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(Acoustic kelp bed mapping in shallow rocky coasts - case study Helgoland (North Sea))
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==ALGADEC - Detection of toxic algae with a semi-automated nucleic acid biosensor==
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==Acoustic kelp bed mapping in shallow rocky coasts - case study Helgoland (North Sea)==
[[Image:ALGADEC_1.jpg|thumb|left|'''Figure 1''' Bloom of ''Noctiluca scintillas'' in October 2002, Leigh, New Zealand.]]
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[[Image:Kelp_bed_mapping_1.jpg|thumb|right|'''Figure 1''' Aspect of the kelp forest off Helgoland. The main structuring species is the brown alga ''Laminaria hyperborea'' which grows to a length of approx. 1-2 m and provides shelter and substrate for many other species. Foto: C. Wanke, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland.]]
  
Microalgae are the major producers of [[Biomass|biomass]] and organic compounds in the aquatic environment. Among the marine microalgae there are 97 toxic species (mainly dinoflagellates) known to have the potential to form "[[Harmful_algal_blooms|Harmful Algal Blooms]]", the so called HABs (Fig. 1).  
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Kelp beds are named after their habitat structuring organisms which are perennial brown macroalgae of several metres length, living submersed in the light penetrated zone of temperate and polar rocky shores (Fig. 1). Kelps provide substrate, food and protection for hundreds of different marine fishes, invertebrates, or other macroalgal species. A change or loss will have drastic consequences for coastal ecosystems.
In recent decades, the public health and economic impacts of toxic algae species appear to have increased in frequency, intensity and geographic distribution (Zingone and Enevoldsen, 2000<ref name="Z&E">Zingone, A. & Enevoldsen, H.O. (2000). The diversity of harmful algal blooms: a challenge for science and management. Ocean & coastal management, 43, 725-748.</ref>, Daranas et al., 2001<ref name="D">Daranas A. H., Norte M. and Fernandez, J. J. (2001). Toxic marine microalgae, Toxicon, 39, 1101-1132.</ref>, Hallegraeff, 2003<ref name="H">Hallegraeff G. M. (2003). Harmful algal blooms: a global overview. In G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (Eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae (pp. 25-49). United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.</ref>, Moestrup, 2004.<ref name="M"> Moestrup, O. (2004). IOC Taxonomic Reference list of Toxic Algae. In O. Moestrup (Ed.), IOC taxonomic reference list of toxic algae. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the UNESCO.</ref>). In order to minimise the damage to human health or living resources, such as shellfish and fish, as well as economic losses to fishermen, aquaculture and the tourist industry, efficient [[State of the Art Overview on Field Observation Techniques (Theme 9)|monitoring methods]] are required for monitoring potentially toxic algal species (identification and quantification) (Andersen et al., 2003.<ref name="A"> Andersen P., Enevoldsen H. and Anderson, D.M. (2003). Harmful algal monitoring programme and action plan design. In G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (Eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae (pp. 627-647). United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.</ref>).
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In order to detect toxic algae in the field, a portable semi-automated nucleic acid biosensor was developed in the ALGADEC project www.algadec.net. This device enables the electrochemical detection of microalgae from water samples in less than two hours, without the need of expensive equipment.
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In recent years worldwide reports of changing kelp beds have been published (Japan: Kirihara et al., 2006<ref name="K">Kirihara, S., Nakamura, T., Kon, N., Fujita, D. & Notoya, M. (2006). Recent fluctuations in distribution and biomass of cold and warm temperate species of Laminarialean algae at Cape Ohma, northern Honshu, Japan. J Applied Phycol., 18, 521-527.</ref>, Norway: Moy et al., 2003<ref name="M">Moy, F., Aure, J., Dahl, E., Green, N., Johnsen, T.M., Lømsland, E.R., Magnusson, J., Omli, L., Olsgaard, F., Oug, E., Pedersen, A., Rygg, B. & Walday, M.(2003). Landtidsovervåking av miljøkvaliteten i kystområdene av Norge. Årsrapport for 2002, 1-69.</ref>, France: Cosson, 1999<ref name="C">Cosson, J. (1999). Sur la disparition progressive de ''Laminaria digitata'' sur les côtes du Calvados (France). Cryptogamie Algol, 20, 35-42.</ref>, Australia: Australian Marine Conservation Society [http://weblink www.amcs.org.au/]). In Europe, including Helgoland (Gehling & Bartsch, submitted<ref name="GB">Gehling, C. & Bartsch, I.(submitted). Changes in depth distribution and biomass of sublittoral seaweeds at Helgoland (North Sea) between 1970 and 2005. Submitted to Climate Research.  
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</ref>), there is evidence of a biomass decrease and/or change in depth distribution of some species. As the marine protected area off Helgoland is the only rocky area within the southern North Sea, this habitat is extremely important. Spatial information on the extent of the prevailing kelp beds is urgently needed as a baseline from which to judge future changes. This led to the current case study.

Revision as of 11:09, 8 July 2008

Acoustic kelp bed mapping in shallow rocky coasts - case study Helgoland (North Sea)

Figure 1 Aspect of the kelp forest off Helgoland. The main structuring species is the brown alga Laminaria hyperborea which grows to a length of approx. 1-2 m and provides shelter and substrate for many other species. Foto: C. Wanke, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland.

Kelp beds are named after their habitat structuring organisms which are perennial brown macroalgae of several metres length, living submersed in the light penetrated zone of temperate and polar rocky shores (Fig. 1). Kelps provide substrate, food and protection for hundreds of different marine fishes, invertebrates, or other macroalgal species. A change or loss will have drastic consequences for coastal ecosystems.

In recent years worldwide reports of changing kelp beds have been published (Japan: Kirihara et al., 2006[1], Norway: Moy et al., 2003[2], France: Cosson, 1999[3], Australia: Australian Marine Conservation Society www.amcs.org.au/). In Europe, including Helgoland (Gehling & Bartsch, submitted[4]), there is evidence of a biomass decrease and/or change in depth distribution of some species. As the marine protected area off Helgoland is the only rocky area within the southern North Sea, this habitat is extremely important. Spatial information on the extent of the prevailing kelp beds is urgently needed as a baseline from which to judge future changes. This led to the current case study.
  1. Kirihara, S., Nakamura, T., Kon, N., Fujita, D. & Notoya, M. (2006). Recent fluctuations in distribution and biomass of cold and warm temperate species of Laminarialean algae at Cape Ohma, northern Honshu, Japan. J Applied Phycol., 18, 521-527.
  2. Moy, F., Aure, J., Dahl, E., Green, N., Johnsen, T.M., Lømsland, E.R., Magnusson, J., Omli, L., Olsgaard, F., Oug, E., Pedersen, A., Rygg, B. & Walday, M.(2003). Landtidsovervåking av miljøkvaliteten i kystområdene av Norge. Årsrapport for 2002, 1-69.
  3. Cosson, J. (1999). Sur la disparition progressive de Laminaria digitata sur les côtes du Calvados (France). Cryptogamie Algol, 20, 35-42.
  4. Gehling, C. & Bartsch, I.(submitted). Changes in depth distribution and biomass of sublittoral seaweeds at Helgoland (North Sea) between 1970 and 2005. Submitted to Climate Research.