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|Cephalorhyncha (=Loricifera, Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Nematomorpha)|
Neuhaus, B.; van der Land, J. (2001). Cephalorhyncha (=Loricifera, Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Nematomorpha), in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 159-160
In: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50. Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle: Paris. ISBN 2-85653-538-0. 463 pp., more
In: Collection Patrimoines Naturels. Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle: Paris. ISSN 1158-422X
KinorhynchaThe ERMS list for Kinorhyncha and Loricifera was compiled by J. van der Land and Birger Neuhaus. The list of valid species of Kinorhyncha is based on an unpublished list of synonymies by Robert P. Higgins made available to B. Neuhaus.
The Kinorhyncha are a group of microscopic marine animals that comprise some 130 valid species (Pardos et al. 1998). Few species live exclusively in eulittoral sediments (e.g., Echinoderes coulli Higgins, 1977, E. caribiensis Kirsteuer, 1964) or in beach sands (e.g., Cateria styx Gerlach, 1956). However, most species inhabit the eulittoral and sublittoral including the deep-sea. Kinorhyncha live in the interstitial cavities and crevices of coarse or fine sandy substrate or of muddy sediments (Gerlach 1956, Higgins 1990, Vanhove et al. 1995, Zelinka 1928). Only the upper 1-10 cm of oxygen-rich substratum contain Kinorhyncha both in the eulittoral and sublittoral (Horn 1978, Thistle et al. 1985). Kinorhyncha feed on diatoms or bacteria (Higgins 1990, own observations). Kinorhyncha can be extracted from the sediment by the bubble and blot technique (Higgins & Thiel 1988). Higgins & Thiel (1988) describe additional suggestions for specimen processing. Close to nothing is known about the biogeography of kinorhynch species. Every scientist trying to identify Kinorhyncha from the area covered by ERMS is, therefore, well advised to consider species described from neighbouring areas as well, such as the following recorded from other parts of the Arctic Ocean:
Echinoderes angustus Higgins & Kristensen, 1988Echinoderes aquilonius Higgins & Kristensen, 1988Echinoderes arlis Higgins, 1966Echinoderes eximus Higgins & Kristensen, 1988Echinoderes peterseni Higgins & Kristensen, 1988Echinoderes tubilak Higgins & Kristensen, 1988Pycnophyes borealis Higgins & Korczynski, 1989Pycnophyes canadensis Higgins & Korczynski, 1989Pycnophyes chukchiensis Higgins, 1991Pycnophyes cryopygus Higgins & Kristensen, 1988Pycnophyes greenlandicus Higgins & Kristensen, 1988Pycnophyes mokievskii Adrianov, 1995Pycnophyes spitsbergensis Adrianov, 1995
It is also not impossible that species described from the North American coast may occur in European waters or species new to science may turn up. More recent keys for identification include Adrianov (1995), Higgins (1983), Higgins & Kristensen (1988), Huys & Coomans (1989), Pardos et al. (1998). Valuable information is also found in Adrianov & Malakhov (1994), Higgins (1977, 1978, 1985, 1990), Moore (1973), Nebelsick (1990), and Zelinka (1928).
LoriciferaThe marine Loricifera are now known with 11 species from North America, Europe, and the Japanese deep-sea (Higgins & Kristensen 1986, Kristensen 1983, Todaro & Kristensen 1998). Only 2 species have been reported from Europe (Kristensen 1983, Todaro & Kristensen 1998). Loricifera inhabit various kinds of sediment from coarse sand or shelly gravel to red clay with silt and sand. They may be extracted from the substratum either by freshwater shock (Kristensen 1983) or by multiple decantations (Todaro & Kristensen 1998). It is certain that species new to science inhabit the area covered by the ERMS programme.
Priapulida and NematomorphaCompiled by Jacob van der Land
The ERMS lists for Priapulida and Nematomorpha were based on Adrianov & Malakhov (1996) and on Malakhov & Adrianov (1995).
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