ICZM and Integrated Coastal Area and River Basin Management== |+|
|−|[[Image:river.jpg|thumb|250px|right|A river basin]] | |
| || |
provides an introduction to the links between coastal and river basin management. Understanding the physical and ecological structure and related physical and biological processes as they operate across the marine and coastal/terrestrial boundaries is central to the development of sensitive management policies. |+|
This article to and . is to the of .
| || |
|−|'''ICZM and Integrated Water Resources Management''' |+|
| || |
|−|[[ICZM]] and [[IWRM]] are special cases of [[environmental planning]]. ICZM refers to a “dynamic and continuous process of administering the use, development and protection of the coastal zone and its resources towards common objectives of national and local authorities and the aspiration of different resource user groups” (Knecht and Archer, 1993). ICZM refers to coastal resources management in a way that recognizes interdependencies and interaction; to sectoral planning and coordination of activities in a way that recognizes interaction between socio- economic and natural environment; to an integrated spatial consideration of the coastal zone which identifies interdependencies between the critical coastal zone and the development of a broader area. |+|
of the -. the of water . in .
|−|IWRM is an environmental planning process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water , land and related natural resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems (Global Water Partnership, 2000). In Europe, the [[Water Framework Directive]] (WFD) emphasises long-term IWRM at the river basin level and it positions stakeholder negotiation and public participation as central in the planning process. | |
Revision as of 15:42, 9 June 2008
This article discusses two types of analysers to measure nutrients: a wet chemical analyser and an optical nitrate analyser. A nutrient analyser is an example of an oceanographic instrument to measure the concentration of certain nutrients (e.g. nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate and silicate) in situ.
Nutrient analysers are oceanographic instruments to measure the concentration of certain nutrients in situ. While most measurements of nutrients are still made by taking water samples for later analysis in the lab a variety of in situ instruments has become available that automatically measure nutrient concentrations at pre-programmed intervals. These instruments allow a much higher temporal resolution of measurements than what can be achieved by taking samples.
Most of the nutrient analysers are based on proven wet-chemical laboratory analysis methods. In recent years nitrate analysers based on the absorbance of ultraviolet light by nitrate in water have been introduced. Both are discussed in this article.