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Porifera source details

Richmond, M. (Ed.) (1997). A guide to the seashores of Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean islands. Sida/Department for Research Cooperation, SAREC: Stockholm, Sweden. ISBN 91-630-4594-X. 448 pp.
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
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Axinella carteri (Dendy, 1889) accepted as Stylissa carteri (Dendy, 1889) (additional source)
Biemna fistulosa (Topsent, 1897) (additional source)
Biemna fortis (Topsent, 1897) (additional source)
Cinachyrella voeltzkowii accepted as Cinachyrella arabica (Carter, 1869) (basis of record)
Clathria frondifera (Bowerbank, 1875) accepted as Clathria (Thalysias) vulpina (Lamarck, 1814) (basis of record)
Euryspongia lactea Row, 1911 (additional source)
Geodia crustosa Bösraug, 1913 (basis of record)
Haliclona (Reniera) debilis Pulitzer-Finali, 1993 (additional source)
Haliclona bawiana (Lendenfeld, 1897) (additional source)
Hyrtios erecta accepted as Hyrtios erectus (Keller, 1889) (additional source)
Kerasemna humilis (Thiele, 1903) accepted as Biemna humilis Thiele, 1903 (source of synonymy)
Liosina paradoxa Thiele, 1899 (additional source)
Lissodendoryx (Lissodendoryx) monticularis Baer, 1906 (additional source)
Paratetilla Dendy, 1905 (additional source)
Phakellia cavernosa (Dendy, 1922) accepted as Acanthella cavernosa Dendy, 1922 (source of synonymy)
Placospongia carinata (Bowerbank, 1858) (additional source)
Placospongia melobesioides Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Pseudaxinella coccinea (Keller, 1891) accepted as Dragmacidon coccineum (Keller, 1891) (additional source)
Pseudoceratina arabica (Keller, 1889) (additional source)
Pseudoceratina purpurea (Carter, 1880) (additional source)
Pseudosuberites andrewsi Kirkpatrick, 1900 (additional source)
Sigmadocia amboinensis (Lévi, 1961) accepted as Haliclona (Gellius) amboinensis (Lévi, 1961) (additional source)
Spheciospongia excentrica (Burton, 1931) (additional source)
Spheciospongia florida (Lendenfeld, 1897) (additional source)
Spheciospongia globularis (Dendy, 1922) (additional source)
Strepsichordaia radiata (Hyatt, 1877) accepted as Phyllospongia lamellosa (Esper, 1794) (new combination reference)
Stylotella aurantium Kelly-Borges & Bergquist, 1988 accepted as Stylissa massa (Carter, 1887) (additional source)
Tethya robusta (Bowerbank, 1873) (additional source)
Tetrapocillon minor Pulitzer-Finali, 1993 (additional source)
Theonella Gray, 1868 (additional source)
Xestospongia exigua (Kirkpatrick, 1900) accepted as Neopetrosia exigua (Kirkpatrick, 1900) accepted as Neopetrosia chaliniformis (Thiele, 1899) (additional source)
English barrel sponge for Xestospongia testudinaria (Lamarck, 1815)
English bath sponge for Spongia (Spongia) ceylonensis (Dendy, 1905)
English beaded triton [from synonym] for Septa gemmata (Reeve, 1844)
English black bush sponge for 
English black sack sponge for Tetrapocillon minor Pulitzer-Finali, 1993
English by-the-wind-sailor for Velella velella (Linnaeus, 1758)
English Chili pepper sponge [from synonym] for Tedania anhelans (Vio in Olivi, 1792)
English false limpet [from synonym] for Siphonaria tenuicostulata E. A. Smith, 1903
English fire sponge [from synonym] for Tedania anhelans (Vio in Olivi, 1792)
English golfball sponge for Tethya robusta (Bowerbank, 1873)
English lion's mane jellyfish [from synonym] for Cyanea nozaki
English mango sponge [from synonym] for Stylotella aurantium Kelly-Borges & Bergquist, 1988
English mangrove whelk for Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767)
English moon jellyfish for Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus, 1758)
English Portuguese man-of-war for Physalia physalis (Linnaeus, 1758)
English purple-staining sponge for Iotrochota baculifera Ridley, 1884
English spiky tube sponge for Callyspongia confoederata (sensu Ridley, 1884)
English spindle tibia for Tibia fusus (Linnaeus, 1758)
English stinging tube sponge for Biemna fistulosa (Topsent, 1897)
English sundial for Architectonica perspectiva (Linnaeus, 1758)
English tennis-ball sponge [from synonym] for Cinachyrella voeltzkowii
English thimble jellyfish for Linuche unguiculata (Schwartz, 1788)
English upside down jellyfish for Cassiopea andromeda (Forsskål, 1775)
 Authority

Authority Chemnitz, 1781 in Dautzenberg, 1929 [details]

 Description

Potato-shaped, 2-10 cm long and wide, free-living or attached basally to rubble; irregularity lumpy, oscules on low ... [details]

 Description

Similar to A. brevispinosa but with shorter spicules and a brown girdle with lighter bands. Habitat: upper littoral ... [details]

 Description

Width to 20 cm. Bell hemispherical, slightly pointed with smooth to finely granulated surface. Mouth-arms with ... [details]

 Description

Height to 25 cm, width 1/3 to 1/2 of height. Bell thick, translucent, with smooth surface and four long tentacles ... [details]

 Description

Up to 3 cm, with very fine axial ribs. Colour tan. Habitat: eulittoral and deeper. Distribution: W Indian Ocean to ... [details]

 Description

Shell up to 5 cm diameter. Colour white to yellowish-brown, lighter at the edges and beneath. Operculum horny and ... [details]

 Description

Up to 30 cm long. Distinctive, with ridges of large tubercles running down centre of body, and a series of ... [details]

 Description

Width 15-30 cm. Bell flat to domed, firm, translucent, with four (or 5-7) bluish-pink gonad rings, four mouth-arms ... [details]

 Description

Erect expanded leaves up to 10 mm thick, 40 cm high. Short woody stalk with fleshy, blade-like lobes. Surface ... [details]

 Description

Soft oval body, up to 7cm long, which has a trapezoidal flap at the front and is translucent orange or yellow. ... [details]

 Description

Multi thin-walled, fragile tubes, 1-2 cm across and 1-3 cm high, appearing as a thin stretched skin embedded with ... [details]

 Description

A broad, plump sea slug, up to 7cm, varying in colour from tan to brown or orange. Body is covered in simple and/or ... [details]

 Description

Thick shell, up to 4 cm, with tall spire and large body whorl, upper whorls separated by deep sutures, and the ... [details]

 Description

Distinctive, think shell, up to 4 cm, with numerous spiralled, brown cords on lighter background. Aperture toothed ... [details]

 Description

Whorled or curved plate-like sponge, 15-20 cm wide and high, which can form a cup with internal spirals at ... [details]

 Description

Width to 12 cm. Disc flat, with eight short mouth-arms each with four (or six) side-branches supporting many ... [details]

 Description

mouth-arms with 6-8 short, spreading main branches; clubs minute, to 0.8 mm; no peripheral spots (Richmond, 1997). [details]

 Description

Width to 35 cm. Bell sub-hemispherical, firm to floppy, finely granular and translucent. Mouth-arms neatly conical ... [details]

 Description

with bell bearing rows of prominent papillae radiating outwards. Sting harmless (Richmond, 1997). [details]

 Description

probably conspecific <282>. [details]

 Description

Width to 40 cm. Pink to lilac above, brown below, with a central dome covered in 10-50 large, irregular ... [details]

 Description

Habitat: Mangrove Forests. Thick, strong, elongate shells up to 3 cm, with five whorls and about 20 axial ribs. ... [details]

 Description

Evenly sub-circular shell, up to 2 cm, with undulating surface and a distinctive internal cup-shaped projection. ... [details]

 Description

Width to 14 cm, 10 cm high. Bell surface covered with stinging warts. Up to nine tentacles on each corner, on ... [details]

 Description

Species up to 4 cm long, with central region orange brown, mottled with lighter and darker patches and dark purple ... [details]

 Description

Width to 25 cm. Bell surface with fine warts. Four separate mouth-arms, up to 50 cm long, with frilled edges. Bell ... [details]

 Description

Spherical, 2-5 cm diameter. Surface is hairy, silty, and with sunken pits; stiff velvet to touch. Interior orange ... [details]

 Description

Multiple stubby fan-like branches, 3-4 cm wide, 5-10 cm long, loosely attached to substrate. Surface tuberculate, ... [details]

 Description

Delicate tubular mass, 2-5 cm wide. Tubes 0.5 mm diameter with membraneous raised oscules. Crisp, compressible, ... [details]

 Description

Very variable shell, up to 3 cm, commonly with three granulated, spiral rows on each whorl (less pronounced towards ... [details]

 Description

Thick shell, up to 8 cm, with spire of varying height (mostly short), and with spiral ridges on the lower half of ... [details]

 Description

Width to 20 cm. Bell slightly pointed, robust and smooth, edged with a skirt furrowed between the fused lappets. ... [details]

 Description

Width to 50 cm. Distinctive, large, flat-topped bell, with eight large marginal lobes. Colour typically cream to ... [details]

 Description

Up to 7 cm long. Black, sometimes with cream or white spots, the rhinophores with an elongated white knob at the ... [details]

 Description

Diameter up to 3mm, length variable. Similar to Vermetus sp. But much smaller. Flat, brown-red operculum with ... [details]

 Description

White, curved, tapering tube with 12 ridges along entire length, up to 5 cm long. Habitat: shallow and deep sand. ... [details]

 Description

Up to 5 mm, smooth, thin and glossy. Pale cream with bands of brown dashes. Habitat: among seaweed in shallow ... [details]

 Description

Oval and very flattened, up to 15 cm long. Well camouflaged by colouration of mottled creams, beiges, browns, ... [details]

 Description

Solid shell, up to 3 cm, with strong, low-spined varices. Colour variable, often brown or mottled, with pale ... [details]

 Description

Habitat: rocky shores. Tropical Indo-Pacific, also in Australia in Kalk (1958). [details]

 Description
 for 

Erect mass, 5 cm high and wide. Highly conulose surface with visible, protruding, tiny black, twig-like fibres up ... [details]

 Description

Up to 3 cm long. Distinguished from the two genera (Phyllidia arabica and Phyllidiella zeylanica) by a ventral anus ... [details]

 Description

Description: Patches 4-5 cm wide, 5-10 mm thick with punctured surface and slightly raised oscules, 2-3 mm ... [details]

 Description

Often a darker red than G. townsendi (Richmond, 1997) [details]

 Description

A distinctive, truly pelagic silvery blue mollusc, up to 6 cm long, with three pairs of arms. Floats upside-down ... [details]

 Description

Up to 5 cm long. Western Indian Ocean specimens tend to be olive-green, although geographical colour variations ... [details]

 Description

Larger, up to 7 cm, dark reddish-brown with white speckles, a broad, yellow band at mantle edge becoming ... [details]

 Description

Short tubes arising from a thick irregular branching base, 0.5 cm wide, 1 cm high, whole sponge 10 cm diameter. ... [details]

 Description

Small single or double tubes or mounds, 0.5-3 cm high, 1 cm wide, scattered in groups on substrate. Oscules apical ... [details]

 Description

Spanish Dancer Up to 40 cm long (larger in South Africa). A relatively common and distinctive species with a white, ... [details]

 Description

Club-shaped lobe growing erect from substrate, up to 10 cm wide and high, with rounded apex. Surface covered in ... [details]

 Description

Encrusting sponge, irregularly lobate, 5-10 cm long, 5 cm thick. Surface raised into faintly conulose irregular ... [details]

 Description

Single or multiple clumps of tubes up to 50 cm high and 4-5 cm wide. Walls 3-4 mm thick, sometimes ribbed, ... [details]

 Description

Amorphous and flimsy sponge forming clumps 5-15 cm across and 1-3 cm high, appearing as a thin stretched skin ... [details]

 Description

Tiny, to 2 cm. Bell straight-sided, flat-topped, with 16 vertical ridges and eight minute tentacles. Colour ... [details]

 Description

Encrusting sponge, 6-7 cm wide, 1 cm thick. Surface undulating, furrowed, detachable and punctured with holes 0.5 ... [details]

 Description

reddish-brown, to 15 cm width, with fine, polygonal warts on surface. In adults, pale patches on edge to bell with ... [details]

 Description

Width to 10 cm. Conspicuous. Eight thick mouth-arms with long terminal clubs, which may detach. Bell transparent ... [details]

 Description

Up to 12 cm long. Variable shades of brown with brown and white blotches, squared cerata, and covered in papillae, ... [details]

 Description

Up to 4 cm. Description as for family though shells are more globular, with rounded shoulders, deep sutures and a ... [details]

 Description

Up to 3 cm, similar to N. albescens gemmuliferus, but with more widely spaced, spiny nodules arranged in spiral ... [details]

 Description

Small, smooth, rounded shells, up to 3 cm long, with a wide aperture. Characteristic axial zigzag markings on a ... [details]

 Description

Similar to Cinachyrella voeltzkowii, but larger, bright orange-yellow, subtidal (Richmond, 1997). [details]

 Description

Width to 5 cm. Bell rounded, with low surface warts, four mouth-arms and eight marginal tentacles, both long. ... [details]

 Description

Habitat: open seas, but East African records are usually based on stranded individuals, often after storms. ... [details]

 Description

Up to 7 cm long. Similar to Onchidium sp. but distinguished by its smaller size and the presence of gills on the ... [details]

 Description

Small rounded bush up to 10 cm high, 8 cm wide. Oblong in outline, or with several lobes, attached to substrate by ... [details]

 Description

Narrow, tubular shells, up to 6 cm, tapering at both ends. Habitat: usually on Gorgonians in deep water. ... [details]

 Description

Up to 4cm long. Occurs in a bewildering variety of colours, from light brown with creamy yellow or orange markings ... [details]

 Description

Solid, rubbery, tuberculate body, up to 10 cm long. Ground colour black, white tubercles with bright orange tips ... [details]

 Description

Up to 4 cm long. A very common species distinguished by a squared pattern at the head end. Bands of low pink ... [details]

 Description

Body is broad, truncate, and rather flattened, up to 4 cm long. Ground colour is usually pale green, beige, or ... [details]

 Description

Description: Thinly encrusting sponge, 5-10 cm wide, 5 mm thick. Surface composed of rough armoured polygonal ... [details]

 Description

Up to 8 cm long. This frequently encountered species is very cryptic. The body is flat, mottled white and brown, ... [details]

 Description

Up to 10 cm long. Animals may vary in colour from brown or red to orange. Dorsal pattern of dark and light polygons ... [details]

 Description

Unmistakable large, elongated, solid and heavy shell, up to 20 cm. Shoulders of body and upper whorls with thick, ... [details]

 Description

Habitat: muddy shore (Ruwa, 1984 <109>). Pure white shells, rather elongated in shape, up to 4 cm; chestnut-brown, ... [details]

 Description
 for 

Circular polypoid disc of chitinous material, to 3 cm. Numerous tentacle-like dactylozoids beneath and around disc; ... [details]

 Description

Description: Irregularly encrusting, 10-12 cm long and wide. Surface smooth to faintly domed and undulating. ... [details]

 Description

Sprawling, branching sponge with fingers 10-15 cm long, 1-3 cm wide, although highly variable in size. Arises from ... [details]

 Description

Encrusting patch. Surface with wrinkles 2-3 mm wide; fleshy, smooth and velvety. Colour fawn. Habitat: shaded ... [details]

 Description

Up to 7 cm . One of the most common aeolids found, this species has many clusters of cerata on each side. Body ... [details]

 Description

Up to 2 cm, description as family. Colour dark brown to black, with white or yellow spots or zigzag lines. ... [details]

 Description

Width to 50 cm. Bell hemispherical with smooth surface. Eight mouth-arms with extra mouth-bearing shoulders ... [details]

 Description

Small, solid shell, up to 4 cm, with 1-2 varices and 10-15 prominent knobbly, spiral chords on each whorl. Outer ... [details]

 Description

Encrusting, 2-5 cm wide, 4-7 mm thick. Surface undulating translucent "skin" over meandering subdermal canals. ... [details]

 Description

Flattened shell, up to 3cm, with fine, radiating, pale ridges on a darker background. Circular outline with a ... [details]

 Description

Up to 2 cm long, mottled in shades of green with a few flecks of white and brown. Almost invisible, but probably ... [details]

 Description

Steep-sided cone, up to 20 cm wide, 12 cm high and surrounded by shorter, rounded projections, or small cones, 1-4 ... [details]

 Description

Spreading cushion with lobes, up to 20 cm long, 10 cm wide, 5 cm high. Surface conulose, but looks smooth and shiny ... [details]

 Description

Domed clump of folded, single blades 1 mm thick, frequently in tight groups, up to 18 cm high and wide. Oscular ... [details]

 Description

Elongasted, translucent, striped body, up to 8 cm long. Often prickly appearance, and with luminicent blue to ... [details]

 Description

Multilobed, erect club-shaped sponge, up to 30 cm high and 20 cm wide, often narrower around the base than at ... [details]

 Description

Height to 22 cm, width to 13 cm. As C. alata but surface with low, clear warts separated by a translucent lace-work ... [details]

 Description

Encrusting, up to 3 cm thick with turrets 3-4 cm high. Surface with long shallow pits; oscules apical and ... [details]

 Description

Spherical, up to 2 cm diameter. Surface divided into raised polygonal areas separated by inhalant channels. Tough ... [details]

 Description

Spherical sack-like masses, loosely attached to the substrate. Oscules raised, 1-2 cm diameter; surface smooth, ... [details]

 Description
 for 

A large, solid shell, up to 20 cm, with long spire, small body whorl, and an outer lip with 5-7 blunt teeth. ... [details]

 Description

Description: as T. oryza, but lacking dorsal groove. (Richmond, 1997). [details]



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