Integrative taxonomy of sympatric species of Plakina in SE Brazil.
Added on 2019-04-12 15:17:22 by Boury-Esnault, Nicole
Muricy, G.; Domingos, C.; Lage, A.; Lanna, E.; Hardoim, C.C.P.; Laport, M.S.; Zilberberg, C. (2019). Integrative taxonomy widens our knowledge of the diversity, distribution and biology of the genus Plakina (Homosclerophorida: Plakinidae). Invertebrate Systematics, 33: 367-401
Despite the evolutionary significance of Homoscleromorpha, their diversity and biology are largely unknown. Here we integrate data of morphology, cytology, microbiology, ecology, reproduction, and mitochondrial cox-1 and cob gene sequences to resolve a complex of sympatric species of Plakina in South-Eastern Brazil. All datasets congruently supported the delimitation of three species, two of which are new to science. Plakina coerulea has its distribution extended from one locality to over 2360 km wide. Plakina cabofriense, sp. nov. also occurs in North-eastern Brazil. Plakina cyanorosea, sp. nov. occurs only in a single, small tide pool and may be critically endangered. Plakina cyanorosea, sp. nov. produces conspicuous, abundant larvae useful for laboratory investigations. A thin, bright orange organic coat covers some spicules of P. cabofriense, sp. nov. and P. cyanorosea, sp. nov. The three Plakina species harbour diverse microbial symbiont communities, including previously unknown morphologies. Molecular phylogenies and barcoding gaps based on cox-1 and cob sequences supported that each species is monophyletic and distinct from other congeners. The genus Plakina is paraphyletic and strongly needs redefinition. The integrative approach provides new data that widens our knowledge of Homoscleromorpha diversity, distribution and biology.