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Morrow C.; Cárdenas P. (2015). Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera). Frontiers in Zoology. 12:7.
197322
10.1186/s12983-015-0099-8 [view]
Morrow C.; Cárdenas P.
2015
Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera)
Frontiers in Zoology
12:7
Publication
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
Background Demospongiae is the largest sponge class including 81% of all living sponges with nearly 7,000 species worldwide. Systema Porifera (2002) was the result of a large international collaboration to update the Demospongiae higher taxa classification, essentially based on morphological data. Since then, an increasing number of molecular phylogenetic studies have considerably shaken this taxonomic framework, with numerous polyphyletic groups revealed or confirmed and new clades discovered. And yet, despite a few taxonomical changes, the overall framework of the Systema Porifera classification still stands and is used as it is by the scientific community. This has led to a widening phylogeny/classification gap which creates biases and inconsistencies for the many end-users of this classification and ultimately impedes our understanding of today’s marine ecosystems and evolutionary processes. In an attempt to bridge this phylogeny/classification gap, we propose to officially revise the higher taxa Demospongiae classification. Discussion We propose a revision of the Demospongiae higher taxa classification, essentially based on molecular data of the last ten years. We recommend the use of three subclasses: Verongimorpha, Keratosa and Heteroscleromorpha. We retain seven (Agelasida, Chondrosiida, Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, Haplosclerida, Poecilosclerida, Verongiida) of the 13 orders from Systema Porifera. We recommend the abandonment of five order names (Hadromerida, Halichondrida, Halisarcida, lithistids, Verticillitida) and resurrect or upgrade six order names (Axinellida, Merliida, Spongillida, Sphaerocladina, Suberitida, Tetractinellida). Finally, we create seven new orders (Bubarida, Desmacellida, Polymastiida, Scopalinida, Clionaida, Tethyida, Trachycladida). These added to the recently created orders (Biemnida and Chondrillida) make a total of 22 orders in the revised classification. We propose the abandonment of the haplosclerid and poecilosclerid suborders. The family content of each order is also revised. Summary The deletion of polyphyletic taxa, the use of resurrected or new names for new clades and the proposal of new family groupings will improve the comparability of studies in a wide range of scientific fields using sponges as their object of study. It is envisaged that this will lead to new and more meaningful evolutionary hypotheses for the end-users of the Demospongiae classification.
Cladism, Cladistics, Phylogenetics
Molecular systematics, Molecular biology
Systematics, Taxonomy
RIS (EndNote, Reference Manager, ProCite, RefWorks)
BibTex (BibDesk, LaTeX)
Date
action
by
2015-04-21 07:20:09Z
created
2015-04-21 10:18:47Z
changed

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcanthochaetetidae Fischer, 1970 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAcanthostylotella Burton & Rao, 1932 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAgelasida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAmphinomia Hooper, 1991 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAstrophorina (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAxinellida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBiemnida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBiemnidae Hentschel, 1923 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBubarida (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBubaridae Topsent, 1894 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorChondrillida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorChondrillidae Gray, 1872 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorChondrosiida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClionaida (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClionaidae d'Orbigny, 1851 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDemospongiae (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDendroceratida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDesmacellida (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDesmacellidae Ridley & Dendy, 1886 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDesmanthidae Topsent, 1893 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDesmoxyidae Hallmann, 1917 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHeteroxyidae Dendy, 1905 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDictyonellidae van Soest, Diaz & Pomponi, 1990 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHalicnemia Bowerbank, 1864 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHalisarcida accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorChondrillida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHamacanthidae Gray, 1872 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaplosclerida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHaploscleromorpha accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHeteroscleromorpha (source of synonymy)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHemiasterellidae Lendenfeld, 1889 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHeteroscleromorpha (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHeteroscleromorpha incertae sedis (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHeteroxyidae Dendy, 1905 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHigginsia Higgin, 1877 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHymerhabdiidae Morrow, Picton, Erpenbeck, Boury-Esnault, Maggs & Allcock, 2012 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorKeratosa (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMerliida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorParatimea Hallmann, 1917 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPoecilosclerida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPolymastiida (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorRaspailiidae Nardo, 1833 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorRhabderemiidae Topsent, 1928 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorScleritodermidae Sollas, 1888 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorScopalinida (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorScopalinidae Morrow, Picton, Erpenbeck, Boury-Esnault, Maggs & Allcock, 2012 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSiphonidiidae Lendenfeld, 1903 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSphaerocladina (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpirastrellidae Ridley & Dendy, 1886 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpirophorina (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpongillida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStelligeridae Lendenfeld, 1898 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSuberitida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSuberitidae Schmidt, 1870 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTethyida (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTethyidae Gray, 1848 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTetractinellida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorThymosia Topsent, 1895 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTimeidae Topsent, 1928 (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTrachycladida (original description)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVerongiida (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVerongimorpha (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Status

Since Morrow & Cárdenas' (2015) revision of the higher taxa of the Demospongiae, Spirophorida Bergquist & Hogg, ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Status

Since Morrow & Cárdenas' (2015) revision of the higher taxa of the Demospongiae, Astrophorida sensu Lévi, 1973 ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Status

Since Morrow & Cárdenas' (2015) revision of the higher taxa of the Demospongiae, Astrophorida sensu Lévi, 1973 ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Status

Since Morrow & Cárdenas' (2015) revision of the higher taxa of the Demospongiae, Spirophorida Bergquist & Hogg, ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Taxonomy

In recent molecular-phylogenetic studies (e.g. Borchiellini et al. 2004; Maldonado, 2009), the old name Myxospongiae is ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Taxonomy

Prior to Lévi's (1955) rearrangement of the Demosponge orders the name Keratosa was used to accomodate sponges ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Taxonomy

Since the publication of the Systema Porifera, thirteen years of predominantly molecular work has been performed ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Taxonomy
 for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorKeratosa

The order Keratosa was used prior to Lévi's (1955) rearrangement of the Demosponge orders to accomodate sponges ... [details]



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