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A list of all pages that have property "Definition" with value "An organism that feeds on animal tissue/meat". Since there have been only a few results, also nearby values are displayed.

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     (An organism that feeds on animal tissue/meat)
    • Traits:Carnivore  + (An organism that feeds on animal tissue/meat.)
    • Traits:Scavenger  + (An organism that feeds on carrion and organic refuse (e.g. crabs, whelks) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Saprophage  + (An organism that feeds on dead or decaying organic material (see Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Detritivore  + (An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter (detritus) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:SubsurfaceDepositFeeder  + (An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter within the substratum (e.g. ''Echinocardium cordatum'') (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:SurfaceDepositFeeder  + (An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter on the surface of the substratum (e.g. ''Corophium volutator'') (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:DepositFeeder  + (An organism that feeds on fragmented particulate organic matter within or on the substratum (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:ForestForming  + (An organism that forms a large area of close individuals forming a canopy (e.g. trees, large kelps).)
    • Traits:ReefBuilding  + (An organism that forms large areas of hard substratum for other organisms due to the scale of its aggregations (e.g. horse mussels), accretions (e.g. ''Sabellaria'') or its skeleton (e.g. corals).)
    • Traits:PursuitHunterCooperative  + (An organism that hunts in a team, pack, pod, flock, swarm etc)
    • Traits:Glider  + (An organism that is able to glide through the air (e.g. using some form of membrane) but cannot propel itself through the air (e.g. flying fish))
    • Traits:ParasiticFeeding  + (An organism that is intimately associated with, and metabolically dependant on another living organism, for completion of its life cycle, and which is detrimental to the host to a lesser or greater extent.)
    • Traits:Parasite  + (An organism that is intimately associated with, and metabolically dependent on, another organism (termed the host) for completion of its life cycle and which is detrimental to the host (see Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
    • Traits:Tubicolous  + (An organism that lives in a tube of its own construction (e.g. mucus, bound sand grains, Calcium carbonate etc).)
    • Traits:BedForming  + (An organism that lives in large aggregations or beds (e.g. brittlestars, mussels, oysters, ''Crepidula'' etc, sea squirts))
    • Traits:CrawlerWalkerClimber  + (An organism that moves across, up or down the substratum via movements of its legs, appendages or muscles (e.g. ''Carcinus'').)
    • Traits:Epipelic  + (An organism that moves over the surface of sediment or lives at the sediment / water interface.)
    • Traits:Creeper  + (An organism that moves slowly or 'creeps' across the surface of the substratum)
    • Traits:Burrower  + (An organism that moves through the substratum by burrowing or tunneling (e.g. earthworms, polychaetes).)
    • Traits:Swimmer  + (An organism that moves through the water column via movements of its cilia, flagella, fins, legs or appendages, via undulatory movements of the body or via jet propulsion (e.g. ''Gadus'', ''Loligo'').)
    • Traits:Photoautotroph  + (An organism that obtains metabolic energy from light by a photochemical process such as photosynthesis (e.g. seaweeds, phytoplankton) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Chemoautotroph  + (An organism that obtains metabolic energy from oxidation of inorganic substrates such as sulphur, nitrogen or iron (e.g. some micro-organisms) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Heterotroph  + (An organism that obtains nourishment from exogenous (external) organic material (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Substratum  + (An organism that provide substratum for specific other organisms, rarely found on other organisms, a ubiquitous relationship.)
    • Traits:Support  + (An organism that provides 'support' for other organisms, either as a host for a symbiote or parasite, or as substratum for epibiota.)
    • Traits:Host  + (An organism that provides food or shelter for another organisms, e.g. the inhabited symbiont. May be a definitive host infected by an adult stage or an intermediate host infected by life stages (see Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Lures  + (An organism that uses a lure to attract prey within range of its 'pounce' attack)
    • Traits:StunAttack  + (An organism that uses pulses of electricity or sound to stun prey (e.g. pistol shrimp))
    • Traits:Traps  + (An organism that uses traps such as sticky threads or webbing (e.g. spiders))
    • Traits:Omnivore  + (An organism which feeds on a mixed diet including plant and animal material (from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Herbivore  + (An organism which only feeds on plants, including phytoplankton.)
    • Traits:Drifter  + (An organism whose movement is dependent on wind or water currents (e.g. ''Aurelia'').)
    • Traits:Overhangs  + (An overhanging part of a rock formation. Typically the surface of the rock below the overhang receives some cover or shade from the overhang.)
    • Traits:GrazerSurfaceSubstratum  + (Animals that rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from the substratum (MarLIN; Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999).)
    • Traits:GrazerGrainsParticles  + (Animals that rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from inorganic particles e.g. sand grains (MarLIN; Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999).)
    • Traits:GrazerFrondsBlades  + (Animals that rasp benthic algae (or sessile animals, such as bryozoan crusts) from the surface of macroalgal fronds and blades (Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999).)
    • Traits:HabitatsDirectiveAnnexII  + (Annex II species (about 900): core areas of their habitat are designated as sites of Community importance (SCIs) and included in the Natura 2000 network. These sites must be managed in accordance with the ecological needs of the species.)
    • Traits:HabitatsDirectiveAnnexIV  + (Annex IV species (over 400, including many annex II species): a strict protection regime must be applied across their entire natural range within the EU, both within and outside Natura 2000 sites.)
    • Traits:HabitatsDirectiveAnnexV  + (Annex V species (over 90): Member States must ensure that their exploitation and taking in the wild is compatible with maintaining them in a favourable conservation status.)
    • Traits:Instar  + (Any intermoult stage in the development of an arthropod (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
    • Traits:OpenCoast  + (Any part of the coast not within a marine inlet, strait or lagoon, including offshore rocks and small islands. This includes MNCR types; linear coast, islands / rocks and semi-enclosed coast.)
    • Traits:Bedrock  + (Any stable hard substratum, not separated into boulders or smaller sediment units. Includes soft rock-types such as chalk, peat and clay. (Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999; MarLIN))
    • Traits:Setose  + (Appendages (arms, specialisted mothparts) used to capture suspended particulates)
    • Traits:GraspingClaws  + (Appendages bear grasping claws (chelae) - e.g. arthropods, crabs, scorpions)
    • Traits:Papillae  + (Appendages bear mucus laden papilae or tube feet (e.g. suspension feeding echinoderns, brittlestars, crinoids).)
    • Traits:Suctorial  + (Appendages that bear suckers on muscular arms to hold and subdue prey (e.g cephalopods))
    • Traits:CITESAppendixI  + (Appendix I lists species that are the mostAppendix I lists species that are the most endangered among CITES-listed animals and plants (see Article II, paragraph 1 of the Convention). They are threatened with extinction and CITES prohibits international trade in specimens of these species except when the purpose of the import is not commercial (see Article III), for instance for scientific research. In these exceptional cases, trade may take place provided it is authorized by the granting of both an import permit and an export permit (or re-export certificate). Article VII of the Convention provides for a number of exemptions to this general prohibition.of exemptions to this general prohibition.)
    • Traits:CITESAppendixII  + (Appendix II lists species that are not necAppendix II lists species that are not necessarily now threatened with extinction but that may become so unless trade is closely controlled. It also includes so-called "look-alike species", i.e. species whose specimens in trade look like those of species listed for conservation reasons (see Article II, paragraph 2 of the Convention). International trade in specimens of Appendix-II species may be authorized by the granting of an export permit or re-export certificate. No import permit is necessary for these species under CITES (although a permit is needed in some countries that have taken stricter measures than CITES requires). Permits or certificates should only be granted if the relevant authorities are satisfied that certain conditions are met, above all that trade will not be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild. (See Article IV of the Convention)e wild. (See Article IV of the Convention))
    • Traits:CITESAppendixIII  + (Appendix III is a list of species includedAppendix III is a list of species included at the request of a Party that already regulates trade in the species and that needs the cooperation of other countries to prevent unsustainable or illegal exploitation (see Article II, paragraph 3, of the Convention). International trade in specimens of species listed in this Appendix is allowed only on presentation of the appropriate permits or certificates. (See Article V of the Convention)ficates. (See Article V of the Convention))
    • Traits:Globose  + (Approximately spherical, ovoid or globular (Brusca, 1980).)
    • Traits:Stellate  + (Arranged like a star.)
    • Traits:Vegetative  + (Asexual reproduction via somatic growth processes, fragmentation, fission, or budding (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
    • Traits:AdultBody  + (Attached or stuck to adult but not held in specialised appendage / receptacle)
    • Traits:HardSubstrata  + (Attached or stuck to hard substrata, e.g. dog whelk capsules)
    • Traits:Vegetation  + (Attached or stuck to vegetation, e.g. opistobranchs, mermaid purses, cephalopod eggs etc.)
    • Traits:AttachedSediment  + (Attached to the sediment surface e.g. by mucilagenous sheath such as used by necklace shells, and opistobranchs)
    • Traits:MutualistMutualism  + (A symbiosis in which both organisms benefit; frequently a relationship of complete dependence. (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998) (cf.symbiosis, commensalism, parasite).)
    • Traits:BullateSaccate  + (Balloon or sac-like (Prescott, 1969).)
    • Traits:MidEulittoral  + (Barnacle - limpet dominated, sometimes mussels, with ''Fucus vesiculosus'' and ''Ascophyllum nodosum. Mastocarpus stellatus'' and ''Palmaria palmata'' patchy in lower part. Usually quite a wide belt (Hiscock, 1996).)
    • Traits:UpperEulittoral  + (Barnacles and limpets present in quantity with ''Fucus vesiculosus'' and ''Ascophyllum'' although often this belt has only sparse algal cover compared with the lower eulittoral (Hiscock, 1996).)
    • Traits:Tolerance  + (Based on AMBI)
    • Traits:Foliose  + (Bearing leaves or leaf-like structures; having the appearance of a leaf.)
    • Traits:Infaunal  + (Benthic animals which live within the seabed.)
    • Traits:Hovering  + (Bird/insect specific)
    • Traits:QuantitativeBodySize  + (Body size measured in numerical values.)
    • Traits:QualitativeBodySize  + (Body size measured in terms of mega, macro, meio/meso and micro.)
    • Traits:Broadcast  + (Both gametes are expelled (spawned) from the confines of the adult body or tissues, into the external fluid medium (water/air))
    • Traits:HaploidDiploid  + (Both haploid and diploid forms, with gametophytes giving rise to haploid gametes, and sporophytes giving rise to haploid spores by meiosis)
    • Traits:Monoecious  + (Both male and female reproductive organs in a single individual (animals) or flower (plants) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:PinnateBranching  + (Branched tentacles, used as filtration mechanism)
    • Traits:Dendroid  + (Branching irregularly – similar to that of a root system (Prescott, 1969).)
    • Traits:Pinnate  + (Branching like a feather – an elongate main axis with lateral branches or lobes (Prescott, 1969).)
    • Traits:Semelparous  + (Breeding once per lifetime, or breeding only once then dying (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006). Organisms that only have one brood during their lifetime (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:BiannualEpisodic  + (Breeds every second year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).)
    • Traits:AnnualEpisodic  + (Breeds every year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).)
    • Traits:AnnualProtracted  + (Breeds every year over an extended or drawn out period.)
    • Traits:Biannual  + (Breeds less frequently than every two years.)
    • Traits:BiannualProtracted  + (Breeds once every two years over an extended or drawn out period.)
    • Traits:Environment  + (Broad descriptors of the major environmental regions)
    • Traits:Penicillate  + (Brush like (Prescott ,1969).)
    • Traits:BodyAccretion  + (Build up or accumulation of sediment.)
    • Traits:Massive  + (Bulky (Homes, 1979).)
    • Traits:CITES  + (CITES (the Convention on International TraCITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Appendices I, II and III to the Convention are lists of species afforded different levels or types of protection from over-exploitation.ypes of protection from over-exploitation.)
    • Traits:HighMagnesiumCalcite  + (Calcite where more then 8wt.% CaCO3 is substituted by MgCO3.)
    • Traits:Mobile  + (Capable of movement)
    • Traits:PermanentHermaphrodite  + (Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).)
    • Traits:SelfFertilizing  + (Capable of self-fertilization)
    • Traits:Passive  + (Catching food on a filter held into flowing water (e.g. hydroids, sea fans, sea pens), or collecting the 'rain' of detritus on sticky apparatus other than a filter (e.g. Cucumaria frondosa, proboscis of echinurans) (MarLIN; Hiscock et al. 1999).)
    • Traits:StraitSound  + (Channels between the mainland and an island or between two islands which are open at both ends to the open coast (it does not refer to similar features or narrows within marine inlets).)
    • Traits:Bivalved  + (Characteristically a shell of two calcareous valves joined by a flexible ligament.)
    • Traits:Physiography  + (Coastal geomorphology and physical features.)
    • Traits:AnchialineCaves  + (Coastal salt water habitats with no surface connection to the sea.)
    • Traits:VerySheltered  + (Coasts with a fetch less than about 3 km where they face prevailing winds or about 20 km where they face away from prevailing winds, or which have offshore obstructions such as reefs or a narrow (<30°) open water window.)
    • Traits:Sheltered  + (Coasts with a restricted fetch and/or open water window. Coasts can face prevailing winds but with a short fetch (< 20 km) or extensive shallow area offshore, or may face away from prevailing winds.)
    • Traits:Ecological Descriptors  + (Collection of traits relating to species ecology)
    • Traits:SealAbundanceAndDistribution  + (Common in OSPAR Region II)
    • Traits:MarineMammalBycatch  + (Common in OSPAR Region II)
    • Traits:RecoveryInThePopulationAbundanceOfSensitiveFishSpecies  + (Common in OSPAR Region II, III)
    • Traits:ChangesInBiodiversityIndex  + (Common in OSPAR Region III)
    • Traits:TypicalSpeciesComposition  + (Common in OSPAR Region IV)
    • Traits:ChangeInAverageTrophicLevelOfMarinePredatorsInTheBayOfBiscay  + (Common in OSPAR Region IV)
    • Traits:GreySealPupProduction  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III)
    • Traits:ProportionOfLargeFish  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III)
    • Traits:ChangesInPlanktonFunctionalTypesIndexRatio  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
    • Traits:AbundanceAndDistributionOfMarineMammals  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
    • Traits:PlanktonBiomassAndOrAbundance  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
    • Traits:MarineBirdAbundance  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
    • Traits:TrendsInNewRecordsOfNonIndigenousSpeciesIntroducedByHumanActivities  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
    • Traits:MarineBirdBreedingSuccessFailure  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
    • Traits:SizeCompositionInFishCommunities  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
    • Traits:ConditionOfBenthicHabitatCommunities  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
    • Traits:ExtentOfPhysicalDamageToPredominantAndSpecialHabitats  + (Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV)
    • Traits:Conical  + (Cone shaped e.g. limpet-shaped, patelliform (adapted from Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:ConeHalfSphere  + (Cone with a half sphere (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006).)
    • Traits:TruncatedCone  + (Cone with flattended top (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
    • Traits:AlgalGravel  + (Constructs deep beds of calcareous algal nodules, e.g. maerl beds)
    • Traits:SocialGroup  + (Cooperative groups of the same species - e.g. social insects, mammals)
    • Traits:Introduced country and/or sea area  + (Country or sea area that is recorded as the known introduced range of the species.)
    • Traits:Source country and/or sea area  + (Country or sea area which is the known source area of the introduced species or population. The source area could be the native range of the species or a known introduced range.)
    • Traits:Native country and/or native sea area  + (Country or sea area which is the native range of the species.)
    • Traits:Actinula  + (Crawling larval stage of some hydoids (amend))
    • Traits:Diel  + (Daily, pertaining to a 24 hour period.)
    • Traits:WaveExposed  + (Defined via traits - but included as some authors do not specify level of wave exposure.)
    • Traits:WaveSheltered  + (Defined via traits below - included as some authors do not specify)
    • Traits:FaunalBeds  + (Dense aggregation of animals that visually dominate the seabed or shore such as brittlestars (e.g. ''Ophiothrix fragilis'' ) or mussels (e.g. ''Mytilus edulis'').)
    • Traits:CoralSands  + (Deposition of sands formed by the breakdown to the skeletons of living organisms)
    • Traits:Dependancy  + (Description of an organism's relationship with other organisms)
    • Traits:DiapauseStage  + (Description of dormant stage)
    • Traits:SedimentReworking  + (Description of how an organism modifies or changes the physico-chemical nature of the habitat itself, e.g sediment reworking, deposition of faeces, or burrowing)
    • Traits:LarvalJuvenileDevelopment  + (Description of how the larvae or juveniles develop into adults)
    • Traits:FeedingApparatus  + (Description of the apparatus (mechanism) used to collect/capture food)
    • Traits:Lifestage  + (Description of the larval and juvenile stages in the life cycle of an organism)
    • Traits:Fertilization  + (Description of the location of fertilization, whereby in animals/macroalgae a gametes are fertilized or in plants pollination occurs.)
    • Traits:LarvalSettlement  + (Description of the period of time over which larval settlement occurs.)
    • Traits:FoodTypeDiet  + (Description of the source of the organisms nurishment, i.e. what it feeds on)
    • Traits:SubstratumHabitat  + (Description of the substratum on or in which an organism is found or recorded.)
    • Traits:EggClutchLocation  + (Description of where fertilized eggs are placed or held)
    • Traits:Province  + (Descriptors of the major 'regions' of the seas.)
    • Traits:GameteType  + (Descriptors of the relative size of gametes)
    • Traits:FeaturesOther  + (Descriptors of types of unusual or unique types of substratum or habitat)
    • Traits:GrowthForm  + (Deterministic growth or indeterminate growth resulting in single unitary individuals or modular (colonial) organisms.)
    • Traits:Lecithotrophic  + (Development at the expense of internal resources (i.e. yolk) provided by the female (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).)
    • Traits:DirectDevelopment  + (Development without a larval stage)
    • Traits:OntogeneticMigration  + (Different life stages migrate into different habitats, or part of habitat (e.g. copepods) (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Medusiform  + (Disk, bell or umbrella shaped and often gelatinous (Barnes et al., 1988).)
    • Traits:LowerCircalittoral  + (Dominated by animals with no foliose algae but encrusting Rhodophycota patchy in grazed areas. The part of the circalittoral subzone on hard substrata below the maximum depth limit of foliose algae (based on Hiscock, 1985).)
    • Traits:UpperCircalittoral  + (Dominated by animals with sparse foliose aDominated by animals with sparse foliose algae except where grazed. The part of the circalittoral subzone on hard substrata distinguished by the presence of scattered foliose algae amongst the dominating animals; its lower limit is the maximum limit of depth for foliose algae (based on Hiscock, 1985).or foliose algae (based on Hiscock, 1985).)
    • Traits:DoubleCone  + (Double cone (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
    • Traits:Estuary  + (Downstream part of a river where it widens to enter the sea; often with significant freshwater influence and predominantly comprising sediment habitats.)
    • Traits:RiaVoe  + (Drowned river valleys of south-west Britain (ria) and Shetland (voe). Often with a greater presence of rock and more marine in character than estuaries.)
    • Traits:LarvalStageDuration  + (Duration of the larval stage recorded in days or months.)
    • Traits:AnchorShaped  + (E.g. ''Ceratium'' spp.)
    • Traits:Artificial  + (E.g. wood, metal or concrete structures.)
    • Traits:Juvenile  + (Early adult life stage of an organism that shares the morphology and ecology of the adult but is not capable of reproduction.)
    • Traits:Conaria  + (Early larval stage in siphonophores, composed of a floating colony with disc-shaped float, and consists of a hollow sphere with aboral thickening (Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:Oviparous  + (Egg laying; producing eggs that are laid and hatch externally (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:External  + (Egg/sperm meet and fertilize externally to parental individuals, tissues or confines of their bodies, but within the fluid medium)
    • Traits:NoOviparousCare  + (Eggs are laid and abandoned by adult)
    • Traits:AdultBurrow  + (Eggs are placed or retained within the parents burrow)
    • Traits:BroodChamber  + (Eggs retained by adult, usually in specialised cavity/appendage where the eggs develop to larval or juvenile stage)
    • Traits:FreeWaterColumn  + (Eggs spawned into water column)
    • Traits:Lagoon  + (Enclosed bodies of water, separated or partially separated from the sea by shingle, sand or sometimes rock and with a restricted exchange of water with the sea, yielding varying salinity regimes.)
    • Traits:Phagocytosis  + (Engulfing prey/food item in cytoplasm)
    • Traits:CapitateClubbed  + (Enlarged or swollen at the apex, with a ‘head’, clubbed (Prescott, 1969).)
    • Traits:BirdsDirective  + (Europe is home to more than 500 wild bird species. But at least 32 % of the EU's bird species are currently not in a good conservation status. The Birds Directive aims to protect all of the 500 wild bird species naturally occurring in the European Union.)
    • Traits:Bathylpelagic  + (Extends from ca 1000-2500 m.)
    • Traits:Planktotrophic  + (Feeding at least in part on materials captured from the plankton (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).)
    • Traits:Grazer  + (Feeding on herbage, algae or phytoplankton by consuming the whole plant or the surface growth (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
    • Traits:Browser  + (Feeding on parts of plants (e.g. shoots, leaves, twigs) or parts of other organisms (e.g. siphon nipping by fish). (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Internal  + (Fertilization (gametes meet) within the body (or body cavity or accessory organ) of the individual)
    • Traits:Distribution Descriptors  + (Fields and traits that describe the distribution of the species.)
    • Traits:Cypris  + (Final lecithotrophic larval stage, characterized by bivalved carapace, compound eyes, prehensile antennules and thoraic appendages (cirri) (see Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:Auricularia  + (First free-swimming larval stage of the Holothuroidea. It is characterized by a continuous and curving flagellated band (Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:Bipinnaria  + (First of the two free-swimming larval forms in the asteroids, characterized by a ciliary band and the presence of arm-like projections (Stachowitsch, 1992; Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).)
    • Traits:TypeV  + (First-order opportunistic species (pronounced unbalanced situations). These are deposit- feeders, which proliferate in reduced sediments.)
    • Traits:TaxonSpecificBodySizeFish  + (Fish measurement is the measuring of the length of individual fish and of various parts of their anatomy. These data are used in many areas of ichthyology, including taxonomy and fisheries biology. (Wikipedia))
    • Traits:Pisciform  + (Fish-like)
    • Traits:FlattenedEllipsoid  + (Flattened ellipsoid (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
    • Traits:Chains  + (Forming chains of individuals)
    • Traits:CrustoseHard  + (Forming or resembling a crust (Thompson, 1995) that is solid or resistant to touch or pressure e.g. encrusting coralline algae or sea mats such as ''Umbonula littoralis''.)
    • Traits:CrustoseSoft  + (Forming or resembling a crust (Thompson, 1995) that yields to the touch or pressure e.g. the gelatinous colonies of ''Botryllus schlosseri'' or soft cushions of sponges such as ''Halichondria'' sp.)
    • Traits:Encrusting  + (Forms or resembles a crust over a substratum or other organisms)
    • Traits:Zoea  + (Fourth free-swimming larval stage of Decapoda, with thoracic appendages for locomotion (see Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:FreeLiving  + (Free living - little modification)
    • Traits:Copepodid  + (Free swimming larval stage, typically with five sub-stages, characterized by excretion through maxillary glands, and progressive increase in number of body segments and posterior appendages (see Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:Cyphonautes  + (Free-swimming bryozoan larva, the body is triangular, compressed and enclosed in a bivalve shell (see Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).)
    • Traits:GoettesLarva  + (Free-swimming four armed (lobed) ciliated larva of Platyhelminthes (see Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).)
    • Traits:Tronchophore  + (Free-swimming larva characterised by apicla tuft of cilia and a girdle of cilia around the midregion (see Stachowitsch, 1992, Rupert & Barnes, 1996).)
    • Traits:Echinopluteus  + (Free-swimming larva of Echinoidea, distinguished by six pairs of arms, supported by skeletal rods (see Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:Nauplius  + (Free-swimming larva, with a characteristic triangular shape, rostral horns in some, three pairs of appendages, and sometimes a nauplia eye. The number of nauplius stages varies between groups (see Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:Ophiopluteus  + (Free-swimming larvae of Ophiuroidea, distinguished by four pairs of arms supported by skeletal rods (Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:Cydippid  + (Free-swimming spherical larva, composed of a simple gastrovascular system and short comb-rows; resembles typical adult ctenophore (see Stachowitsch, 1992, Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).)
    • Traits:Pilidium  + (Free-swimming, helmet-shaped, larva of nemerteans (ribbon worms) with an apical tuft, apical sensory organs, oral lobes and oral ciliated band (see Stachowitsch, 1992, Rupert & Barnes, 1996).)
    • Traits:Coronate  + (Free-swimming, lecithotrophic larva of Bryozoa)
    • Traits:UltraSheltered  + (Fully enclosed coasts with a fetch measured in tens or at most a few hundred metres.)
    • Traits:ExtremelySheltered  + (Fully enclosed coasts with a fetch of no more than about 3 km.)
    • Traits:Ovoviviparous  + (Fully formed eggs are retained and hatched inside the maternal body and are released as live offspring (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998). No nutrition is derived from the mother.)
    • Traits:Isogamous  + (Gametes similar in size, shape and behaviour, not differentiated into male or female (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
    • Traits:ModeratelyExposed  + (Generally coasts facing away from prevailing winds and without a long fetch but where strong winds can be frequent.)
    • Traits:GrazerBrowser  + (Generally mobile consumers of sessile prey (e.g. plants, hydroids) cropping exposed tissues usually without killing the whole individual or colony.)
    • Traits:SeaLoch  + (Glacially formed inlets (fjords, fjards) of western Scotland and Ireland; typically elongate and deepened by glacial action with little freshwater influence. Often with narrows and sills dividing the loch into a series of basins.)
    • Traits:MuddyGravel  + (Gravel (30-80%) with mud (see Long, 2006))
    • Traits:MuddySandyGravel  + (Gravel (30-80%) with mud and sand (see Long, 2006))
    • Traits:Seagrass  + (Habitat associated with seagrass bed communities.)
    • Traits:UnderBoulders  + (Habitat associated with the underside of boulders.)
    • Traits:Biogenic  + (Habitat features created by living things)
    • Traits:HalfCone  + (Half cone (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
    • Traits:HalfConeFlattenedEllipsoid  + (Half cone with flattened ellipsoid (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
    • Traits:HalfParallelepiped  + (Half parallelepiped (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
    • Traits:HalfSphereDome  + (Half sphere (dome))
    • Traits:Isomorphic  + (Haploid and diploid phases morphologically identical)
    • Traits:Arrhenotoky  + (Haploid males develop from unfertilized eggs and diploid females from fertilized eggs (adapted from Lincoln 'et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:SupportingStructuresEnclosures  + (Hard framework, internal or external, which supports and protects softer parts of plant, animal or unicellular organism, and to which muscles usually attach in animals, includes skeletons (derived from Lawrence, 2005).)
    • Traits:Hard  + (Hard substratum e.g. bedrock, concrete, boulders,cobbles and pebbles)
    • Traits:Shrub  + (Having a very short stem with branches near the ground (Thompson, 1995).)
    • Traits:Anisogamous  + (Having flagellate gametes of different size, shape or behaviour (from Bold, 1977 and Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Oogamous  + (Having large, non-motile eggs and small motile sperm (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Digitate  + (Having parts arranged like fingers on a hand (Holmes, 1979).)
    • Traits:Gonochoristic  + (Having separate sexes/genders (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).)
    • Traits:Tadpole  + (Having the body form of a tadpole i.e. consisting of a round head with a tail.)
    • Traits:ArborescentArbuscular  + (Having the shape or characteristics of a tree.)
    • Traits:HeightAboveSubstratum  + (Height above the surface of the substratum of an individual or single modular colony. e.g a blade of seagrass, a seaweed thallus, projecting tube worm, upright sea pen etc.)
    • Traits:SequentialHermaphrodite  + (Hermaphrodite in which the male and female organs mature (that is produce gametes) at different times in the reproductive cycle (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
    • Traits:HardImmobile  + (Immobile hard substratum e.g. solid rock, concrete but including soft rocks, such as chalk.)
    • Traits:Wingspan  + (In birds (Aves) - "the distance between thIn birds (Aves) - "the distance between the wing tips when the wings are held outstretched" (Wikipedia) or "wingtip to wingtip in flight" (BTO). In winged insects (Insecta) - "may refer to the distance between the centre of the thorax to the apex of the wing doubled or to the width between the apices with the wings set with the trailing wing edge perpendicular to the body" (Wikipedia) Note: For wingspan you can specify the measurement type (minimum, maximum, average), gender (male, female) and life stage.ge), gender (male, female) and life stage.)
    • Traits:Pathway/vector Other  + (In cases where pathway/vector is not specified/ cases of novel pathways/vectors.)
    • Traits:ParallelepipedRhomboid  + (In geometry, a parallelepiped is a three-dimensional figure formed by six parallelograms (the term rhomboid is also sometimes used with this meaning))
    • Traits:Reticulate  + (In the form of a mesh or net (Prescott, 1969).)
    • Traits:Straplike  + (In the form of a strap or ribbon.)
    • Traits:Whiplike  + (In the form of a whip.)
    • Traits:Kleptoparasitism  + (In which the female of one species steals the food reserves or prey of a female of another species, to feed her own progeny (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
    • Traits:NonSelfing  + (Incapable of self-fertilization, due to physical or temporal separation of gametes, and/or self-incompatability genes)
    • Traits:Independant (Free living)  + (Independant, individual organisms)
    • Traits:Territorial  + (Independent but maintains a defined territory)
    • Traits:NonTerritorial  + (Independent without a defined territory)
    • Traits:Meiobiota  + (Individual organisms with a mean body size between 0.2 and 2.0 mm.)
    • Traits:Macrobiota  + (Individual organisms with a mean body size between 2.0 and 200 mm.)
    • Traits:Megabiota  + (Individual organisms with a mean body size larger than 200 mm.)
    • Traits:Microbiota  + (Individual organisms with a mean body size smaller than 0.2 mm.)
    • Traits:Impact  + (Information on the impact of introduced anInformation on the impact of introduced and invasive marine species has been recorded. These include impacts on native species, their habitats and ecosystems, human health and activity, transmission of diseases, etc. Descriptive terms of impacts were standardized and listed in a look-up table. These terms have been adapted from Hayes (2005).terms have been adapted from Hayes (2005).)
    • Traits:Articulate  + (Jointed, arthrous (Holmes, 1979).)
    • Traits:Lanceolate  + (Lance shaped and usually elongate (Brusca, 1980).)
    • Traits:LargeInsectColonies  + (Large colonies of indivduals cooperating for mutual benefit, made up of thousnads or more individuals, often with a dominant matriach, e.g. social incests , bees etc.)
    • Traits:Protonymphon  + (Larval pycnogonid that bears three pairs of appendages, the chelicerae, palps and ovigerous legs (Ruppert & Barnes, 1996).)
    • Traits:Clathrate  + (Latticed (Holmes, 1979).)
    • Traits:Intermediary  + (Liable to suffer minor damage, chips or cracks as result of physical impacts.)
    • Traits:Fragile  + (Likely to break, or crack as a result of physical impact; brittle or friable.)
    • Traits:Hyperbenthic  + (Living above but close to the substratum (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Solitary  + (Living alone, not gregarious (Thompson 1995).)
    • Traits:Demersal  + (Living at or near the bottom of a sea or lake but having the capacity for active swimming (from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Gregarious  + (Living in groups or communities, growing in clusters (Thompson, 1995) - where the organisms actively seek out members of the same species as adult or larvae/juveniles for protection from the environment, predators or for breeding)
    • Traits:Plankton  + (Living in the fluid medium (water or air) but unable to maintain their position or distribution independently of the movement of the water/air mass (adapted from Lincoln <i>et al.</i>, 1998).)
    • Traits:Neustonic  + (Living on or under the surface film of open water.)
    • Traits:Epizooic  + (Living on the exterior of a living animal but not parasitic upon it.)
    • Traits:Epiphytic  + (Living on the surface of a living plant but not parasitic upon it.)
    • Traits:Epilithic  + (Living on the surface of rock or other hard inorganic substrata)
    • Traits:Epibenthic  + (Living on the surface of the seabed.)
    • Traits:Pleustonic  + (Living permanently at the water surface due to their own buoyancy, normally positioned partly in the water and partly in the air.)
    • Traits:Endozoic  + (Living within the body of an animal (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Interstitial  + (Living within the system of cavities and channels formed by the spaces between grains in a sediment (interstitial space).)
    • Traits:Macroalgae  + (Macroalgal surfaces, such as kelps and fucoids.)
    • Traits:Maerl  + (Maerl beds formed by build up of maerl.)
    • Traits:BodyAlgalGravel  + (Maerl; twig-like unattached (free-living) calcareous red algae, often a mixture of species and including species which form a spiky cover on loose small stones - 'hedgehog stones'.)
    • Traits:Erect  + (Main visible parts of organism stand upright and above the surface of the substratum.)
    • Traits:Spermcast  + (Male gametes are spawned and fertilize eggs within or attached to parent)
    • Traits:PseudoArrhenotoky  + (Males develop from diploid fertilized eggs but subsequently eliminate or silence the paternal genome)
    • Traits:Multivoltine  + (Many generations per year (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006).)
    • Traits:Depth  + (Maximum recorded depth below chart datum (expressed in metres).)
    • Traits:Bodylength  + (Maximum recorded linear body length (in millimetres) excluding appendages.)
    • Traits:DepthRange  + (Maximum to minimum recorded depth (expressed as metres below chart datum).)
    • Traits:DeOxygenationTolerance  + (Min Value)
    • Traits:TempRange  + (Min/Max Value)
    • Traits:Mixed  + (Mixtures of a variety of sediment types, composed of pebble / gravel / sand / mud. This category includes muddy gravels, muddy sandy gravels, gravelly muds, and muddy gravelly sands.)
    • Traits:HardMobile  + (Mobile hard substratum, e.g. cobbles, pebbles that are regularly moved by wave action.)
    • Traits:BitingMacerating  + (Mouth parts designed to grasp and macerate food before swallowing (e.g. most vertebrates))
    • Traits:BitingPiercing  + (Mouth parts designed to pierce outside of food or prey and feed on internal fluids or tissues)
    • Traits:PassiveDrifter  + (Movement dependent on wind or water currents)
    • Traits:SandyMud  + (Mud (50-90%) with sand)
    • Traits:MudSandyMud  + (Mud and sandy muds where mud is the major fraction (see Long, 2006))
    • Traits:GravellyMud  + (Mud with 5-30% gravel (see Long, 2006))
    • Traits:VeryWeak  + (Negligible)
    • Traits:Nonfeeding  + (Non-feeding life stages (e.g. lecithotroph))
    • Traits:Sessile  + (Non-motile; permanently attached at the base (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998) (e.g. ''Caryophyllia'').)
    • Traits:ClutchSize  + (Number of eggs laid at one time - in organisms that may lay eggs in one or more batches.)
    • Traits:Fecundity  + (Number of eggs reported produced per female per reproductive cycle.)
    • Traits:AutomicticParthenogenesis  + (Obligate self-fertilization (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998) in which haploid eggs /gametes are produced by meiosis but diploidy is restored without fertilization.)
    • Traits:BurrowDweller  + (Occupies or shares space in burrow constructed by other organisms.)
    • Traits:Hadobenthic  + (Occupying the ocean floor at depths exceeding ca 6000 m. Usually in trenches and canyons of the abyssal zone. (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Bathybenthic  + (Occupying the ocean floor from ca 200 - 4000 m depth (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Abyssobenthic  + (Occupying the ocean floor from ca 4000 - 6000 m depth. Usually a more or less flat plain (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:NoViviparousCare  + (Offspring are abandoned by the adult)
    • Traits:ViviparousCare  + (Offspring are nurtured and protected by the adult)
    • Traits:Semivoltine  + (One generation every two years (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006).)
    • Traits:Univoltine  + (One generation per year / annuals (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006).)
    • Traits:Pathways/vector  + (One of the most important types of informaOne of the most important types of information in the practical approach to prevention and management of biological invasions is the identity of the pathways of introduction and details of vectors. These are necessary for the prevention of introduction of potentially invasive species and also for the containment of further spread of established invasions. Information on pathways and vectors of introduction of alien species has been recorded for the listed species where information was available. Descriptive terms describing pathways and vectors were standardized and listed as a look-up table. These terms have been adapted from Hayes (2005).terms have been adapted from Hayes (2005).)
    • Traits:ExtremelyExposed  + (Open coastlines which face into the prevaiOpen coastlines which face into the prevailing wind and receive both wind-driven waves and oceanic swell without any offshore obstructions such as islands or shallows for several thousand kilometres and where deep water is close to the shore (50 m depth contour within about 300 m).e (50 m depth contour within about 300 m).)
    • Traits:Oceanic  + (Open waters beyond the continental shelf.)
    • Traits:Hadopelagic  + (Open waters of deep oceanic trenches, from ca 6000 m and below.)
    • Traits:Jumper/Hopper  + (Organisms able to undertake a rapid jump or hop several times their own body length, using specialised limbs or appendages (e.g. sand hoppers, spring tails, grass hoppers etc))
    • Traits:Colonial (e.g. sea birds)  + (Organisms that come together in large colonies (100 plus individuals) - often in the same area from season to season - usually for breeding purposes)
    • Traits:Regenerator  + (Organisms that excavate and maintain burrows in the sediment, which result in sediment transport from depth to the surface (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012.)
    • Traits:Unitary  + (Organisms that grow by a determinate pathway of development of a tightly canalized adult form, e.g. all arthropods and vertebrates (from Begon ''et al.'', 2005).)
    • Traits:Modular  + (Organisms that grow by the repeated iteratOrganisms that grow by the repeated iteration of parts, e.g. the leaves, shoots and branches of a plant, the polyps of a coral or bryozoan. Modular organisms are almost always branched, though the connections between branches may separate or decay and the separated parts may in many cases then become physiologically independent (Begon ''et al.'', 2005).ally independent (Begon ''et al.'', 2005).)
    • Traits:BlindEndedVentilation  + (Organisms that live in 'I' or 'J' shaped burrows open at only one end where water is drawn through or diffuses out of the sediment e.g. ''Arenicola marina'' (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012).)
    • Traits:OpenEndedVentilation  + (Organisms that live in a 'U' or 'Y' shaped burrow where water is drawn through the burrow (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012).)
    • Traits:DownwardConveyor  + (Organisms that live vertically in the sediment, typically heads-up at the surface, and that ingest particles at the surface and egest them as faeces at depth in the sediment (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012).)
    • Traits:UpwardsConveyor  + (Organisms that live vertically in the sediment, typically head-down at depth in the sediment, and that transport particles from depth to the sediment surface (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012).)
    • Traits:SuspensionFeeder  + (Organisms that strain food from the surrounding water. They can range in complexity from sponges and corals to baleen whales. They live on organisms or debris that drifts past them, or they seek out small floating or swimming organisms (Charton, 2001).)
    • Traits:Biodiffusor  + (Organisms whose activities that cause consOrganisms whose activities that cause constant and random local sediment biomixing over short distances resulting in transport of sediment particles, analogous to molecular or eddy diffusion (from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012). Includes epifaunal biodiffusers e.g. fiddler crabs; surficial biodiffusers e.g. ''Echinocardium''; and gallery biodiffusers e.g. ''Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor''.rs e.g. ''Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor''.)
    • Traits:AccessoryFeedingStructures  + (Other structures such as palps, tentacles Other structures such as palps, tentacles or a radiolar crown ("grooved palps"). There are forms of single pair of grooved palps nearly always attached dorsally or near the junction of the prostomium and peristomium, or multiple grooved palps sometimes forming a crown. Dorso lateral ciliated folds in the roof of the buccal cavity may be present in some polychaetes.cavity may be present in some polychaetes.)
    • Traits:BodyShape  + (Overall shape of the individual or colony (modular forms))
    • Traits:BirdsDirectiveAnnex3  + (Overall, activities that directly threaten birds, such as their deliberate killing, capture or trade, or the destruction of their nests, are banned. With certain restrictions, Member States can allow some of these activities for 26 species listed here.)
    • Traits:Abyssopelagic  + (Overlays the plains of the major ocean basins with a lower boundary of ca 6000 m.)
    • Traits:Ectoparasitic  + (Parasitic on the outer surface of its host (adapted from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Endoparasitic  + (Parasitic within the tissues or organs of its host (see Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:OviparousCare  + (Parents, guard or protect the eggs/clutch e.g. birds, some reptiles)
    • Traits:FineCleanSand  + (Particle size 0.063 - 0.5 mm (Hiscock, 1996))
    • Traits:MediumCleanSand  + (Particle size 0.25-1mm (Hiscock, 1996))
    • Traits:SedimentSoft  + (Particulate solid matter accumulated by natural processes (Hiscock, 1996))
    • Traits:Migratory  + (Periodic movement of organisms between altPeriodic movement of organisms between alternative habitats e.g. between areas for reproduction and one or more areas of non-reproductive activity, or between areas of foraging and areas used for other activities. Most migrations occur at predictable intervals triggered by stimuli e.g. unfavourable conditions. NB: Movements that do not include an obligatory return journey are classified as dispersal (Baretta-Bekker et al., 1992).s dispersal (Baretta-Bekker et al., 1992).)
    • Traits:Benthic  + (Pertaining to the sea bed, river bed or lake floor (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Pelagic  + (Pertaining to the water column. Inhabiting the open sea, excluding the sea floor (rephrased from Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:EversiblePharynx  + (Pharynx can be everted to engulf and/or seize food items)
    • Traits:EnvironmentalPosition  + (Position relative to substratum or fluid medium (air/water).)
    • Traits:Megalopa  + (Post larval stage of decapod Crustacea (Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:DispersalPotential  + (Potential for dispersal provided by one or more larval/juvenile stages, recorded in m, km.)
    • Traits:Predator  + (Predatory behaviour in which one animal species captures a member of another species (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998). OR mobile animals that attack kill and consume individual prey items, usually one at a time.)
    • Traits:IUCNRedList  + (Provides taxonomic, conservation status, and distribution information on taxa that are facing a high risk of global extinction. http://www.iucnredlist.org/)
    • Traits:OSPARRegionIArcticWaters  + (Region I is the most northerly OSPAR regioRegion I is the most northerly OSPAR region, characterised by its harsh climate and ice coverage although the ecosystems of this region are still rich. In spite of its low population density, human activities such as fishing and offshore petroleum production remain significant.e petroleum production remain significant.)
    • Traits:OSPARRegionVWiderAtlantic  + (Region V represents the deep waters of theRegion V represents the deep waters of the North-East Atlantic extending across the abyssal plain and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and including many seamounts. There have been recent discoveries of a number of different fragile deep-sea habitats (such as hydrothermal vents, carbonate mounds, coral gardens and sponge communities). Human population in the region is restricted to the Azores Archipelago. The main human activities are fishing and maritime transport.vities are fishing and maritime transport.)
    • Traits:SprayZone  + (Region of the shore immediately above the splash zone that is subject to wetting by the spray from breaking waves (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:SplashZone  + (Region of the shore immediately above the highest levels of the water that is subject to wetting by splash from breaking waves (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:NonMigratoryResident  + (Remaining within the same area (from Lincoln ''et al.'',1998).)
    • Traits:AsexualReproduction  + (Reproduction not involving the exchange of genetic material, amictic, individuals derived form a single parent (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006); not involving the fusion of gametes (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998))
    • Traits:ApomicticParthenogenesis  + (Reproduction via single cells /eggs that are derived by mitosis (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993) - amictic.)
    • Traits:Sporogenesis  + (Reproduction via spores)
    • Traits:Monoraphidioid  + (Resembling a crescent moon (see Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
    • Traits:RotationalEllipsoid  + (Rotational ellipsoid (Olenina ''et al.'', 2006))
    • GravellyMuddySand  + (Sand (50-90%) with gravel (>5%) and mud (see Long, 2006))
    • Traits:MuddySand  + (Sand (50-90%) with mud (see Long, 2006))
    • Traits:GravellySand  + (Sand with 5-30% gravel (see Long 2006))
    • Traits:SandMuddySand  + (Sands and sands with mud where sand is the major fraction (see Long 2006))
    • Traits:IceAssociated  + (Sea ice, icebergs and other ice-associated marine habitats.)
    • Traits:OffshoreSeabed  + (Seabed beyond three miles (5 km) from the shore.)
    • Traits:Seizing  + (Seabird specific - probably not - large predators that pounce and grab also)
    • Traits:Diving  + (Seabird specific?)
    • Traits:Plunging  + (Seabird specific?)
    • Traits:FollowingFishingBoats  + (Seabirds)
    • Traits:FootStirring  + (Seabirds/Wader)
    • Traits:FootPaddling  + (Seabirds/Wader)
    • Traits:Swimming  + (Seabirds/wader)
    • Traits:Floating  + (Seabirds/wader)
    • Traits:PickingfromWaterSurface  + (Seabirds/wader)
    • Traits:Dabbling  + (Seabirds/waders?)
    • Traits:Doliolaria  + (Second free-swimming larvae (after the auricularia) in the Holothuroidea. It is characterized by a series of flagellated rings around a barrel-shaped body (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:Metanauplius  + (Second larval stage in decapod Crustacea; resembles the nauplius but with more appendages (see Stachowitsch, 1992).)
    • Traits:TypeIV  + (Second-order opportunistic species (slight to pronounced unbalanced situations). Mainly small sized polychaetes: subsurface deposit-feeders, such as cirratulids.)
    • Traits:MucusMesh  + (Secretion of a simple or complex mucus mesh to filter food particles from water column (e.g polychaetes ''Chaetopterus'' and larvaceans.)
    • Traits:Ambusher  + (Sedentary or sessile predators, that wait for prey to come to them, and may or may not use a final pounce, traps or lures (e.g. sea anemones, large hydroids, spiders))
    • Traits:CoarseSediments  + (Sediments composed of gravel and sand; inc. gravel, gravelly sand and sandy gravel (Long, 2006))
    • Traits:Autotroph  + (Self-feeding. An organism capable of synthesizing complex organic substances from simple inorganic substrates (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).)
    • Traits:Flabellate  + (Shaped like a fan, fanlike (Brusca, 1980).)
    • Traits:FunnelShaped  + (Shaped like a funnel)
    • Traits:EggPropaguleSize  + (Size (diameter) of macrogamete (egg or ovum) in µm, mm, cm.)
    • Traits:Hydrostatic  + (Skeletal support provided by hydrostatic pressure from a fluid filled cavity (e.g. the coelum) surrounded by muscles. Hydrostatic pressure provides skeletal support in sea anemones, jellyfish, nematodes, annelids, echinoderms, and other groups.)