approach to Coastal Zone Management== |+|
==The Integrated Coastal Zone Management ==
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Beach. JPG|thumb| Different uses of the coast (housing, tourism).]] |+|
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|−|Being the interface between the land and the ocean, coastal areas are affected by highly dynamic processes. Coastal spaces also support unique and especially fragile ecosystems, being areas of great environmental and aesthetic value. |+|
the between the and the coastalof .
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|−|For instance, eight of the forty priority habitats listed in the [[ Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora Directive]] are coastal. Approximately a third of the Union's wetlands are located on the coast, as well as more than thirty per cent of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_Protection_Areas Special Protection Areas] designated under the [http://ec. europa.eu/environment /nature/nature_conservation/focus_wild_birds/factsheet/index_en.htm Conservation of Wild Birds Directive]. (For more information on these Directives see [[Bird Directive, Habitat Directive, NATURA 2000]]) |+|
[[and of ]]. a of the , of the the . environmentof .
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|−|These coastal ecosystems tend to also have very high biological productivity. The reproduction and nursery grounds of most fish and shellfish species of economic value are in the coastal strip, and a significant proportion of the catch of these species comes from this area. |+|
and of and economic in the , and the .
Revision as of 13:53, 27 May 2008
The rise of Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Integrated Coastal Area and River Basin Management
This article provides an introduction to the links between coastal and river basin management. Understanding the physical and ecological structure and related physical and biological processes as they operate across the marine and coastal/terrestrial boundaries is central to the development of sensitive management policies.
Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Integrated Water Resources Management
ICZM and IWRM are special cases of environmental planning. ICZM refers to a “dynamic and continuous process of administering the use, development and protection of the coastal zone and its resources towards common objectives of national and local authorities and the aspiration of different resource user groups” (Knecht and Archer, 1993). ICZM refers to coastal resources management in a way that recognizes interdependencies and interaction; to sectoral planning and coordination of activities in a way that recognizes interaction between socio-economic and natural environment; to an integrated spatial consideration of the coastal zone which identifies interdependencies between the critical coastal zone and the development of a broader area.
IWRM is an environmental planning process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related natural resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems (Global Water Partnership, 2000). In Europe, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) emphasises long-term IWRM at the river basin level and it positions stakeholder negotiation and public participation as central in the planning process.