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Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M. (2003). Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review. 41: 47-114.
4179
Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M
2003
Antarctic marine benthic diversity
Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review
41: 47-114
Publication
An unpublished species checklist compiled for background to this paper was used as basis for the Register of Antarctic Marine Species. The paper itself contains no species lists.
Ant'Phipoda Literature database.
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
Species lists have been compiled for all the major groups of Southern Ocean benthic marine invertebrates, eliminating synonymies where possible and providing a subjective estimate of completeness and reliability for each group. Antarctic marine diversity (pelagic and benthic) is relatively high at the phylum and class level, with the gaps mostly comprising minor, meiofaunal or parasitic groups. Most benthic diversity data come from the continental shelves, with relatively few samples from deeper water. Even for the continental shelves, however, sampling is highly patchy with some areas hardly investigated at all. Over 4100 benthic species have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with the most speciose groups being polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. Comparison with tropical and temperate regions suggest that decapods, bivalves and teleost fishes are poorly represented in the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna, whereas pycnogonids, echinoderms and many suspension feeding groups are rich and diverse. Some groups that are currently low in diversity were previously well represented in the Antarctic shallow water marine fauna, notably decapods and many fishes. Other groups have undergone marked radiations in the Southern Ocean, including pycnogonids, amphipods, isopods and teleost fishes; in all cases, however, it is only some lineages that have diversified. This indicates that evolutionary questions concerning the origin, diversification or extinction of the Southern Ocean marine fauna will have no single answer; the evolutionary history of each group appears to reflect a different response to the tectonic, climatic and oceanographic changes to which they have been subject through history. The disposition of southern hemisphere continents makes it difficult to assess whether there is a latitudinal cline in shallow-water marine diversity to mirror that known from the northern hemisphere. Within Antarctica, many species appear to have circumpolar distributions, and the long established biogeographical division into continental Antarctic, Antarctic Peninsula and sub-Antarctic regions have not been challenged by recent sampling. For most groups the frequency distribution of species per genus ratios is typical, though none is well described by the predictions from current evolutionary or null models. Where data are available, size spectra indicate that many Southern Ocean taxa are small, a few spectacular examples of gigantism notwithstanding, and species abundance plots are normal. Knowledge of the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna has reached a stage where we can now ask powerful evolutionary questions, and the development of new molecular techniques provides the mechanism for answering them
Antarctic
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Acanthorhabdus fragilis Burton, 1929 (additional source)
Acheliderma topsenti Burton, 1932 accepted as Megaciella topsenti (Burton, 1932) (additional source)
Adocia tenella (Topsent, 1916) accepted as Haliclona (Gellius) tenella (Topsent, 1916) (source of synonymy)
Amphimedon paradisus Desqueyroux-Faúndez, 1989 (additional source)
Amphimedon validissima (Thiele, 1905) accepted as Dasychalina validissima (Thiele, 1905) (basis of record)
Aplysina minima Hentschel, 1914 (additional source)
Artemisina jovis Dendy, 1924 (additional source)
Artemisina plumosa Hentschel, 1914 (additional source)
Artemisina tubulosa Koltun, 1964 (additional source)
Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) belgicae (Topsent, 1901) (additional source)
Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) callithrix Hentschel, 1914 accepted as Lycopodina callithrix (Hentschel, 1914) (additional source)
Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) calyx Hentschel, 1914 accepted as Lycopodina calyx (Hentschel, 1914) (additional source)
Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) obae Koltun, 1964 (additional source)
Atergia acanthoxa Koltun, 1964 accepted as Acanthopolymastia acanthoxa (Koltun, 1964) (additional source)
Axinectya Hallmann, 1917 accepted as Raspailia (Raspaxilla) Topsent, 1913 (additional source)
Axinectya mariana (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) accepted as Raspailia (Raspaxilla) mariana (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (basis of record)
Axociella Hallmann, 1920 accepted as Clathria (Axosuberites) Topsent, 1893 (additional source)
Axociella flabellata (Topsent, 1916) accepted as Clathria (Axosuberites) flabellata (Topsent, 1916) (additional source)
Axociella nidificata (Kirkpatrick, 1907) accepted as Clathria (Axosuberites) nidificata (Kirkpatrick, 1907) (additional source)
Axociella rameus Koltun, 1964 accepted as Clathria (Axosuberites) ramea (Koltun, 1964) (additional source)
Biemna chilensis Thiele, 1905 (additional source)
Biemna polyphylla Lévi, 1963 (additional source)
Bipocillopsis Koltun, 1964 accepted as Phorbas Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 (additional source)
Bipocillopsis nexus Koltun, 1964 accepted as Phorbas nexus (Koltun, 1964) (additional source)
Bubaris antarctica Koltun, 1964 accepted as Axinella antarctica (Koltun, 1964) (basis of record)
Callyspongia gaussiana (Hentschel, 1914) accepted as Cladocroce gaussiana (Hentschel, 1914) (basis of record)
Callyspongia ramosa (Gray, 1843) represented as Callyspongia (Callyspongia) ramosa (Gray, 1843) (additional source)
Cercidochela Kirkpatrick, 1907 accepted as Isodictya Bowerbank, 1864 (additional source)
Cercidochela lankesteri Kirkpatrick, 1907 accepted as Isodictya lankesteri (Kirkpatrick, 1907) (additional source)
Chondrocladia (Chondrocladia) antarctica Hentschel, 1914 (additional source)
Chondrocladia (Chondrocladia) clavata Ridley & Dendy, 1886 (additional source)
Chondropsis chaliniformis (sensu Lendenfeld, 1889) (misapplication)
Cinachyra antarctica (Carter, 1872) (additional source)
Cinachyra barbata Sollas, 1886 (additional source)
Cladorhiza mani Koltun, 1964 (additional source)
Cladorhiza moruliformis Ridley & Dendy, 1886 (additional source)
Cladorhiza tridentata Ridley & Dendy, 1886 (additional source)
Clathria lipochela Burton, 1932 represented as Clathria (Clathria) lipochela Burton, 1932 (additional source)
Clathria pauper Brøndsted, 1927 represented as Clathria (Clathria) pauper Brøndsted, 1927 (basis of record)
Clathria terraenovae Dendy, 1924 represented as Clathria (Clathria) terraenovae Dendy, 1924 (additional source)
Clathria toxipraedita Topsent, 1913 represented as Clathria (Clathria) toxipraedita Topsent, 1913 (additional source)
Coelosphaera appendiculata antarctica Koltun, 1976 represented as Coelosphaera (Coelosphaera) antarctica Koltun, 1976 (additional source)
Coelosphaera globosa Bergquist, 1961 represented as Coelosphaera (Coelosphaera) globosa Bergquist, 1961 (additional source)
Crella (Pytheas) Topsent, 1890 (additional source)
Crella (Pytheas) crassa (Hentschel, 1914) (additional source)
Crella stylifera Hentschel, 1914 represented as Crella (Pytheas) stylifera Hentschel, 1914 (basis of record)
Crellina Hentschel, 1914 accepted as Crella (Crella) Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Crellina tubifex Hentschel, 1914 accepted as Crella (Crella) tubifex (Hentschel, 1914) (additional source)
Desmacella vestibularis (Wilson, 1904) (additional source)
Desmacidon ramosum Ridley & Dendy, 1886 accepted as Fibulia ramosa (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (additional source)
Dictyodendrilla membranosa (Pallas, 1776) sensu Burton, 1932 accepted as Dictyodendrilla pallasi (Ridley, 1884) (basis of record)
Dolichacantha macrodon Hentschel, 1914 (additional source)
Ectomyxilla Hentschel, 1914 accepted as Myxilla (Ectyomyxilla) Hentschel, 1914 (basis of record)
Ectomyxilla chilensis (Thiele, 1905) accepted as Myxilla (Ectyomyxilla) chilensis Thiele, 1905 (source of synonymy)
Ectomyxilla mariana (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) accepted as Myxilla (Ectyomyxilla) mariana Ridley & Dendy, 1886 (basis of record)
Ectyodoryx anacantha Hentschel, 1914 accepted as Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) anacantha (Hentschel, 1914) (additional source)
Ectyodoryx antarctica Hentschel, 1914 accepted as Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) antarctica (Hentschel, 1914) (additional source)
Ectyodoryx nobilis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) accepted as Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) nobilis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (basis of record)
Ectyodoryx plumosa Hentschel, 1914 accepted as Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) plumosa (Hentschel, 1914) (additional source)
Ectyodoryx ramilobosa (Topsent, 1916) accepted as Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) ramilobosa (Topsent, 1916) (additional source)
Ectyomyxilla Hentschel, 1914 accepted as Myxilla (Ectyomyxilla) Hentschel, 1914 (additional source)
Ectyomyxilla kerguelensis Hentschel, 1914 represented as Myxilla (Ectyomyxilla) kerguelensis (Hentschel, 1914) (additional source)
Esperiopsis informis Stephens, 1915 accepted as Amphilectus informis (Stephens, 1915) (additional source)
Esperiopsis rugosa Thiele, 1905 accepted as Amphilectus rugosus (Thiele, 1905) (additional source)
Esperiopsis scotiae Topsent, 1915 (basis of record)
Eumastia attenuata Topsent, 1915 accepted as Halichondria (Eumastia) attenuata (Topsent, 1915) (basis of record)
Eurypon miniaceum Thiele, 1905 (additional source)
Gellius carduus Ridley & Dendy, 1886 accepted as Haliclona (Gellius) carduus (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (additional source)
Gellius cucurbitiformis Kirkpatrick, 1907 accepted as Haliclona (Gellius) cucurbitiformis (Kirkpatrick, 1907) (additional source)
Gellius pilosus Kirkpatrick, 1907 accepted as Hemigellius pilosus (Kirkpatrick, 1907) (additional source)
Gellius rudis Topsent, 1901 accepted as Haliclona (Gellius) rudis (Topsent, 1901) (additional source)
Gellius tylotoxus (Hentschel, 1914) accepted as Haliclona (Gellius) tylotoxa (Hentschel, 1914) (basis of record)
Geodinella Lendenfeld, 1903 accepted as Geodia Lamarck, 1815 (additional source)
Geodinella vestigifera Dendy, 1924 accepted as Geodia vestigifera (Dendy, 1924) (additional source)
Guitarra antarctica var. novaezealandiae Dendy, 1924 accepted as Guitarra novaezealandiae Dendy, 1924 (additional source)
Guitarra fimbriata Carter, 1874 (misapplication)
Halichondria (Halichondria) hentscheli Koltun, 1964 accepted as Halichondria (Halichondria) prostrata Thiele, 1905 (basis of record)
Haliclona (Gellius) bidens Topsent, 1901 accepted as Hemigellius bidens (Topsent, 1901) (basis of record)
Haliclona (Gellius) kerguelensis (Hentschel, 1914) accepted as Calyx kerguelensis (Hentschel, 1914) (additional source)
Haliclona (Gellius) pedunculata (Lévi, 1993) (additional source)
Haliclona (Reniera) topsenti (Thiele, 1905) (additional source)
Haliclona altera (Topsent, 1901) represented as Haliclona (Reniera) altera (Topsent, 1901) (additional source)
Haliclona bilamellata Burton, 1932 (additional source)
Haliclona dancoi (Topsent, 1913) represented as Haliclona (Rhizoniera) dancoi (Topsent, 1913) (additional source)
Haliclona penicillata (Topsent, 1908) (additional source)
Haliclona proletaria (Topsent, 1908) (additional source)
Haliclona spongiosissima (Topsent, 1908) (additional source)
Haliclona virens (Topsent, 1908) (additional source)
Haliclonissa verrucosa Burton, 1932 (additional source)
Hemigellius fimbriatus (Kirkpatrick, 1907) (additional source)
Hemigellius pachyderma Burton, 1932 (additional source)
Hemigellius pilosus (Kirkpatrick, 1907) (additional source)
Homaxinella flagelliformis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (basis of record)
Hoplakithera accepted as Guitarra Carter, 1874 (basis of record)
Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) gaussiana Hentschel, 1914 (additional source)
Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) unguifera Burton, 1929 (additional source)
Hymenancora exigua (Kirkpatrick, 1907) (additional source)
Hymenancora rhaphidophora Hentschel, 1914 (additional source)
Hymenancora rufa (Kirkpatrick, 1907) (additional source)
Hymeniacidon centrotyla Hentschel, 1914 (additional source)
 Authority

(Keferstein, 1863) is mentioned in RAMS [details]

 Authority

(Kinberg, 1866) according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Author uncertain [details]

 Authority

Described by Lyman in 1882 [details]

 Authority

Ehlers, 1874 according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Ehlers, 1897 according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Gambi et al., 1997 found 2 not yet described species: "sp.1" and "sp.2" [details]

 Authority

Hartman, 1967 according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Mentioned as Kinberg, 1866a in RAMS [details]

 Authority

Monniot & Monniot, 1982 [details]

 Authority

RAMS gives this species (Kroyer, 1856) as author [details]

 Authority

RAMS mentions Ehlers, 1875 as author [details]

 Authority

Schmarda, 1861 according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

The authors are uncertain about the authority [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Xenobalanus belongs to the Bathylasmatidae family instead of the Coronulidae family. [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Ascothorax belongs to the Synagogidae family instead of the Ascothoracidae family. [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the family Synagogidae belongs to the Cirripedia infraclass instead of the Ascothoracida infraclass. [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the family Dendrogastridae belongs to the Cirripedia infraclass instead of the Ascothoracida ... [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the family Ctenosculidae belongs to the Cirripedia infraclass instead of the Ascothoracida ... [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Balanus belongs to the Bathylasmatidae family instead of the Balanidae family. [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Coronula belongs to the Bathylasmatidae family instead of the Coronulidae family. [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Anoplodactylus belongs to the Pycnogonidae family instead of the Phoxichilidiidae family. [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Pallenopsis belongs to the Callipallenidae; in the printed version of ERMS, the genus is ... [details]

 Classification

belongs to familt Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Belongs to family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Belongs to family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Belongs to the family Arcturidae accoring to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Considered by RAMS to belong to the Family Exochellidae [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Genus Escharella is considered by RAMS to belong to the FamilyExochellidae [details]

 Classification

Listed under Dimeatidae in Clarke & Johnston (2003). [details]

 Classification

Listed under family Pyuridae [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Placed in family Plicatocrinidae by Clarke & Johnston (2003). [details]

 Classification

Placed under Subfamily Coninae [details]

 Classification

The Genus Escharoides is considered bt RAMS to belong to the Family Exochellidae [details]

 Classification

Under Subfamily Cioninae [details]

 Identification

cf. loveni Malmgren, 1865 [details]

 Identification

The authors are uncertain about the Species [details]

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 for Actiniaria

Actinaria [details]

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Actinidae [details]

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Actinoschyphiidae [details]

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Also spelled Cerebratulus malvidi in RAMS [details]

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Also spelled T. maikenensis in RAMS [details]

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As far as is known the genus misspelling 'Leospira' exists only in an unpublished checklist associated with the ... [details]

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commonly misspelled as Dendrophyllidae [details]

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Gorgonidae [details]

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In RAMS spelled as Cymodocea australis [details]

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in RAMS spelled as M. longircollaris [details]

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In RAMS spelled as S.( Leodamus) marginatus mcleani [details]

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In RAMS spelled as S. (Leodamus) ohlini [details]

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In RAMS, this species is spelled "Herdmadion magalhaensi" [details]

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Jathrippa [details]

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Kophobelemnonidae [details]

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listed as Mogula robini [details]

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Mogula pedunculata in RAMS checklist [details]

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Referred to by RAMS as Leucoselenia discoveryi[details]

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Referred to by RAMS as Leucoselenia[details]

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Referred to by RAMS as Biemna chiliensis[details]

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Referred to by RAMS as Coelosphaera appendiculata[details]

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Referred to by RAMS as Desmacidon ramosa and by Uriz as Desmacidon ramosus, but corrected for gender of genus name. [details]

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Referred to by RAMS as Dolichocantha macrodon[details]

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Spelled as Alyconidum eightsi in RAMS [details]

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Spelled as Amphlibestrum inermis in RAMS [details]

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Spelled as Camploplites retiformis in RAMS [details]

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Spelled Harmothoe (Harmathoe) spinosa in RAMS [details]

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Spelled Herdmadion in RAMS [details]

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Spelled in RAMS as Pseudoscalibregmida bransfieldia [details]

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Spelles as Amphiporus gerlachi in RAMS [details]

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This Genus is also spelled Frontoserolils in RAMS [details]

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Umbellula thomsonii [details]

 Taxonomy

(Hartman, 1978) mentions 3 not yet described species: sp.A, sp. B and sp. C [details]

 Taxonomy

A species named A. nr. hastulifera was described by (Fauvel, 1936) in RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

Belongs to Lineidae accoriding to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

Belongs to Prosorhochmidae according to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

Classified under Iphitimidae [details]

 Taxonomy

Classified under Onuphidae in RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

Gambi et al., 1997 mentions two not yet described species: sp. 1 and sp. 2 [details]

 Taxonomy

Gambi et al., 1997 mentios 2 not yet described species: sp.1 and sp.2 [details]

 Taxonomy

Gambi et al., 1997 mention a not yet described species, Harmothoe sp.1 [details]

 Taxonomy

Hooper (2002) and Van Soest (2002) in the same volume assign Bipocillopsis as a junior synonym to different genera ... [details]

 Taxonomy

RAMS also mentions a species Pionosyllis cf. comosa [details]

 Taxonomy

RAMS also mentions a species Autolytus cf. simplex [details]

 Taxonomy

RAMS also mentions a species Autolutus cf. maclearanus [details]

 Taxonomy

RAMS mentions also a species Sphaerosyllis cf. tetralix[details]

 Taxonomy

Referred to by RAMS as Monosyringa, which is a junior synonym. [details]

 Taxonomy

Referred to by RAMS as Geodinella, which is a junior genus name for Geodia according to a checklist provided by Rob ... [details]

 Taxonomy

The genus Leodora is placed under Serpulidae according to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

This genus belongs to Lineidae according to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

This Genus is placed under Serpulidae in RAMS [details]



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