Three species of Plakortis and one of Plakinastrella (Demospongiae: Homosclerophorida) collected mostly at oceanic islands off north-eastern Brazil (Atol das Rocas, Fernando de Noronha and São Pedro e São Paulo Archipelago) are described, three of which are new to science: Plakortis angulospiculatus, P. insularis sp. nov., P. microrhabdifera sp. nov, and Plakinastrella microspiculifera sp. nov. External morphological characters such as colour, oscules, and consistency are sufficient to discriminate all the four species in the field, except Plakortis angulospiculatus from P. microrhabdifera. Internal features such as skeletal arrangement, shape and size of diods, and presence of microrhabds and calthrops are also important taxonomic characters for western Atlantic Plakortis and Plakinastrella. We consider as valid only five species of Plakortis in the western Atlantic: the three species described here plus P. halichondrioides and P. zyggompha. All these species except P. zyggompha have been recorded from Brazil. Plakinastrella has now two species in the western Atlantic, P. onkodes and P. microspiculifera sp. nov. The generic distinction between Plakortis and Plakinastrella is tenuous, based only on the presence of spicule size-classes and of deformed vs normal calthrops, and both genera need detailed revision.