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(Application of breakwaters)
(Classification of coastal profiles)
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==Application of breakwaters==
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==Classification of coastal profiles==
  
[[Image:artifical headland.jpg|250px|thumb|Optimisation of coastal breakwater to artificial headland, applicable for moderately exposed to exposed coasts for small angles of incidence.]]
 
  
Breakwaters aim to protect a coast or activities along the [[coastline]] (e.g. ports, ship wharf) from wave action. Different types of breakwaters exist, from which [[detached breakwater]]s are the most common type of breakwater. This article provides a general introduction of breakwaters and describes submerged or low-crested breakwaters, floating breakwaters and special type breakwaters. The characteristics and application of [[detached breakwater|detached breakwaters]] are described in other articles: [[Detached breakwaters]], [[Applicability of detached breakwaters]] and [[Detached shore parallel breakwaters]]. 
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[[Image:exposed littoral a.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 1a. Typical exposed littoral dune coast, the Danish North Sea Coast]]
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[[Image:exposed littoral b.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 1b. Corresponding wave height distribution.]]
  
Breakwater schemes have many variables, which determine the impact on the shoreline. The variable parameters are outlined in the following:
 
*Emerged, submerged or floating
 
*Distance from shoreline and location relative to the [[surf zone]]
 
*Length and orientation
 
*Single or segmented
 
*Special shapes
 
  
There are further descriptions in the article [[Detached breakwaters]] for combinations of all these parameters.
 
  
A shoreline management breakwater serves two purposes:
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This page gives an overview of the existing types of coastal profiles around the world. Their classification, as given below, is based on the material present at the specific location and size of the water bodies at the location. The wave and wind conditions are related to the size of water body present and the wind and wave climate at the location. Several characteristics of the coastal profiles are mentioned. Links to articles with a detailed description of a coastal profile can be found in the see also paragraph.
*To provide shelter from the [[waves]]
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*Through this shelter, to manipulate the littoral transport conditions and thereby to trap some sand
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The [[theoretical equilibrium profile]] is often recognised in the real coastal profiles, but deviations often occur due to variations in the seabed material and the presence of bars and due to the influence of tide, etc. Another reason can be that the actual profile has not yet reached the [[equilibrium profile|equilibrium shape]], which is important information in relation to the analysis of the predominant processes at a specific site. Rocky coastlines that exist adjacent to littoral coastal profiles have only a minor influence on the coastal profile but may have a major influence on the shape and stability of the shoreline.

Revision as of 11:06, 12 January 2009

Classification of coastal profiles

Fig. 1a. Typical exposed littoral dune coast, the Danish North Sea Coast
Fig. 1b. Corresponding wave height distribution.


This page gives an overview of the existing types of coastal profiles around the world. Their classification, as given below, is based on the material present at the specific location and size of the water bodies at the location. The wave and wind conditions are related to the size of water body present and the wind and wave climate at the location. Several characteristics of the coastal profiles are mentioned. Links to articles with a detailed description of a coastal profile can be found in the see also paragraph.

The theoretical equilibrium profile is often recognised in the real coastal profiles, but deviations often occur due to variations in the seabed material and the presence of bars and due to the influence of tide, etc. Another reason can be that the actual profile has not yet reached the equilibrium shape, which is important information in relation to the analysis of the predominant processes at a specific site. Rocky coastlines that exist adjacent to littoral coastal profiles have only a minor influence on the coastal profile but may have a major influence on the shape and stability of the shoreline.