|(183 intermediate revisions by 4 users not shown)|
=Effects of fisheries on European marine biodiversity== |+|
and marine '''
Image: food web competion.jpg| thumb|250px|right| Food- web competition: top predators (such as marine mammals) and fisheries may not directly compete (because they consume different species) but could indirectly affected by fisheries, because of limits on the primary productivity available to support the two groups. SOURCE: Reprinted from: Trites A.W., Christensen V. & Pauly D. (1997). Competition between fisheries and marine mammals for prey and primary production in the Pacific Ocean. ' 'Journal of Northwestern Atlantic Fishery Science'' 22: 173–187.]] |+|
for and an the of . for and the and . The of the and , , . The of .
|−|Fishing is the most widespread human exploitative activity in the marine environment. Pauly and Christenen (1995) estimated that over 20 % of the [[primary production]] is required to sustain fisheries in many intensively fished coastal ecosystems.< ref name=" Pauly1995"> Pauly, D. & Christensen, V.(1995). Primary production required to sustain global fisheries. ''Nature'' 374: 255-257.</ ref> |+|
|−|Fishing has a number of direct effects on marine ecosystems because it is responsible for increasing mortality of target and [[by-catch]] species; an important physical impact on the habitat of benthic organisms is caused by [http://en. wikipedia.org/wiki/Bottom_trawling bottom trawling]. The direct effects of fishing have indirect implications for other species as well. Fisheries remove prey that [[piscivorous]] fishes, birds and mammals would otherwise consume, or may remove predators that would otherwise control prey populations. Reductions in the density of some species may affect competitive interactions and result in the proliferation of non-target species. The activities of fisheries also favor scavengers, they obtain more food by the discarded by-catch and because a range of species are killed, but not retained by towed gears.<ref name="Jennings1998">Jennings, S.& Kaiser, M. (1998). The effects of fishing on marine ecosystems. ''Adv. Mar. Biol.'' 34: 201-352.</ ref> | |
Latest revision as of 15:52, 8 April 2016
Compendium for Coast and Sea - creating a marine science-policy interface
The Compendium for Coast and Sea is an integrated knowledge document about the socio-economic, environmental and institutional aspects of the coast and sea in Flanders and Belgium. As such, it constitutes a one-stop shop for data and information from the Flemish and Belgian marine and maritime research community and experts. The Compendium for Coast and Sea is an initiative of the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ) and was developed in close collaboration with experts from the research community, government, industry and civil society organisations. The first version of the Compendium was launched in 2013, a second edition was presented in 2015.