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Polychaeta taxon details

Leocrates Kinberg, 1866

129312  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:129312)

accepted
Genus
Dalhousia McIntosh, 1885 (subjective synonym)
Lamproderma Grube, 1877 (subjective synonym)
Lamprophaes Grube, 1867 (subjective synonym)
Tyrrhena Claparède, 1868 (subjective synonym)
Species Leocrates anomalus Chamberlin, 1919
Species Leocrates atlanticus (McIntosh, 1885)
Species Leocrates auritus Hessle, 1925
Species Leocrates chinensis Kinberg, 1866
Species Leocrates claparedii (Costa in Claparède, 1868)
Species Leocrates diplognathus Monro, 1926
Species Leocrates djangkarensis Augener & Pettibone in Pettibone, 1970
Species Leocrates giardi Gravier, 1900
Species Leocrates greeffianus Augener, 1918
Species Leocrates indicus Horst, 1921
Species Leocrates longicirratus (Treadwell, 1901)
Species Leocrates oculatus (Treadwell, 1906)
Species Leocrates papillosus Monro, 1926
Species Leocrates wesenberglundae Pettibone, 1970

Subgenus Leocrates (Leocratides) (Ehlers, 1908) represented as Leocratides Ehlers, 1908 (superseded alternate representation)
  » Species Leocrates (Leocratides) ehlersi (Horst, 1921) represented as Leocratides ehlersi (Horst, 1921) (superseded alternate representation)

Species Leocrates anonymus Hessle, 1925 accepted as Leocrates chinensis Kinberg, 1866 (subjective synonym)
Species Leocrates atlantica (Roule, 1896) accepted as Leocrates atlanticus (McIntosh, 1885) (junior secondary homonym, gender misspelling, synonym of its senior homonym)
Species Leocrates cupreus (Grube, 1867) accepted as Leocrates chinensis Kinberg, 1866 (recombination as subjective synonym)
Species Leocrates ehlersi Horst, 1921 accepted as Leocratides ehlersi (Horst, 1921) (superseded original combination)
Species Leocrates iris Grube, 1878 accepted as Leocrates chinensis Kinberg, 1866 (subjective synonym)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
recent only
Kinberg, J. G. H. 1865 [1866?]. Annulata Nova. Öfversigt af Königlich Vetenskapsakademiens förhandlingar, Stockholm 22(4): 239-258., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/100715#page/253/mode/1up
page(s): 244; note: created for Leocrates chinensis, new species, and Hesione proctochona Schmarda is suggested to belong to the genus [details]   
Note Type species Leocrates chinensis Kinberg 1866...  
From other sources
Type species Type species Leocrates chinensis Kinberg 1866 in Fauchald, 1977 <246>. [details]
Etymology not stated but Leocrates is a Greek masculine personal name. Leocrates was a leading Athenian general of the First...  
Etymology not stated but Leocrates is a Greek masculine personal name. Leocrates was a leading Athenian general of the First Peloponnesian War. Kinberg uses many personal names derived from Greek history [details]

Taxonomy Wang et al (2018: 10) state that "Pettibone (1970) included as junior synonyms some species based upon specimens from...  
Taxonomy Wang et al (2018: 10) state that "Pettibone (1970) included as junior synonyms some species based upon specimens from distant localities with different morphologies; after our study of variation in L. chinensis, they are herein regarded as distinct, and are included in the key." However, they do not state which species names this comment applies to. This comment also does not explain that Pettibone's synonymies were in several cases based on prior synonymies by earlier authors. Careful examination shows that only Castalia claparedii and C. longicirrata (original names) as included in Wang et al's Leocrates key differ from Pettibones' synonymy placements with L. chinensis . Here is Pettibone's (1970 p.213) summary:

SUMMARY OF SPECIES OF LEOCRATES KINBERG AND LEOCRATIDES EHLERS

Leocrates chinensis Kinberg, 1866. Near Hong Kong, China. Types examined by Ehlers (1901) and Hartman (1949).See page 16.
Lamprophaes cuprea Grube, 1866. Samoa. Referred to Leocrates chinensis by Ehlers (1901).
Tyrrhena claparedii (Castalia claparedii A. Costa, in litt.) Claparede, 1868. Naples. Referred to Leocrates chinensis by Imajima & Hartman, 1964.
Leocrates cupreus var. iridis Grube, 1878. Samoa and Philippine Islands. Referred to Leocrates chinensis by Ehlers (1901). [a misinterpretation by several authors, including Wang et al (2018:.2, misspelled as 'iridus') of a usage of L cupreus Grube by Grube. There is no such subspecies or variety and it is a nomen nudum, see note for Aphia 341063]
Leocrates iris Grube, 1878. Philippine Islands. Referred to Leocrates chinensis by Ehlers (1901).
Dalhousia atlantica McIntosh, 1885. North Atlantic, south of Canary Islands. Referred to Leocrates atlanticus (McIntosh)
by Marenzeller (1904). Holotype examined (BMNH 1885: 12: 1: 139). See page 24.
Tyrrhena atlantica Roule, 1896. Off Western France. HOMONYM. Referred to Leocrates atlanticus (McIntosh) by Fauvel (1914).
Leocrates giardi Gravier, 1900. Red Sea. See page 21.
Castalia longicirrata Treadwell, 1901. Caribbean Sea (Virgin Islands). Holotype examined (USNM 15915). Referred herein to Leocrates chinensis. See page 16.
Castalia oculata Treadwell, 1906. Hawaii. Holotype examined (USNM 5200). Referred herein to Leocrates giardi. See page 21.
Leocratides filamentosus Ehlers, 1908. Tropical Pacific Ocean. Syntypes (4) examined (ZMB 4431). See page 32.
Leocrates greeffianus Augener, 1918. Tropical West Africa. Holotype examined (ZMH 5700). See page 26.
Leocrates anomalus Chamberlin, 1919. Tropical Pacific (Marshall Islands). Holotype examined (USNM 19392). Referred herein to Leocrates giardi. See page 21.
Leocrates eblersi Horst, 1921. East Indies. Syntypes (15) examined (ZMA Vpol. 533; USNM 37646). Referred herein to Leocratides filamentosus. See page 32.
Leocrates indicus Horst, 1921. Banda Sea, East Indies. Holotype examined (ZMA Vpol. 2481). Referred herein to Leocrates atlanticus. See page 24.
Leocrates anonymus Hessle, 1925. Japan. Referred to Leocrates chinensis by Monro (1926).
Leocrates auritus Hessle, 1925. Bonin Islands, Pacific Ocean. Questionably referred herein to Leocrates giardi. See page 21.
Leocrates diplognathus Monro, 1926. China Sea. Syntypes (4) examined (BMNH 1926: 4: 30: 123-125). See page 20.
Leocrates papillosus Monro, 1926. China Sea. Syntypes (2) examined (BMNH 1926: 4: 30: 131-132). Referred herein to Leocrates giardi. See page 21.
Leocrates wesenberglundae Pettibone, new species. Gulf of Oman. Holotype and paratypes (3) (UZMC; USNM 37647). See page 27.
Leocrates djangkarensis Augener & Pettibone, new species. Malay Archipelago. Holotype and paratype (ZMA Vpol. 534.3, Vpol. 2104). See page 29.
In his report on "Siboga" material of this family, Horst (1924) emphasized the similarities of Leocrates Kinberg and Leocratides Ehlers by using the latter as a subgenus of the former.
 [details]
Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2018). World Polychaeta database. Leocrates Kinberg, 1866. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/polychaeta/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=129312 on 2018-04-21
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2008-03-04 06:49:09Z
changed
2008-03-26 11:36:43Z
changed
2013-10-30 21:06:18Z
changed

original description Kinberg, J. G. H. 1865 [1866?]. Annulata Nova. Öfversigt af Königlich Vetenskapsakademiens förhandlingar, Stockholm 22(4): 239-258., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/100715#page/253/mode/1up
page(s): 244; note: created for Leocrates chinensis, new species, and Hesione proctochona Schmarda is suggested to belong to the genus [details]   

original description  (ofLamproderma Grube, 1877) Grube, A. E. (1877). Anneliden - Ausbeute S.M.S. Gazelle. Monatsbericht der Koniglich Preussischer Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 509-554., available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/35723826
page(s): 525 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (ofDalhousia McIntosh, 1885) McIntosh, William C. (1885). Report on the Annelida Polychaeta collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Ser. Zoology. vol. 12 [part 34 of reports]: 1-554, plates 1-55, 1A-39A, & Annelida stations map., available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/50688426
page(s): 186 [details]   

original description  (ofLamprophaes Grube, 1867) Grube, A.E. 1866. Neue anneliden aus den Gattungen Eunice, Hesione, Lamprophaës, und Travisia. Schles.gesellschaft fur vaterlandische cultur Breslau Jahresber., 44: 64-66.
page(s): 65 [details]   

original description  (ofTyrrhena Claparède, 1868) Claparède, É. (1868). Les annélides chétopodes du Golfe de Naples. Mémoires de la Société de Physique et d'Histoire Naturelle de Genève. 19(2): 313-584, plates I-XVI., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/50163#page/375/mode/1up
page(s): 537 [details]   

taxonomy source Wang, Zhi; Qiu Jian-Wen & Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I. (2018). Redescription of Leocrates chinensis Kinberg, 1866 (Annelida, Hesionidae). Zoological Studies. 57(5): 1-11., available online at http://zoolstud.sinica.edu.tw/Journals/57/57-05.html
note: authors state "Pettibone (1970) included as junior synonyms some species based upon specimens from distant localities with different morphologies; after our study of variation in L. chinensis, they ar...  
authors state "Pettibone (1970) included as junior synonyms some species based upon specimens from distant localities with different morphologies; after our study of variation in L. chinensis, they are herein regarded as distinct, and are included in the key." However, they do not state which species names this comment applies to.
 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

basis of record Bellan, Gerard. (2001). Polychaeta, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels. 50: pp. 214-231. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Day, J. H. (1967). [Errantia] A monograph on the Polychaeta of Southern Africa. Part 1. Errantia. British Museum (Natural History), London. pp. vi, 1–458, xxix., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/8596  [details]   

additional source Pleijel, Fredrik 1998. Phylogeny and classification of Hesionidae (Polychaeta). Zoologica Scripta, 27(2): 89-163, 38 figures, 7 tables. [details]   

additional source Fauchald, K. (1977). The polychaete worms, definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County: Los Angeles, CA (USA), Science Series. 28:1-188., available online at http://www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/123110.pdf [details]   

status source  (ofTyrrhena Claparède, 1868) Hartman, Olga. (1959). Catalogue of the Polychaetous Annelids of the World. Parts 1 and 2. Allan Hancock Foundation Occasional Paper. 23: 1-628.
page(s): 193 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

status source  (ofLamprophaes Grube, 1867) Hartman, Olga. (1959). Catalogue of the Polychaetous Annelids of the World. Parts 1 and 2. Allan Hancock Foundation Occasional Paper. 23: 1-628.
page(s): 187 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

source of synonymy  (ofLamprophaes Grube, 1867) Chamberlin, Ralph V. 1919. The Annelida Polychaeta [Albatross Expeditions]. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 48: 1-514., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/ia/memoirsofmuseumo4801harv
page(s): 190 [details]   

status source  (ofDalhousia McIntosh, 1885) Hartman, Olga. (1959). Catalogue of the Polychaetous Annelids of the World. Parts 1 and 2. Allan Hancock Foundation Occasional Paper. 23: 1-628.
page(s): 184 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
From editor or global species database
Etymology not stated but Leocrates is a Greek masculine personal name. Leocrates was a leading Athenian general of the First Peloponnesian War. Kinberg uses many personal names derived from Greek history [details]

Grammatical gender Masculine. Leocrates is a male name from ancient Greece. Most prior authors have treated Leocrates as masculine. [details]

Taxonomy Wang et al (2018: 10) state that "Pettibone (1970) included as junior synonyms some species based upon specimens from distant localities with different morphologies; after our study of variation in L. chinensis, they are herein regarded as distinct, and are included in the key." However, they do not state which species names this comment applies to. This comment also does not explain that Pettibone's synonymies were in several cases based on prior synonymies by earlier authors. Careful examination shows that only Castalia claparedii and C. longicirrata (original names) as included in Wang et al's Leocrates key differ from Pettibones' synonymy placements with L. chinensis . Here is Pettibone's (1970 p.213) summary:

SUMMARY OF SPECIES OF LEOCRATES KINBERG AND LEOCRATIDES EHLERS

Leocrates chinensis Kinberg, 1866. Near Hong Kong, China. Types examined by Ehlers (1901) and Hartman (1949).See page 16.
Lamprophaes cuprea Grube, 1866. Samoa. Referred to Leocrates chinensis by Ehlers (1901).
Tyrrhena claparedii (Castalia claparedii A. Costa, in litt.) Claparede, 1868. Naples. Referred to Leocrates chinensis by Imajima & Hartman, 1964.
Leocrates cupreus var. iridis Grube, 1878. Samoa and Philippine Islands. Referred to Leocrates chinensis by Ehlers (1901). [a misinterpretation by several authors, including Wang et al (2018:.2, misspelled as 'iridus') of a usage of L cupreus Grube by Grube. There is no such subspecies or variety and it is a nomen nudum, see note for Aphia 341063]
Leocrates iris Grube, 1878. Philippine Islands. Referred to Leocrates chinensis by Ehlers (1901).
Dalhousia atlantica McIntosh, 1885. North Atlantic, south of Canary Islands. Referred to Leocrates atlanticus (McIntosh)
by Marenzeller (1904). Holotype examined (BMNH 1885: 12: 1: 139). See page 24.
Tyrrhena atlantica Roule, 1896. Off Western France. HOMONYM. Referred to Leocrates atlanticus (McIntosh) by Fauvel (1914).
Leocrates giardi Gravier, 1900. Red Sea. See page 21.
Castalia longicirrata Treadwell, 1901. Caribbean Sea (Virgin Islands). Holotype examined (USNM 15915). Referred herein to Leocrates chinensis. See page 16.
Castalia oculata Treadwell, 1906. Hawaii. Holotype examined (USNM 5200). Referred herein to Leocrates giardi. See page 21.
Leocratides filamentosus Ehlers, 1908. Tropical Pacific Ocean. Syntypes (4) examined (ZMB 4431). See page 32.
Leocrates greeffianus Augener, 1918. Tropical West Africa. Holotype examined (ZMH 5700). See page 26.
Leocrates anomalus Chamberlin, 1919. Tropical Pacific (Marshall Islands). Holotype examined (USNM 19392). Referred herein to Leocrates giardi. See page 21.
Leocrates eblersi Horst, 1921. East Indies. Syntypes (15) examined (ZMA Vpol. 533; USNM 37646). Referred herein to Leocratides filamentosus. See page 32.
Leocrates indicus Horst, 1921. Banda Sea, East Indies. Holotype examined (ZMA Vpol. 2481). Referred herein to Leocrates atlanticus. See page 24.
Leocrates anonymus Hessle, 1925. Japan. Referred to Leocrates chinensis by Monro (1926).
Leocrates auritus Hessle, 1925. Bonin Islands, Pacific Ocean. Questionably referred herein to Leocrates giardi. See page 21.
Leocrates diplognathus Monro, 1926. China Sea. Syntypes (4) examined (BMNH 1926: 4: 30: 123-125). See page 20.
Leocrates papillosus Monro, 1926. China Sea. Syntypes (2) examined (BMNH 1926: 4: 30: 131-132). Referred herein to Leocrates giardi. See page 21.
Leocrates wesenberglundae Pettibone, new species. Gulf of Oman. Holotype and paratypes (3) (UZMC; USNM 37647). See page 27.
Leocrates djangkarensis Augener & Pettibone, new species. Malay Archipelago. Holotype and paratype (ZMA Vpol. 534.3, Vpol. 2104). See page 29.
In his report on "Siboga" material of this family, Horst (1924) emphasized the similarities of Leocrates Kinberg and Leocratides Ehlers by using the latter as a subgenus of the former.
 [details]

From other sources
Habitat Known from seamounts and knolls [details]

Type species Type species Leocrates chinensis Kinberg 1866 in Fauchald, 1977 <246>. [details]