 1991. Scleractinia of Taiwan. II Family Fungiidae (with the description of a new species). Bulletin Zoological Institute, Academia Sinica, Taipei 30: 201-226.
page(s): 206, 222, 223, Figs. 73-74 [details]   

additional source Pichon, M.; Benzoni, F. (2007). Taxonomic re-appraisal of zooxanthellate Scleractinian Corals in the Maldive Archipelago. <em>Zootaxa.</em> 1441: 21–33.
page(s): 30 [details]   

additional source Veron, J. E. N. (2000). Corals of the World, Volume II: Families Astrocoeniidae, Pocilloporidae, Euphyllidae, Oculinidae, Meandrinidae, Siderastreidae, Agariciidae, Fungiidae, Rhizangiidae, Pectiniidae, Merulinidae, Dendrophylliidae, Caryophylliidae. Australian Institute of Marine Science. Townsville., volume 2, pp. 429.
page(s): 286-287 [details]   

additional source Maragos, J. E.; Molina, M.; Kenyon, J. (2004). Palmyra Atoll coral data compiled from Townsend Cromwell 2000-2002, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2000-2001, and Sette 2004 surveys [Table 8]. UNPUBLISHED, UNPUBLISHED [details]   

additional source Kühlmann, D. H. H. (2006). Die Steinkorallensammlung im Naturhistorischen Museum in Rudolstadt (Thüringen) nebst ökologischen Bemerkungen. Rudolstädter Naturhistorische Schriften, 13, 37-113
page(s): 62, 80, 111 [details]   

additional source Cairns SD, Hoeksema BW, van der Land J. (1999). Appendix: List of extant stony corals. <em>Atoll Research Bulletin.</em> 459: 13-46.
page(s): 32 [details]   

additional source Randall, R.H., 2003. An annotated checklist of hydrozoan and scleractinian corals collected from Guam and other Mariana Islands. Micronesica 35-36: 121-137.
page(s): 131 [details]   

additional source Liu, J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. <em>China Science Press.</em> 1267 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
    Definitions

Lectotype (of Madrepora echinata Pallas, 1766) USNM 275, geounit Fijian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) MSI C-31, geounit Philippines Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) MSI C-532, geounit Philippines Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) MSI C-553 [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) RMNH, geounit Indonesian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) RMNH, geounit Indonesian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) RMNH, geounit Saudi Arabian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) RMNH, geounit Saudi Arabian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) UAZM [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) UAZM [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) UAZM [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) UAZM [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) UAZM [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) UAZM [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) UAZM, geounit Indonesian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) UAZM, geounit Indonesian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) UAZM, geounit Singaporean Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) WAM 164-77, geounit Australian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) WAM 202-85, geounit Australian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) WAM 242-85, geounit Australian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) WAM 529-81, geounit Australian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype (of Fungia (Ctenactis) echinata (Pallas, 1766)) HLD X2: 127-32, geounit Indian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype NMNS 000048-3357, geounit Taiwanese Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype NMSR 8598, geounit Sudanese Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype NMSR I/446/E3 [details]
Nontype NMSR I/556/E3 [details]
Nontype NMSR I/556/E3 [details]
Unknown type (of Fungia ehrenbergi (Leuckart, 1841)) MZUS, geounit French Polynesian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Unknown type (of Fungia ehrenbergi (Leuckart, 1841)) MZUS, geounit Palau Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Unknown type (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) IMC apr-46 [details]
Unknown type (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) IMC mrt-19, geounit Singaporean Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Unknown type (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) IMC mrt-24 [details]
Unknown type (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) IMC mrt-68, geounit Myanmar Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Unknown type (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) IMC mrt-70, geounit Indian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Unknown type (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) IMC mrt-77, geounit Myanmar Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Unknown type (of Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766)) IMC mrt-78, geounit Myanmar Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
From editor or global species database
Biology zooxanthellate [details]

Type locality  "Mare Indicus" Indian Sea. Neotype from Thousand Islands, Java Sea [details]

From other sources
Description Septa are striking, with triangular, large and very regular teeth. Coralla are elongate and large (up to 50 cm long). The central groove may contain one, two, or more centres. Rarely the coral may attain a "star" pattern, possibly due to breakage and uneven regrowth, and in these cases the central furrow, and usually another centre, continues into each of the three arms. This is one of the commonest and most widespread of the free living fungiids. It occupies fore and back reef slopes, rubble, but not soft substrate, from 5 to 25 m deep. Ctenactis simplex is probably the same species. [details]

Remark Previously included in the Genus Fungia. [details]
LanguageName 
Japanese トゲクサビライシ  [details]