Bathymetry from inverse wave refraction== |+|
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Image: 01_echosoundings_enc.jpg|thumb| 350px| right| Bathymetry of area of investigation acquired by multibeam echosounder.]] |+|
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|−|It is possible to determine the [[ bathymetry]] of a certain area using radar data. On the Island of Sylt at the German Bight Coast, measurements are done during storm conditions. This data is processed based on inversion of the non- linear and linear wave theory. More about the area of investigation, data processing, result and discussion of the results can be found in the article. |+|
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|−|The determination of the [[ bathymetry]] in coastal environments by utilizing the ocean wave-shoaling photographic imagery, and the observed reduction of ocean wave phase speed with decreased water depth, is used since the WW- II ( Williams 1946)<ref> Williams, W. W. 1946, The determination of gradients of enemy-held beaches. Geographical Journal 107, 76–93.</ref> . The last decade, with the expansion of different ground based instrumentations, mainly radar and video imagery, for the observation of the sea surface and the exponential increase of the computational power, several methodologies for the [[bathymetry]] reckoning have been published. The core of the previously mentioned methods is the inversion of the wave characteristics by assuming the validity of linear or non-linear models for the propagation of the wavefield over uneven sea bottom. |+|
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|−|In the present investigation, twelve hourly radar datasets acquired during storm conditions are analyzed by two methods: The non-linear method of Bell et al. 2004<ref name=" bell"/> (henceforth BW04), which is based on the inversion of the non-linear [[ Dispersion (waves )|wave dispersion]] equation of Hedges ( 1976)<ref> Hedges, T. S. 1976, An empirical modification to linear wave theory, Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng., 61, pp. 575-579.</ref> and the Dispersive Surface Classificator (henceforth DiSC08), Senet et al. 2008<ref name="sen"/> , which is based on the inversion of the linear wave theory. The results are validated as bathymetric retrieving instruments and the two wave propagation theories are compared about their sensitivity to the local bathymetric relief. The two methods are compared under the assumption of fundamentally similar implemented algorithms. |+|
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This article describes the habitat of the Mangrove forests. It is one of the sub-categories within the section dealing with biodiversity of marine habitats and ecosystems. It gives an overview about the characteristics, distribution, biota, functioning and adaptation to general problems the organisms are facing with. A short discussion about the threats is also present.
Mangroves are the only trees that are capable of thriving in salt water. They form unique intertidal forests at the edge of land and sea. They are represented on all continents with tropical and subtropical coasts, i.e. North and South America, Africa and Middle-East, Asia and Oceania (incl. Australia). 
Mangrove forests or mangals are a type of intertidal wetland ecosystems. The word mangrove is derived from the Portugese word mangue which means “tree” and the English word grove which is used for trees and shrubs that are found in shallow, sandy or muddy areas.  They replace Salt marshes in tropical and subtropical regions.
They are salt-tolerant forested wetlands at the sea-land interface which forms the link between the terrestrial landscapes and the marine environment. The dominant plants are several species of mangrove (for a species overview, check the Mangrove Species Database ).
Mangroves are woody trees and shrubs with a thick, partially exposed network of roots that grow down from the branches into the water and sediment. They occur where there is little wave action and where sediments accumulate. These fine grained (muddy and sandy) sediments lack oxygen. 
They are frequently associated with saline lagoons
and are regularly found on protected sides of islands, atolls
and tropical estuaries