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==Marine Plankton==
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==Application and use of underwater video==
  
[[Image:coscinodiscuswailesii_pnw.jpg|thumb|left|250px|''The diatom'' Coscinodiscus wailesii. ''The two ‘valves’ of the cell can be seen in the top left image. Image taken by M. Hoppenrath, provided courtesy of Plankton*Net (image # 12641) <ref name = "Plankton Net"> Plankton Net; Data Provider at the Alfred Wegener Insitute for Polar and Marine Research: http://planktonnet.awi.de/</ref>.'']]
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[[Image:UWVideo_Boutan.jpg|thumb|450px|left|Figure 1: Louis Boutan, the first published underwater photographer pioneered not only photography, but diving equipment in general.]] This article is about the history and application of underwater video. Related articles are underwater video systems, which is about equipment of underwater video systems; and video technology, which deals with video as such. Video imaging in wells and boreholes is similar to underwater video, but puts constraints on the shape and size of the equipment, as does for example underwater video in sewer pipes, nuclear power plants or fish tanks.
  
[[Plankton]] consists of a diverse range of living organisms that spend at least a part of their life cycle suspended in water. The term [[plankton]] is actually a Greek word, meaning ''that which is made to wander or drift''. This term is further divided into the [[phytoplankton]] and [[zooplankton]], meaning plant- (Gk. ''phyto'') and animal- (Gk. ''zoön'') drifters respectively.  
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From the start, underwater video has been used for marine biological studies (see also Figure 3). It may be [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abundance_%28ecology%29 abundance] (Smith & Papadopoulou, 2003<ref name="Smith">Smith, C. J., Papadopoulou, K.-N. (2003); Burrow density and stock size fluctuations of Nephrops norvegicus in a semi-enclosed bay; ICES Journal of Marine Science; 60, pp. 798–805</ref>; Moser et al, 1998<ref name="Moser">Moser, M. L., Auster P. J., Bichy, J. B. (1998); Effects of mat morphology on large Sargassum-associated fishes: observations from a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and free-floating video camcorders; Environmental Biology of Fishes; 51, pp. 391–398</ref>) behavioural studies (Grémillet et al, 2006<ref name="Gremillet>Grémillet, D., Enstipp, M. R., Boudiffa, M., Liu, H. (2006); Do cormorants injure fish without eating them? An underwater video study; Marine Biology; 148, pp. 1081–1087 </ref>; Esteve, 2007<ref name="Esteve"> Esteve, M. (2007);Two examples of fixed behavioural patterns in salmonines: female false spawning and male digging; Journal of Ethology; 25:1, pp. 63-70</ref>) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habitat_%28ecology%29 habitat] mapping (Ryan et al, 2007<ref name="Ryan"> Ryan, D. A., Brooke, B. P., Collins, L. B., Kendrick, G. A., Baxter, K. J., Bickers, A. N., Siwabessy, P. J. W., Pattiaratchi, C. B. (2007); The influence of geomorphology and sedimentary processes on shallow-water benthic habitat distribution: Esperance Bay, Western Australia; Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science; 72:1-2, pp. 379-386</ref>; Abdo et al, 2004<ref name="Abdo">Abdo, D., Burgess, G., Coleman, K. (2004); Surveys of benthic reef communities using underwater video; Long-term monitoring of the great Barrier reef Standard Operational Procedure Number 2, 3rd Revised Edition; Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville 2004; ISBN0-64232231</ref>)
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studies of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fishing fishing] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trawling trawling] (Zhou & Shirley (1997<ref name="Zhou">Zhou, S. Shirley T. C. (1997); Performance of two red king crab pot designs; Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences / Journal canadien des sciences halieutiques et aquatiques; 54, pp 1858–1864</ref>; Cooper and Hickey, 1987<ref name="Cooper">Cooper, C., Hickey, W. (1987); Selectivity experiments with square mesh cod-ends on haddock and cod; IEEE OCEANS; 19, pp. 608-613</ref>)
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and whether the seabed is damaged or not by it (Vorbeg, 2000<ref name="Vorberg">Vorberg, R. (2000); Effects of shrimp fisheries on reefs of Sabellaria spinulosa (Polychaeta); ICES Journal of Marine Science; 57 pp. 1416–1420</ref>; Linnanne et al, 2000<ref name="Linnane">Linnane A., Ball B., Munday B., van Marlen B., Bergman M., Fonteyne R. (2000): A review of potential techniques to reduce the environmental impact of demersal trawl; Irish Fisheries Investigation Series Publications (New Series) No. 7; ISSN0578-7467</ref>) even in combination with a water sampler (Dounas, 2006<ref name="Dounas">Dounas, C. G. (2006); A new apparatus for the direct measurement of the effects of otter trawling on benthic nutrient releases; Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology; 339, pp. 251 – 259</ref>) and to separate living [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coral corals] from dead (Harris et al, 2004<ref name="Harris">Harris, P. T., Heap, A. D., Wassenberg, T., Passlow, V. (2004); Submerged coral reefs in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia; Marine Geology; 207:1-4, pp. 185-191</ref>.)
  
Planktonic organisms may have a limited ability to control their fine-scale distribution in the water column, but are otherwise at the mercy of oceanic currents and water movements. Holoplantkon refers to those organisms that spend their entire life in the plankton, as opposed to the meroplantkon, which are only planktonic for a part of their lives. Organisms that are capable of resisting the powers of currents, such as fish and squid, are referred to as neckton.  
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It has also been used for [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_geology marine geology] (Field et al, 1981<ref name="Field">Field, M. E., Nelson, C. H., Cacchione, D. A., Drake, D. E. (1981); Sand waves on an epicontinental shelf: Northern Bering Sea; Marine Geology; 42:1-4, pp. 233-258</ref>), [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sediment sediment] studies
 
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(Osborne & Greenwood (1991)<ref name="Osborne">Osborne, P. D., Greenwood B. (1991); Frequency dependent cross-shore suspended sediment transport. 2. A barred shoreface; Marine Geology; 106, pp. 25-51 </ref>), [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidal tidal] microtopography (Lund-Hansen et al, 2004<ref name="LundHansen">Lund-Hansen L., Larsen E., Jensen K., Mouritsen K., Christiansen C., Andersen T., Vølund G. (2004); A new video and digital camera system for studies of the dynamics of microtopographic features on tidal flats; Marine Georesources and Geotechnology; 22: 1-2, pp. 115-122</ref>), [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bridge bridge] (DeVault, 2000<ref name="DeVault">DeVault, J.E. (2000); Robotic system for underwater inspection of bridge piers; Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, IEEE; 3:3, pp. 32-37</ref>) and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pipeline_transport pipeline] (Gracias & Santos-Victor, 2000<ref name="Gracias">Gracias, N., Santos-Victor, J. (2000); Underwater Video Mosaics as Visual Navigation Maps; Computer Vision And Image Understanding; 79:1, pp. 66-91</ref>)
Planktonic organisms are typically classified into broad size categories according to the ''' ‘Sieburth-scale’ ''', originally proposed in 1978. Viruses and jelly fish sit at opposite ends of this scale, which runs from fractions of a millimetre to metres.
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inspections, sports (Blanksby et al, 2004<ref name="Blanksby">Blanksby, B. A., Skender, S., Elliott, B. C., McElroy, K., Landers, G. J. (2004); An Analysis of the Rollover Backstroke Turn by Age-Group Swimmers; Sports Biomechanics; 3:1, pp. 1-14</ref>)
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, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_archaeology marine archaeology] (Coleman et al, 2000<ref name="Coleman">Coleman D. F., Newman J. B., Ballard R. D (2000); Design and implementation of advanced underwater imaging systems for deep sea marine archaeological surveys; OCEANS 2000 MTS/IEEE Conference and Exhibition;1, pp. 661-665</ref>), entertainment, education and more.

Revision as of 13:52, 18 November 2009

Application and use of underwater video

Figure 1: Louis Boutan, the first published underwater photographer pioneered not only photography, but diving equipment in general.
This article is about the history and application of underwater video. Related articles are underwater video systems, which is about equipment of underwater video systems; and video technology, which deals with video as such. Video imaging in wells and boreholes is similar to underwater video, but puts constraints on the shape and size of the equipment, as does for example underwater video in sewer pipes, nuclear power plants or fish tanks.

From the start, underwater video has been used for marine biological studies (see also Figure 3). It may be abundance (Smith & Papadopoulou, 2003[1]; Moser et al, 1998[2]) behavioural studies (Grémillet et al, 2006[3]; Esteve, 2007[4]) habitat mapping (Ryan et al, 2007[5]; Abdo et al, 2004[6]) studies of fishing and trawling (Zhou & Shirley (1997[7]; Cooper and Hickey, 1987[8]) and whether the seabed is damaged or not by it (Vorbeg, 2000[9]; Linnanne et al, 2000[10]) even in combination with a water sampler (Dounas, 2006[11]) and to separate living corals from dead (Harris et al, 2004[12].)

It has also been used for marine geology (Field et al, 1981[13]), sediment studies (Osborne & Greenwood (1991)[14]), tidal microtopography (Lund-Hansen et al, 2004[15]), bridge (DeVault, 2000[16]) and pipeline (Gracias & Santos-Victor, 2000[17]) inspections, sports (Blanksby et al, 2004[18])

, marine archaeology (Coleman et al, 2000[19]), entertainment, education and more.
  1. Smith, C. J., Papadopoulou, K.-N. (2003); Burrow density and stock size fluctuations of Nephrops norvegicus in a semi-enclosed bay; ICES Journal of Marine Science; 60, pp. 798–805
  2. Moser, M. L., Auster P. J., Bichy, J. B. (1998); Effects of mat morphology on large Sargassum-associated fishes: observations from a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and free-floating video camcorders; Environmental Biology of Fishes; 51, pp. 391–398
  3. Grémillet, D., Enstipp, M. R., Boudiffa, M., Liu, H. (2006); Do cormorants injure fish without eating them? An underwater video study; Marine Biology; 148, pp. 1081–1087
  4. Esteve, M. (2007);Two examples of fixed behavioural patterns in salmonines: female false spawning and male digging; Journal of Ethology; 25:1, pp. 63-70
  5. Ryan, D. A., Brooke, B. P., Collins, L. B., Kendrick, G. A., Baxter, K. J., Bickers, A. N., Siwabessy, P. J. W., Pattiaratchi, C. B. (2007); The influence of geomorphology and sedimentary processes on shallow-water benthic habitat distribution: Esperance Bay, Western Australia; Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science; 72:1-2, pp. 379-386
  6. Abdo, D., Burgess, G., Coleman, K. (2004); Surveys of benthic reef communities using underwater video; Long-term monitoring of the great Barrier reef Standard Operational Procedure Number 2, 3rd Revised Edition; Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville 2004; ISBN0-64232231
  7. Zhou, S. Shirley T. C. (1997); Performance of two red king crab pot designs; Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences / Journal canadien des sciences halieutiques et aquatiques; 54, pp 1858–1864
  8. Cooper, C., Hickey, W. (1987); Selectivity experiments with square mesh cod-ends on haddock and cod; IEEE OCEANS; 19, pp. 608-613
  9. Vorberg, R. (2000); Effects of shrimp fisheries on reefs of Sabellaria spinulosa (Polychaeta); ICES Journal of Marine Science; 57 pp. 1416–1420
  10. Linnane A., Ball B., Munday B., van Marlen B., Bergman M., Fonteyne R. (2000): A review of potential techniques to reduce the environmental impact of demersal trawl; Irish Fisheries Investigation Series Publications (New Series) No. 7; ISSN0578-7467
  11. Dounas, C. G. (2006); A new apparatus for the direct measurement of the effects of otter trawling on benthic nutrient releases; Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology; 339, pp. 251 – 259
  12. Harris, P. T., Heap, A. D., Wassenberg, T., Passlow, V. (2004); Submerged coral reefs in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia; Marine Geology; 207:1-4, pp. 185-191
  13. Field, M. E., Nelson, C. H., Cacchione, D. A., Drake, D. E. (1981); Sand waves on an epicontinental shelf: Northern Bering Sea; Marine Geology; 42:1-4, pp. 233-258
  14. Osborne, P. D., Greenwood B. (1991); Frequency dependent cross-shore suspended sediment transport. 2. A barred shoreface; Marine Geology; 106, pp. 25-51
  15. Lund-Hansen L., Larsen E., Jensen K., Mouritsen K., Christiansen C., Andersen T., Vølund G. (2004); A new video and digital camera system for studies of the dynamics of microtopographic features on tidal flats; Marine Georesources and Geotechnology; 22: 1-2, pp. 115-122
  16. DeVault, J.E. (2000); Robotic system for underwater inspection of bridge piers; Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, IEEE; 3:3, pp. 32-37
  17. Gracias, N., Santos-Victor, J. (2000); Underwater Video Mosaics as Visual Navigation Maps; Computer Vision And Image Understanding; 79:1, pp. 66-91
  18. Blanksby, B. A., Skender, S., Elliott, B. C., McElroy, K., Landers, G. J. (2004); An Analysis of the Rollover Backstroke Turn by Age-Group Swimmers; Sports Biomechanics; 3:1, pp. 1-14
  19. Coleman D. F., Newman J. B., Ballard R. D (2000); Design and implementation of advanced underwater imaging systems for deep sea marine archaeological surveys; OCEANS 2000 MTS/IEEE Conference and Exhibition;1, pp. 661-665