New species from South Georgia
Added on 2012-11-07 10:11:47 by Hooper, John
Goodwin, C.; Brewin, P.E.; Brickle, P. 2012 Sponge biodiversity of South Georgia island with descriptions of fifteen new species. Zootaxa 3542: 1–48.
Sponge samples were taken by SCUBA diving from sixteen sites on the north coast of South Georgia island, south west Southern Ocean. Fifteen new species are described: Iophon husvikensis sp. nov., Clathria (Clathria) stromnessa sp. nov., Clathria (Axosuberites) rosita sp. nov., Clathria (Microciona) matthewsi sp. nov., Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) collinsi sp. nov., Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) barnesi sp. nov., Hymedesmia (Stylopus) pharos sp. nov., Myxilla (Burtoanchora) ponceti sp. nov., Tedania (Tedaniopsis) aurantiaca sp. nov., Tedania (Tedaniopsis) wellsae sp. nov., Mycale (Mycale) brownorum sp. nov., Mycale (Mycale) cartwrighti sp. nov., Haliclona (Soestella) crowtheri sp. nov., Microxina myxa sp. nov. and Calyx shackletoni sp. nov. Information is also provided on the distribution and in situ external appearance of other sponge species such as Cinachyra barbata Sollas 1886, Polymastia invaginata Kirkpatrick 1907, Iophon unicorne Topsent 1907, Phorbas glaberrimus (Topsent 1917), Myxilla (Ectyomyxilla) kerguelensis (Hentschel 1914) and Rossella nuda Topsent 1901. These results increase the previously reported low sponge endemicity in South Georgia, which now better aligns with the high endemicity of other groups. However, because we sampled areas that have been poorly sampled in the Southern Ocean / Antarctic region (shallow subtidal, rocky), many of these species may have wider polar distributions. The effect of the Polar Front as a dispersal barrier to neighbouring biogeographic regions is discussed.