Thalassisobates littoralis, Seil Island, Scotland. Photograph copyright Tony Barber
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Class DIPLOPODA

These are larger animals, variable in appearance but often cylindrical from 2 to 30 mm or more long and with from less than 50 to more than several hundred leg pairs. Their distinctive feature is that most of the apparent trunk segments (diplosegments) bear two pairs of legs. As the animals develop the number of diplosegments and hence of leg pairs increases.

Of the 10,000 or so described species of millipede, four clearly halophilic species are reported from Europe, USA, Far-eastern Russia and Tasmania. In addition, two penicillate or bristly millipedes are also recorded, Polyxenus lapidicola described by Silvestri from the Mediterranean (no subsequent definite records) and a Chilexenus sp. is reported from South Africa by Lawrence (1984).

The total number halophilic diplopod species in the world may be 20 or much more as there are no records at all from western North America, Central & South America and the Caribbean, all of Asia and most of Oceania and littoral diplopods are often difficult to find. Probably there are as yet undescribed, littoral species in collections as well as described species for which no habitat data was recorded at the time.

Other species may occur in supra-littoral sites, some frequently. For instance, Cylindroiulus latestriatus (Curtis, 1845) is characteristically found in such sites all around the coast of Britain and Ireland as well as occurring inland (Lee, 2006).

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrachyiulus pusillus (Leach, 1815)
Scotland; UK; North Coast of Ireland; Wales; Europe...
  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCylindroiulus latestriatus (Curtis, 1845)
Wales; North East Coast of England ; Irish Exclusive economic Zone...
    = Allaiulus latestriatus (Curtis, 1845) 
    = Allajulus frisius (Verhoeff, 1891) 
    = Allajulus latestriatus (Curtis, 1845) 
    = Cylindroiulus frisius (Verhoeff, 1891) 
    = Cylindroiulus oweni (Bollman, 1887) 
    = Cylindroiulus owenii (Bollman, 1887) 
    = Cylindroiulus parisiorum miraculus (Brölemann & Verhoeff, 1896) 
    = Diploiulus hortensis (Wood, 1864) 
    = Diploiulus latestriatus (Curtis, 1845) 
    = Diploiulus latestriatus latestriatus (Curtis, 1845) 
    = Diploiulus luscus (Meinert, 1868) 
    = Iulus frisius Verhoeff, 1891 
    = Iulus hesperus Chamberlin, 1914 
    = Iulus hortensis Wood, 1864 
    = Iulus luscus Meinert, 1868 
    = Iulus luscus var. homalopsis Latzel, 1886 
    = Iulus owenii Bollman, 1887 
    = Iulus parisiorum miraculus Brölemann & Verhoeff, 1896 
    = Julus frisius Verhoeff, 1891 
    = Julus hesperus Chamberlin, 1914 
    = Julus hortensis Wood, 1864 
    = Julus latestriatus Curtis, 1845 (basionym) 
    = Julus luscus Meinert, 1868 
    = Julus luscus var. homalopsis Latzel, 1886 
    = Julus oweni Bollman, 1887 
  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDolichoiulus tongiorgii (Strasser, 1973)
Habitat: littoral zone
European waters (ERMS scope); Mediterranean Sea...
    = Amblyiulus tongiorgii Strasser, 1973 (basionym) 
  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLeptoiulus belgicus (Latzel, 1884)
Habitat: This species is either supralittoral or can be found in...
Wales; Europe; Belgium; Switzerland; Germany; Switzerland...
    = Iulus albolineatus flavopictus Verhoeff, 1891 
    = Iulus albolineatus var. flavopictus Verhoeff, 1891 
    = Iulus albovittatus Verhoeff, 1894 
    = Iulus belgicus Latzel, 1884 
    = Iulus belgicus var. gracilis (Rothenbühler, 1899) 
    = Iulus gracilis Rothenbühler, 1899 
    = Julus belgicus Latzel, 1844 (basionym) 
    = Julus belgicus gracilis Rothenbühler, 1899 
  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLissodesmus orarius Mesibov, 2006
Tasmania; Tasmania
  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOmmatoiulus moreleti (Lucas, 1860)
Habitat: This species is either supralittoral or can be found in...
Tasmania; Iberian Peninsula; Australia; Andalusia...
    = Iulus karschi Verhoeff, 1892 
    = Julus lusitanicus Karsch, 1881 
    = Julus moreleti Lucas, 1860 (basionym) 
    = Ommatoiulus karschi (Verhoeff, 1892) 
    = Ommatoiulus moreletii (Lucas, 1860) 
    = Palaioiulus karschi (Verhoeff, 1892) 
    = Schizophyllum karschi (Verhoeff, 1892) 
  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOmmatoiulus sabulosus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Anglesey; West Coast of England; Wales; Europe; Europe...
    = Iulus bilineatus C. L. Koch, 1838 
    = Iulus rubripes C. L. Koch, 1847 
    = Iulus sabulosus Linnaeus, 1758 
    = Iulus sabulosus var. apunctulatus Fedrizzi, 1877 
    = Ommatoiulus sabulosum (Linnaeus, 1758) 
    = Schizophyllum sabulosum var. bilineatum (C. L. Koch, 1838) 
    = Schizophyllum sabulosus (Linnaeus, 1758) 
  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOrinisobates soror Enghoff, 1985
Sakhalin; Kurile Islands
  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPolyxenus lagurus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Habitat: sometimes in littoral zone
British Isles; North East Atlantic; Germany; Switzerland...
    = Iulus lagurus (Linnaeus, 1758) 
    = Iulus penicillatus DeGeer 
    = Julus lagurus Linnaeus, 1758 (basionym) 
    = Julus penicillatus DeGeer 
    = Pollyxenus lagurus (Linnaeus, 1758) 
    = Scolopendra lagurus Linnaeus, 1758 
  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPolyxenus lapidicola Silvestri, 1903
Habitat: in rocky littoral
Mediterranean Sea; East North Atlantic; Italy...
  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorThalassisobates littoralis (Silvestri, 1903)
Habitat: On beaches, under algae, in shingle, etc. Not always ea...
Isle of Man; West Coast of England; East Coast of England...
    = Halisobates litoralis (Silvestri, 1903) 
    = Isobates adriaticus Verhoeff, 1908 
    = Isobates litoralis Silvestri, 1903 
    = Isobates littoralis Silvestri, 1903 (basionym) 
    = Nemasoma litorale (Silvestri, 1903) 
    = Nemasoma littorale (Silvestri, 1903) 
    = Thalassisobates adriaticus (Verhoeff, 1908) (Synonym) 
    = Thalassisobates litoralis (Silvestri, 1903) 
    = Thalassisobates littorale (Silvestri, 1903) 
  


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