WoRMS taxon details

Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816

205785  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:205785)

accepted
Genus
Palythoa mammillosa (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (type by subsequent designation)
Species Palythoa aggregata Lesson, 1830
Species Palythoa anneae Carlgren, 1938
Species Palythoa arenacea Heller, 1868
Species Palythoa argus Ehrenberg, 1834
Species Palythoa aspera Pax, 1909
Species Palythoa atogrisea Pax, 1924
Species Palythoa australiae Carlgren, 1937
Species Palythoa australiensis Carlgren, 1950
Species Palythoa bertholeti Gray, 1867
Species Palythoa brasiliensis Heider, 1899
Species Palythoa braunsi Pax, 1924
Species Palythoa brochi Pax, 1924
Species Palythoa buitendijkl Pax, 1924
Species Palythoa caesia Dana, 1846
Species Palythoa calcaria Muller, 1883
Species Palythoa calcigena Pax, 1924
Species Palythoa calycina Pax, 1909
Species Palythoa canalifera Pax, 1908
Species Palythoa canariensis Haddon & Duerden, 1896
Species Palythoa cancrisocia Martens, 1876
Species Palythoa capensis Haddon & Duerden, 1896
Species Palythoa caracasiana Pax, 1924
Species Palythoa caribaeorum Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860
Species Palythoa ceresina Pax & Muller, 1956
Species Palythoa chlorostoma Pax & Muller, 1956
Species Palythoa cingulata Milne Edwards, 1857
Species Palythoa clavata (Duchassaing, 1850)
Species Palythoa complanata Carlgren, 1951
Species Palythoa congoensis Pax, 1952
Species Palythoa dartevellei Pax, 1952
Species Palythoa densa Carlgren, 1954
Species Palythoa denudata Dana, 1846
Species Palythoa dura Carlgren, 1920
Species Palythoa durbanensis Carlgren, 1938
Species Palythoa dysancrita Pax & Muller, 1956
Species Palythoa eremita Pax, 1920
Species Palythoa flavoviridis Ehrenberg, 1834
Species Palythoa fuliginosa Dana, 1846
Species Palythoa fusca (Duerden, 1898)
Species Palythoa glareola (Lesueur, 1817)
Species Palythoa glutinosa Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864
Species Palythoa grandiflora (Verrill, 1900)
Species Palythoa grandis (Verrill, 1900)
Species Palythoa gregorii Haddon & Duerden, 1896
Species Palythoa gridellii Pax & Muller, 1956
Species Palythoa guangdongensis Zunan, 1998
Species Palythoa guinensis von Koch, 1886
Species Palythoa haddoni Carlgren, 1937
Species Palythoa halidosis Pax, 1952
Species Palythoa hartmeyeri Pax, 1910
Species Palythoa heideri Carlgren, 1954
Species Palythoa heilprini (Verrill, 1900)
Species Palythoa heliodiscus (Ryland & Lancaster, 2003)
Species Palythoa horstii Pax, 1924
Species Palythoa howesii Haddon & Shackleton, 1891
Species Palythoa hypopelia Pax, 1909
Species Palythoa ignota Carlgren, 1951
Species Palythoa incerta Carlgren, 1900
Species Palythoa insignis Carlgren, 1951
Species Palythoa irregularis Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860
Species Palythoa isolata Verrill, 1907
Species Palythoa javanica Pax, 1924
Species Palythoa kochii Haddon & Shackleton, 1891
Species Palythoa leseuri Klunzinger, 1877
Species Palythoa leucochiton Pax & Muller, 1956
Species Palythoa liscia Haddon & Duerden, 1896
Species Palythoa mammillosa (Ellis & Solander, 1786)
Species Palythoa mizigama Irei, Sinniger & Reimer, 2015
Species Palythoa monodi Pax & Muller, 1956
Species Palythoa multisulcata Carlgren, 1900
Species Palythoa mutuki (Haddon & Shackleton, 1891)
Species Palythoa natalensis Carlgren, 1938
Species Palythoa nelliae Pax, 1935
Species Palythoa nigricans McMurrich, 1898
Species Palythoa oorti Pax, 1924
Species Palythoa psammophilia Walsh & Bowers, 1971
Species Palythoa senegalensis Pax & Muller, 1956
Species Palythoa senegambiensis Carter, 1882
Species Palythoa shackletoni Carlgren, 1937
Species Palythoa sinensis Zunan, 1998
Species Palythoa spongiosa Andres, 1883
Species Palythoa stephensoni Carlgren, 1937
Species Palythoa texaensis Carlgren & Hedgpeth, 1952
Species Palythoa toxica Walsh & Bowers, 1971
Species Palythoa tropica Carlgren, 1900
Species Palythoa tuberculosa (Esper, 1805)
Species Palythoa umbrosa Irei, Sinniger & Reimer, 2015
Species Palythoa variabilis (Duerden, 1898)
Species Palythoa vestitus (Verrill, 1928)
Species Palythoa wilsmoorei Wilsmore
Species Palythoa xishaensis Zunan, 1998
Species Palythoa yongei Carlgren, 1937
Species Palythoa zanzibarica Carlgren

Species Palythoa anguicoma Norman, 1869 accepted as Parazoanthus anguicomus (Norman, 1869) (basionym)
Species Palythoa caribaea Duerden, 1898 accepted as Palythoa caribaeorum Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860
Species Palythoa caribbaea Goreau, 1959 accepted as Palythoa caribaeorum Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860
Species Palythoa caribdea Carballeira et al., 1998 accepted as Palythoa caribaeorum Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860
Species Palythoa cavolinii Andres, 1883 accepted as Palythoa denudata Dana, 1846
Species Palythoa cinerea Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 accepted as Palythoa mammillosa (Ellis & Solander, 1786)
Species Palythoa fatua Schultze, 1860 accepted as Epizoanthus fatuus (Schultze, 1860)
Species Palythoa flava (Lesueur, 1817) accepted as Palythoa mammillosa (Ellis & Solander, 1786)
Species Palythoa norvegica Koren & Danielssen accepted as Epizoanthus norvegicus (Koren & Danielssen, 1877)
Species Palythoa nymphaea (Lesueur) accepted as Zoanthus nymphaeus (Lesueur, 1817) accepted as Zoanthus pulchellus (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860)
Species Palythoa ocellata (Ellis & Solander, 1786) accepted as Palythoa mammillosa (Ellis & Solander, 1786)
Species Palythoa riisei (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860) accepted as Palythoa heilprini (Verrill, 1900)
Species Palythoa stellata Lamouroux, 1821 accepted as Palythoa mammillosa (Ellis & Solander, 1786)
Species Palythoa swiftii Duchassaing accepted as Parazoanthus swiftii (Duchassaing de Fonbressin & Michelotti, 1860)
Species Palythoa tuberculata accepted as Isaurus tuberculatus Gray, 1828

Species Palythoa axinellae Schmidt, 1862 represented as Parazoanthus axinellae (Schmidt, 1862)
Species Palythoa canariense Wirtz, 1995 represented as Palythoa canariensis Haddon & Duerden, 1896
Species Palythoa coesia Milne Edwards, 1857 represented as Palythoa caesia Dana, 1846
Species Palythoa couchi Fischer, 1874 represented as Epizoanthus couchii (Johnston in Couch, 1844)
Species Palythoa marioni Jourdan, 1880 represented as Epizoanthus marioni (Jourdan, 1880)

Subgenus Palythoa (Corticifera) (uncertain > unassessed)
Subgenus Palythoa (Endotheia) (uncertain > unassessed)
  » Species Palythoa (Endotheia) norvegica (uncertain > unassessed)
Subgenus Palythoa (Gemmaria) (uncertain > unassessed)
Subgenus Palythoa (Protopalythoa) (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa anduzii (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860) (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa anthoplax Pax & Müller, 1957 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa auricula (Lesueur, 1817) (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa brevis Andres, 1883 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa caespitosa Endean, 1982 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum, likely misspelling; likely unaccepted.)
Species Palythoa casigneta Walsh, 1967 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa distans (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1866) (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa dubiae Walsh, 1967 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa eupaguri Marion, 1882 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa fulva Walsh, 1967 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa fulva (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa gigantea Cubit & Williams, 1983 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa glomerata Marion, 1906 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa lithosphaera Pax, 1924 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa lutea (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa mamillata (Ellis & Solander) (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa margaritae Carlgren, 1940 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa mcmurrichi (Haddon & Shackleton, 1891) (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa ochyra Pax, 1909 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa olbrechtsi F. Pax, 1952 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa olivascens Brandt, 1835 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa osculata Lamouroux (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa paguricola Roule, 1900 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa pazi Carlgren, 1951 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa perii Audouin, 1826 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa plana (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860) (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa poeciloderma F. Pax & I. Müller, 1956 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa praelonga Carlgren, 1951 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa projecta Carlgren, 1937 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa pseudo-braunsi F. Pax, 1952 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa rickettsi Carlgren, 1951 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa rubra W. Koch, 1886 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa rubricornis Koren & Danielssen (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa sansibarica Carlgren, 1900 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa savignyi Audouin, 1826 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa seychellarum Pax, 1909 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa singaporensis Pax & Müller, 1956 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa skottsbergii Carlgren, 1922 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa sociatus (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa sphaerimorpha Pax, 1909 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa sulcata Gosse (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa thalassoplecta F. Pax, 1952 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa titanophila Pax & Müller, 1957 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa townsleyi Walsch & Bowers (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa tubulifera Carlgren (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa univittata Lorenz (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa vanikorensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa vincentina Carlgren, 1939 (uncertain > unassessed)
Species Palythoa violacea Brüggemann, 1879 (uncertain > nomen dubium)
Species Palythoa viridifusca (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
Species Palythoa viridis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) (uncertain > taxon inquirendum)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
Lamouroux, J. V. F. (1816). Histoire des polypiers coralligènes flexibles, vulgairement nommés zoophytes. <em>F. Poisson, Caen.</em> i-lxxxiv, 1-558, pls. I-XIX., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11606092
page(s): 359-361 [details]  OpenAccess publication 
Reimer, J.; Sinniger, F. (2022). World List of Zoantharia. Palythoa Lamouroux, 1816. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=205785 on 2022-12-04
Date
action
by
2004-06-06 22:00:00Z
created
2010-04-03 03:54:16Z
changed
2011-10-04 13:36:00Z
changed
2019-09-13 14:37:42Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description Lamouroux, J. V. F. (1816). Histoire des polypiers coralligènes flexibles, vulgairement nommés zoophytes. <em>F. Poisson, Caen.</em> i-lxxxiv, 1-558, pls. I-XIX., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11606092
page(s): 359-361 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Protopalythoa Verrill, 1900) Verrill, A. E. (1900). Additions to the Anthozoa and Hydrozoa of the Bermudas. <em>In: Verrill, A. E., Zoology of the Bermudas, 1903.</em> 551-572 + 3 plates. [details]   

additional source Vine, P. (1986). Red Sea Invertebrates. Immel Publishing, London. 224 pp. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 51 [details]   

additional source Colin, P.L.; Arneson, C. (1995). Tropical Pacific Invertebrates. A fieldGuide to the Marine Invertebrates Occurring on Tropical Pacific Coral Reefs, Seagrass Beds and Mangroves. <em>Coral Reef Press: Irvine, USA.</em> 1-296.
page(s): 122-125 [details]   

additional source Hyman, L.H., 1940. The Invertebrates: Protozoa through Ctenophora. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York and London : i-xii, 1-726.
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additional source Mariscal, R.N., 1974. Nematocysts. In: L. Muscatine & H.M. Lenhoff, eds, Coelenterate Biology. Reviews and new perspectives : 129-178.
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additional source Weill, R., 1934. Contribution à l'étude des Cnidaires et de leurs nématocystes. II. Valeur taxonomique du cnidôme. Trav. Stn zool. Wimereux 11 : 349-701.
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additional source Gravely, F.H., 1941. Shells and other animal remains found on the Madras beach. I. Groups other than snails, etc. (Mollusca Gastropoda). Bull. Madras Govt Mus., n. ser., nat. Hist. 5 1: 1-112.
page(s): 16 [details]   

additional source Muscatine, L., 1974. Endosymbiosis of cnidarians and algae. In: L. Muscatine & H.M. Lenhoff, eds, Coelenterate Biology. Reviews and new perspectives : 359-395.
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additional source Reed, S.A., 1971. Some common Coelenterates in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. In: H.M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine & L.V. Davis, eds, Experimental Coelenterate Biology : 37-51.
page(s): 47, 49 [details]   

additional source Reimer, A.A., 1971. Observations on the relationships between several species of tropical zoanthids (Zoanthidea, Coelenterata) and their zooxanthellae. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 7 : 207-214.
page(s): 207, 208-211, 212, 213 [details]   

additional source Trench, R.K. & R.J. Blank. (1987). Symbiodinium microadriaticum Freudenthal, S. goreauii sp. nov., S. kawagutii sp. nov. and S. pilosum sp. nov.: gymnodinioid dinoflagellate symbionts of marine invertebrates. <em>J. Phycol.</em> 23: 469-481.
page(s): 477 [details]   

additional source Gosse, P.H., 1860. Actinologia Britannica. A history of the British sea-anemones and corals. London: Van Voorst : pp. i-xl, 1-362.
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additional source Daly, M.M., Fautin D.G., Cappola V.A., 2003. Systematics of the Hexacorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 139 3: 419-437.
page(s): 424-425, 427-428 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Ryland, J.S., Brasseur M.M., Lancaster J.E., 2004. Use of cnidae in taxonomy: implications from a study of Acrozoanthus australiae (Hexacorallia, Zoanthidea). Journal of Natural History 38 : 1193-1223.
page(s): 1195 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Brattström, H. (1980). Rocky-shore zonation in the Santa Marta area, Colombia. <em>Sarsia.</em> 65: 163-226.
page(s): 172, 175, 183, 184, 185, 186, 198, 204, 208, 209, 210, 215 [details]   

additional source Cubit, John and Williams, Suelynn 1983. The invertebrates of Galeta Reef (Caribbean Panama): a species list and bibliography. Atoll Research Bulletin 269: 1-45.
page(s): 9 [details]   

additional source Brattström, Hans 1985. Rocky-shore zonation on the Atlantic coast of Panama. Sarsia 70: 179-216.
page(s): 181, 182, 189, 194, 195, 197, 201, 209, 210 [details]   

additional source Stephenson, T. A., Stephenson, Anne, Tandy, G. and Spender, N. 1931. The structure and ecology of Low Isles and other reefs. Great Barrier Reef Expedition Scientific Reports 3(2): 17-112.
page(s): 65, 67, 72, 84, 86, 88, 106 [details]   

additional source Stephenson, William, Endean, R. and Bennett, Isobel 1958. An ecological survey of the marine fauna of Low Isles, Queensland. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 9(2): 261-318.
page(s): 267, 284, 286, 288, 293, 300, 311 [details]   

additional source Robertson, A.L., J. Lancaster, L.R. Belyea & A.G. Hildrew. (1997). Hydraulic habitat and the assemblage structure of stream benthic microcrustacea. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16(3):562-575.
page(s): 246-248 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Reimer JD, Sinniger F, Fujiwara Y, Hirano S, Maruyama T. 2007. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Abyssoanthus nankaiensis, a new family, new genus and new species of deep-sea zoanthid (Anthozoa:Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) from a north-west Pacific methane cold seep
page(s): 257, 260, 261 [details]   

additional source Burnett WJ, Benzie JAH, Beardmore JA, Ryland JS. 1997. Zoanthids (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) from the Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait, Australia: systematics, evolution and a key to species. Coral Reefs 16: 55-68.
page(s): 55-67 [details]   

additional source Grygier, M.J. 1985. Lauridae: taxonomy and morphology of ascothoracid crustacean parasites of zoanthids. Bulletin of Marine Science 36 (2): 278-303.
page(s): 278, 288 [details]   

additional source Grygier, M.J. 1991. Additions to the ascothoracidan fauna of Australia and South-east Asia (Crustacea, Maxillopoda): Synagogidae (part), Lauridae and Petrarcidae. Records of the Australian Museum 43: 1-46.
page(s): 30 [details]   

additional source Grygier, M.J. 1996. A world list of coral reef-associated Ascothoracida (Crustacea), with remarks on Lauridae, Petrarcidae, and Dendrogastridae from Okinawa, Japan. Galaxea 13: 15-33.
page(s): 15, 16, 17, 21 [details]   

additional source Itô, T. & Grygier, M.J. 1990. Description and complete larval development of a new species of Baccalaureus (Crustacea: Ascothoracida) parasitic in a zoanthid from Tanabe Bay, Honshu, Japan. Zoological Science 7 (3): 485-515.
page(s): 498 [details]   

additional source Van Beneden, E. (1897). Les Anthozoaires de la Plankton-Expedition = Die Anthozoen der Plankton-Expedition. Ergebnisse der in dem Atlantischen Ocean von Mitte Juli bis Anfang November 1889 ausgeführten Plankton-Expedition der Humboldt-Stiftung, II. K.e.. Lipsius & Tischer: Kiel. 222 + XVIII plates pp. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 161, 163 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1937). Ceriantharia and Zoantharia. <em>Scientific Reports of the Great Barrier Reef Expedition 1928-29.</em> 5(5): 177-207.
page(s): 183, 194 [details]   

additional source Amaral, F. D., Hudson, M. M., Steiner, A. Q., & Ramos, C. A. C. 2007. Corals and calcified hydroids of the Manuel Luiz Marine State Park (State of Maranhao, northeast Brazil). Biota Neotropica 7: 73-81.
page(s): 7 [details]   

additional source Cairns, S.D.; Gershwin, L.; Brook, F.J.; Pugh, P.; Dawson, E.W.; Ocaña O.V.; Vervoort, W.; Williams, G.; Watson, J.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Schuchert, P.; Hine, P.M.; Gordon, D.P.; Campbell, H.J.; Wright, A.J.; Sánchez, J.A.; Fautin, D.G. (2009). Phylum Cnidaria: corals, medusae, hydroids, myxozoans. <em>in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia.</em> pp. 59-101., available online at https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/8431 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Carlgren, O. (1923). Ceriantharia und Zoantharia der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. <em>Deutsche Tiefsee-Expedition 1898-1899.</em> 19(7): 243-337.
page(s): 256-257 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1900). Ostafrikanische Actinien. Gesammelt von Herrn Dr. F. Stuhlmann 1888 und 1889. <em>Mittheilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum.</em> 17: 21-144.
page(s): 129-130 [details]   

additional source Sinniger, F.; Reimer, J.D.; Pawlowski, J. (2010). The Parazoanthidae (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) DNA taxonomy: description of two new genera. Marine Biodiversity, 40(1), 57-70.
page(s): 59, 60, 63, 65 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1911). Aktinien der Aru-Inseln. <em>Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft.</em> 33: 297-304., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/37103285
page(s): 300 [details]   

additional source Holdsworth, E.W.H. (1858). On Zoanthus couchii, Johnston. <i>Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London</i>. Part XXVI:557-560.
page(s): 558 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1972). Etude systématique de quelques zoanthaires tempérés et tropicaux. <em>Tethys.</em> Supplement 3, pp. 69-156.
page(s): 69, 72, 75, 76, 78, 80, 82, 109, 142, 145 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Sinniger, F.; Montoya-Burgos, J. I.; Chevaldonné, P.; Pawlowski, J. (2005). Phylogeny of the order Zoantharia (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) based on the mitochondrial ribosomal genes. <em>Marine Biology.</em> 147(5): 1121-1128., available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-005-0016-3
page(s): 1124, 1125, 1126 [details]   

additional source Verrill AE. (1869). Synopsis of the polyps and corals of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under Commodore C. Ringgold and Capt. John Rodgers, U.S.N., from 1853 to 1856. Collected by Dr. Wm. Stimpson, Naturalist to the Expedition. <em>Communications of the Essex Institute, Salem.</em> 6 (1): 51-104, pls. 1-2., available online at https://doi.org/10.1086/270634
page(s): 102 [68] [details]   

additional source Klunzinger, C. B. (1877). Die Korallthiere des Rothen Meeres. 1: Die Alcyonarien und Malacodermen. <em>Gutmann'schen Buchhandlung. Berlin.</em> pp. 98., available online at https://books.google.com/books/about/Die_Korallenthiere_des_rothen_Meeres.html?id=MxJXkgAACAAJ
page(s): 64 [details]   

additional source Walsh, G. E.; Bowers, R. L. (1971). A review of Hawaiian zoanthids with descriptions of three new species. <em>Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.</em> 50(2): 161-180., available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1971.tb00757.x
page(s): 164 [details]   

additional source Saville-Kent, W. (1897). The naturalist in Australia. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. i-xv, 1-302, pls. 1-50, chromo plates 1-9.
page(s): 224 [details]   

additional source Hertwig, R. (1888). Report on the Actiniaria dredged by HMS 'Challenger' during the years 1873-1876. Supplement. <em>Reports on the scientific results of the voyage of HMS Challenger during the years 1873-76.</em> XXVI, pt. LXXIII: 4–56. London, Edinburgh & Dublin., available online at https://archive.org/details/reportonactiniar00hert/page/16
page(s): 35, 46, 48, 49 [details]   

additional source Milne Edwards H,. (1857). Histoire naturelle des coralliaires, ou polypes proprement dits. 1. <em>Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris.</em> 326 pp., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12045211
page(s): 299, 301 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Reimer, J. D.; Ono, S.; Takishita, K.; Tsukahara, J.; Maruyama, T. (2006). Molecular Evidence Suggesting Species in the Zoanthid Genera Palythoa and Protopalythoa (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) Are Congeneric. <em>Zoological Science.</em> 23(1): 87-94., available online at https://doi.org/10.2108/zsj.23.87
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 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
Nontype USNM 210851, geounit French Polynesian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
LanguageName 
English pavement coral  [details]