Difference between revisions of "Eutrophication in coastal environments"

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'''[[Eutrophication]]''' is the enrichment of water as a result of an increase in [[nutrient]]s, which can have a negative impact on the marine and coastal environment.  The negative effects of [[eutrophication]] on marine [[ecosystem]]s includes: [[algal bloom]]s, increased growth of macroalgae, increased sedimentation and oxygen consumption, oxygen depletion in the bottom water and sometimes the death of [[benthic]] animals and fish.  Coastal European areas in particular the Baltic Sea provides an indication as to the negative affects that [[eutrophication]] can have including: the presence of blue-green algae which is potentially harmful to humans as well as the presence of large mats of drifting algae that get deposited along the shorelines and decay.  In order to reduce the negative effects of [[eutrophication]] [[nutrient]] inputs need to be reduced and an integrated management strategy needs to be employed. 
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{{Review
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|name=Job Dronkers and Justus van Beusekom|AuthorID=120|
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}}
  
==Eutrophication in coastal environments==
 
  
[[Eutrophication]] involves the enrichment of water by excess [[nutrient]]s.  It can cause serious problems in the coastal zone through disturbance of ecological balances and fisheries, and through interference with recreational activities and quality of life. [[Eutrophication]] is the result of an [[anthropogenic|anthropogenically]] induced alteration of the global nitrogen cycle, and just like [[climate change]], should be regarded as a "global change".  [[Eutrophication]] is usually treated scientifically and in terms of management as a local and regional phenomenon. Coastal regions throughout the world and Europe are affected by [[eutrophication]].
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=Introduction=
  
==What is eutrophication about?==
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[[image:German Bight.jpg|thumb|left|Fig.1. Noctiluca milaris (sea sparkle) bloom, German Bight, 2000]]
[[image:Baltic.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 1. Cyanobacteria bloom, Western Baltic, 1997]]
 
*It’s about '''increased productivity''' (conversion of light and carbon dioxide into living organic matter – a process that is limited by ''[[nitrogen]]'' and/or ''[[phosphorus]]'') and unacceptable ecological effects as [[algal bloom]]s and oxygen depletion, kills off benthic animals and fish
 
*It’s caused by '''increased inputs''' of [[nutrient]]s from point sources, activities in the upstream catchment (''e.g.'' losses from agriculture) and atmospheric deposition.
 
  
  
  
===What are we really talking about?===
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[[Eutrophication]] is the excessive loading of water with [[nutrient]]s, dissolved substances containing the elements P, N and Si needed by organisms for growth. Nutrient loading of coastal waters is caused by increased inputs of [[nutrient]]s from activities in the upstream catchment, atmospheric deposition and local effluents. The negative effects of [[eutrophication]] on marine [[ecosystem]]s include: [[algal bloom]]s (Fig.1), increased growth of macroalgae, increased sedimentation and oxygen consumption, oxygen depletion in lower water layers and, sometimes, mortality of [[benthic]] animals and fish. Mitigation of the negative effects of eutrophication requires reduction of [[nutrient]] inputs and an ecosystem-based management strategy. The bio-geochemical cycles of nutrients are discussed in the article [[Continental Nutrient Sources and Nutrient Transformation]]. 
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=Eutrophication as a global-scale issue=
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Biomass production in coastal waters - the conversion of light and carbon dioxide into living organic matter – is mainly limited by availability of [[nitrogen]] and/or [[phosphorus]] (light is a limiting factor in turbid zones). [[Eutrophication]] leads to increased biomass production that disturbs the natural ecological balance in the coastal zone, with serious detrimental consequences for biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, recreational activities and fisheries. The [[anthropogenic]] alteration of the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles takes place at a global scale and is considered as one of the biggest threats to marine [[ecosystem]] health for decades<ref>Ryther and Dunstan, 1971</ref> <ref>Nixon, S. W. (1995) Coastal marine eutrophication: a definition, social causes, and future concerns. Ophelia, 41, 199–219.[ISI]</ref> <ref>Bachmann, R. W., Cloern, J. E., Heckey, R. E. et al. (eds) (2006) Eutrophication of freshwater and marine ecosystems. Limnol. Oceanogr., 51 (1, part 2), 351–800.</ref>. Coastal regions throughout the world, including Europe, are affected by [[eutrophication]]. It is usually treated in science and management as a local or regional phenomenon, but [[eutrophication]] is actually, like climate change, a global issue.
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==The meaning of eutrophication==
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;[[Eutrophication]] : “eu” = “well” or “good”
 
;[[Eutrophication]] : “eu” = “well” or “good”
:“trope” = “nourishment”[[image:German Bight.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 2. Noctiluca milaris bloom, German Bight, 2000]]
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:“trope” = “nourishment”
  
 
But is “''[[eutrophication]]''” good?
 
But is “''[[eutrophication]]''” good?
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*[[Eutrophication]] is ”too much of a good thing”
 
*[[Eutrophication]] is ”too much of a good thing”
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==Effects of Eutrophication==
 
==Effects of Eutrophication==
The different processes and effects of coastal [[eutrophication]] are well documented<ref>Cloern, J. (2001) Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 210, 223–253.[ISI]</ref> <ref>Conley, D. J., Markager, S., Andersen, J. et al. (2002) Coastal eutrophication and the Danish National Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Program. Estuaries, 25, 706–719.[Medline]</ref> <ref>Rönnberg, C. and Bonsdorff, E. (2004) Baltic Sea eutrophication: area-specific ecological consequences. Hydrobiologia, 514, 227–241.[CrossRef][ISI]</ref> and it has been considered as one of the biggest threats to marine [[ecosystem]] health for decades<ref>Ryther and Dunstan, 1971</ref> <ref>Nixon, S. W. (1995) Coastal marine eutrophication: a definition, social causes, and future concerns. Ophelia, 41, 199–219.[ISI]</ref> <ref>Bachmann, R. W., Cloern, J. E., Heckey, R. E. et al. (eds) (2006) Eutrophication of freshwater and marine ecosystems. Limnol. Oceanogr., 51 (1, part 2), 351–800.</ref>.
 
 
[[Image:eutrophicationflow.jpg|600px|thumb|centre|Fig. 3. Eutrophication flow diagram. Source: HELCOM, 2006 <ref name="HELCOM">HELCOM, (2006) Andersen, J (DHI) and Pawlak, J (MEC), Nutrients and Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea – Effects, Causes, Solutions. Baltic Sea Parliamentary Conference.[http://sea.helcom.fi/dps/docs/documents/Monitoring%20and%20Assessment%20Group%20(MONAS)/EUTRO-PRO/EUTRO-PRO%203,%202006/BSPC%20Nutrients%20and%20Eutrophication%20in%20the%20BS.pdf]</ref>
 
]]
 
  
 
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The different processes and possible effects of coastal [[eutrophication]] on the marine ecosystem are well documented<ref>Cloern, J. (2001) Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 210, 223–253.[ISI]</ref> <ref>Conley, D. J., Markager, S., Andersen, J. et al. (2002) Coastal eutrophication and the Danish National Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Program. Estuaries, 25, 706–719.[Medline]</ref> <ref>Rönnberg, C. and Bonsdorff, E. (2004) Baltic Sea eutrophication: area-specific ecological consequences. Hydrobiologia, 514, 227–241.[CrossRef][ISI]</ref> (Fig.2):
Effects of [[eutrophication]] on marine [[ecosystem]]s are well known<ref name="HELCOM"/>:
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*toxic [[algal bloom]]s  
*[[algal bloom]]s resulting in green water
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*reduced depth distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation  
*reduced depth distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation
 
 
*increased growth of nuisance macroalgae
 
*increased growth of nuisance macroalgae
*increased sedimentation, increased oxygen consumption
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*increased sedimentation
*oxygen depletion in bottom water, and
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*increased oxygen consumption
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*oxygen depletion in lower water layers
 
*sometimes dead benthic animals and fish.  
 
*sometimes dead benthic animals and fish.  
  
  
[[image:koncept.jpg|500px|thumb|centre|Fig. 4. Eutrophication schematic. Source: HELCOM, 2006 <ref name="HELCOM"/>]]
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[[image:Eutrophication_Input_Effect_OSPAR2010.jpg|900px|thumb|centre|Fig.2. Sources of nutrient input to the marine environment and simplified schemes showing eutrophication effects arising from nutrient enrichment <ref>OSPAR 2010. Quality Status Report.</ref>.]]
  
  
===General effects===
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[[Eutrophication]] causes structural changes throughout the marine [[ecosystem]] and reduces ecosystem resilience.  
Major effects of [[eutrophication]] include structure and function changes in the entire marine [[ecosystem]] and a reduction in stability. The following are responses to increased nutrient inputs<ref name="HELCOM"/>:
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[[Eutrophication]] issues are often divided into three groups <ref name="HELCOM"/>:  
#Corresponding increase in nutrient concentrations
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#Causative factors: inputs, elevated nutrient concentrations, Redfield ratio changes
#Change in ratio between dissolved [[nitrogen]] and [[phosphorus]] in the water: ''DIN:DIP'' ratio. Optimal is 16:1 called the ''[[Redfield ratio]]''. Significantly lower ratio causes potential [[nitrogen]] limitation; while a higher ratio leads to [[phosphorus]] limitation of [[phytoplankton]] [[primary production]].
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#Direct effects on primary producers - [[phytoplankton]] and submerged aquatic vegetation
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#Indirect effects (secondary effects) related to [[zooplankton]], fish and ínvertebrate benthic fauna (animals living on and in the seabed).
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The following responses to increased nutrient inputs are observed in the Baltic Sea <ref name="HELCOM">HELCOM (2006) Andersen, J (DHI) and Pawlak, J (MEC), Nutrients and Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea Effects, Causes, Solutions. Baltic Sea Parliamentary Conference.[http://sea.helcom.fi/dps/docs/documents/Monitoring%20and%20Assessment%20Group%20(MONAS)/EUTRO-PRO/EUTRO-PRO%203,%202006/BSPC%20Nutrients%20and%20Eutrophication%20in%20the%20BS.pdf]</ref>:
  
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*Increased [[phytoplankton]] [[primary production]], which increases biomass, which decreases light penetration through the water column. Reduced light penetration reduces the depth at which macroalgae and [[seagrass]]es can grow.
  
''[[Primary production]]'' is usually limited by availability of light and nutrients.
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*Increased nutrient inputs generally entail a change in ratio between dissolved [[nitrogen]] and [[phosphorus]] in the water, the DIN:DIP ratio. Optimal is 16:1 – called the [[Redfield ratio]]. A significantly lower ratio can cause [[nitrogen]] limitation, whereas a higher ratio can lead to [[phosphorus]] limitation of [[phytoplankton]] [[primary production]]. Species that are less sensitive for their growth to the optimal DIN:DIP ratio outcompete more sensitive species.  
Nutrient enrichment increase [[phytoplankton]] [[primary production]], which increases biomass, which decreases light penetration through water column. Light penetration is measured by [[Secchi depth]] - a decreased [[Secchi depth]] can reduce colonization depth of macroalgae and [[seagrass]]es.
 
  
 
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*A gradual change of ([[pelagic]] [[ecosystem]]s) towards<ref name="HELCOM"/>:
Responses to nutrient enrichment ([[pelagic]] [[ecosystem]]s) involve a gradual change towards<ref name="HELCOM"/>:
 
 
#Increased [[plankton|planktonic]] [[primary production]] compared to benthic production
 
#Increased [[plankton|planktonic]] [[primary production]] compared to benthic production
 
#Dominance of microbial food webs over linear [[plankton|planktonic]] food chains
 
#Dominance of microbial food webs over linear [[plankton|planktonic]] food chains
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#Dominance of gelatinous [[zooplankton]] (jellyfish) over [[crustacea]]n [[zooplankton]]
 
#Dominance of gelatinous [[zooplankton]] (jellyfish) over [[crustacea]]n [[zooplankton]]
  
Finally, [[eutrophication]] issues<ref name="HELCOM"/> are often divided into three groups:
 
#Causative factors: inputs, elevated nutrient concentrations, Redfield ratio changes
 
#Direct effects: primary producers, namely ''[[phytoplankton]]'' and ''submerged aquatic vegetation''
 
#Indirect effects (secondary effects): related to [[zooplankton]], fish and ínvertebrate benthic fauna (animals living on seafloor).
 
  
===Primary and Secondary Effects===
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Some effects are discussed more in detail below.
Some important primary and secondary effects are discussed in the sections below.  
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===Phytoplankton===
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[[Phytoplankton]] is at the base of pelagic food webs in aquatic systems. As the turnover time is less that a few days, it respond rapidly to nutrient concentration changes. Changes are observed in:
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*[[Primary production]]
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*Biomass (chlorophyll-a concentration, or carbon biomass)
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*Bloom frequency
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===Submerged aquatic vegetation===
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Submerged aquatic vegetation is affected by [[eutrophication]] through<ref name="HELCOM"/>:
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*Reduced light penetration and shadowing effects from [[phytoplankton]], which modifies the depth distribution, biomass, composition and species diversity and leads to a decline of [[seagrass]] meadows and perennial macroalgae, which are important nursery areas for coastal fish populations;
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*Increased growth of filamentous and short lived nuisance macroalgae at the cost of long lived species, which leads to a change in structure of macroalgae communities with reduced diversity.
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===Oxygen depletion===
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Oxygen depletion, or [[hypoxia]], is a commonly observed phenomenon low in the water column <ref name="HELCOM"/>. This effect can be episodic, occuring persistently, seasonally (most common in summer/autumn), or episodically in the coastal zone.
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*Lethality of low oxygen concentrations depends on the species. Fish and crustaceans have higher oxygen requirements; other species have lower requirements.
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*[[hypoxia|Hypoxic]] and anoxic (no oxygen) conditions may results in formation and release of hydrogen sulphide (H<sub>2</sub>S), which is lethal to many organisms.
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*Anoxic periods cause the release of phophorus from sediments. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and ammonium are released under [[hypoxia|hypoxic]] conditions. DIP and ammonium enhance [[algal bloom]]s.
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===Invertebrate benthic fauna===
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Invertebrate [[benthic]] fauna can cope with oxygen depletion to varying degrees (days – month) <ref name="HELCOM"/>. If O<sub>2</sub> drops to zero and H<sub>2</sub>S is released all organisms are killed immediately. Mobile [[benthic]] invertebrates in sediment move to the surface when O<sub>2</sub> decreases - catches of fish and crustaceans are increased under such conditions. It is difficult to predict when animals will return after anoxic episodes. The size of the affected area plays a role: small areas are recolonised more quickly than larger areas.
  
====Phytoplankton====
 
[[Phytoplankton]] are at base of pelagic food webs in aquatic systems, have generation times from less that a few days, respond rapidly to nutrient concentration changes, and are often quantified in terms of:
 
#[[Primary production]]
 
#Biomass (chlorophyll-a concentration, or carbon biomass)
 
#Bloom frequency
 
  
====Submerged aquatic vegetation====  
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==Climate change==
Submerged aquatic vegetation are affected by [[eutrophication]] through<ref name="HELCOM"/>:
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Global warming is predicted to increase [[hypoxia]] conditions. A 4 degree temperature increase is projected to result in a doubling of [[hypoxia]] in some parts of North Sea. For example, eelgrass is very sensitive to low oxygen concentrations, and dies off under these conditions (often in combination with high temperatures).
#Reduced light penetration and shadowing effects from [[phytoplankton]] can reduce the depth distribution, biomass, composition and species diversity; and
 
#increased growth of filamentous and short lived nuisance macroalgae at the cost of long lived species can lead to a change in structure of macroalgae communities with reduced diversity.
 
Additionally,
 
*[[Seagrass]] meadows and perennial macroalgae are important nursery areas for coastal fish populations.
 
*Short-lived (annual) nuisance macroalgae are favoured by large nutrient inputs.
 
  
====Oxygen depletion<ref name="HELCOM"/>====
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By burying carbon (and nutrients) in sediments, the marine environment contributes to mitigating climate change. In ocean regions where primary production is nutrient-limited, eutrophication will enhance carbon storage in marine sediments. Carbon is also stored in the oceans by dissolution of CO<sub>2</sub> as carbonic acide. However, the resulting ocean acidification is a threat for many marine organisms.  
Oxygen depletion, or ''[[hypoxia]]'', is a common effect of [[eutrophication]] in bottom waters. This effect may be episodic, occuring annually (most common in summer/autumn), persistent, or periodic in the coastal zone.
 
*Lethally low oxygen concentrations depend on the species. Fish and crustaceans have higher oxygen requirements; other speices have lower requirements.
 
*[[hypoxia|Hypoxic]] and anoxic (no oxygen) conditions may results in formation and release of hydrogen sulphide (H<sub>2</sub>S), which is lethal to organisms.
 
*Anoxic periods cause the release of phophorus from sediments - dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), and ammonium is released under [[hypoxia|hypoxic]] conditions. DIP and ammonium in water column can enhance [[algal bloom]]s.
 
*The predicted effect of global warming is to increase [[hypoxia]] with increased temperature. A 4 degree temperature increase is projected to results in a doubling of [[hypoxia]] in some parts of North Sea.
 
*An example of the effect: Eelgrass responds to low oxygen concentrations, and dies off under these conditions (often in combination with high temperatures)
 
  
====Invertebrate benthic fauna<ref name="HELCOM"/>====
 
Invertebrate [[benthic]] fauna can cope with oxygen depletion to varying degrees (days – month). If O<sub>2</sub> drops below zero and H<sub>2</sub>S is released all organisms are killed immediately. Mobile [[benthic]] invertebrates in sediment move to surface when O<sub>2</sub> decreases - there are increased catches of fish and crustaceans during these times. It is difficult to predict when animals will return after [[eutrophication]] events. The area affected plays a factor: small areas are recolonised and re-established more quickly than larger areas.
 
  
===Climate change===
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==Eutrophication monitoring==
*Seas are important in element cycling – carbon and nitrogen cycle; phosphorus and silicate cycle
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For this topic the reader is referred to the following articles:
*Ocean still takes up more carbon than it releases – depositing some in sediments
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*[[Monitoring the water quality of coastal waters with automatic equipment]]
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*[[Real-time algae monitoring]]
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*[[Optical measurements in coastal waters]]
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*[[Differentiation of major algal groups by optical absorption signatures]]
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*[[Sampling tools for the marine environment]]
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*[[FerryBox - Continuous and automatic water quality observations along transects]]
  
==Solutions==
 
Nutrient inputs must be reduced to levels that do not put at risk target values for mitigation of [[eutrophication]]. Integrated management strategies should enable characterization of all pressures on water bodies in order to develop a coherent approach to deal with the pressures in a cost effective manner<ref name="HELCOM"/>.
 
  
==European Coastal Areas==
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==Eutrophication modelling==
Eutrophication is the result of an anthropogenically induced alteration of the global nitrogen cycle, and just like climate change, should be regarded as a "global change". Eutrophication is usually treated scientifically and for management as a local and regional phenomenon. Coastal regions throughout the world and Europe are affected by eutrophication.
 
  
Within Europe, regional seas such as the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas are currently adversely affected by eutrophication, with climate change expected to intensify these adverse impacts. As well as monitoring fresh water impacts on coastal areas, it will be important to monitor impacts between seas such as the Mediterranean and Black Seas. For example, the Black Sea is strongly eutrophic, and enters the Mediterranean Sea at the North Aegean near the borders of Greece and Turkey.
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Information on eutrophication modelling can be found in the articles [[Coupled hydrodynamic - water quality - ecological modelling]] and [[Modelling marine and coastal eutrophication]].
  
More global approaches were considered in meetings such as the International Symposium on Research and Management of Eutrophication in Coastal Ecosystems from June 20 to 23, 2006 in Nyborg, Denmark. This meeting included a keynote speaker, a working seminar, produced some outcomes,and led to the creation of an European group to address the issue of climate change and eutrophication.
 
  
The main source of nitrogen to European coastal waters is agricultural runoff discharged into the sea via rivers, identified as originating from sources of ammonia evaporation in animal husbandry and partly from fossil fuel combustion in traffic, industry and households<ref name="ECW">Ærtebjerg, G. et al., Eutrophication in Europe’s Coastal Waters. Topic Report No 7/2001. European Environment Agency.  [http://reports.eea.europa.eu/topic_report_2001_7/en]</ref>. For phosphorus the major sources are treated and untreated discharges to the sea from households and industry as well as soil erosion<ref name="ECW"/>.
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=European Regional Seas=
  
Within Europe, regional seas such as the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas are currently adversely affected by [[eutrophication]], with [[climate change]] expected to intensify these adverse impacts. As well as monitoring fresh water impacts on coastal areas, it will be important to monitor impacts between seas such as the Mediterranean and Black Seas. For example, the Black Sea is strongly eutrophic, and enters the Mediterranean Sea at the North Aegean near the borders of Greece and Turkey.
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Within Europe, regional seas such as the Baltic Sea, the Wadden Sea, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea suffer currently strong adverse impacts of eutrophication, which will be further exacerbated by climate change. The main source of nitrogen to European coastal waters are agricultural effluents discharged into the sea via rivers. Another important source is atmospheric deposition of nitrogen that results from ammonia evaporation in animal husbandry and from fossil fuel combustion in traffic, industry and households<ref name="ECW">Ærtebjerg, G. et al., Eutrophication in Europe’s Coastal Waters. Topic Report No 7/2001. European Environment Agency.  [http://reports.eea.europa.eu/topic_report_2001_7/en]</ref>. For phosphorus, the major sources are treated and untreated discharges to the sea from households and industry as well as soil erosion<ref name="ECW"/>.
  
[[Eutrophication]] seriously affects the Baltic sea marine environment, resulting in [[algal bloom]]s, reduced water clarity, oxygen reduction and death of bottom animals. The causes behind this are well known<ref name="HELCOM"/>: discharges, losses and emissions of nitrogen and phosphorus to the aquatic environment. Reductions of discharges from municipal wastewater treatment plants and industries have been the focus for many years as have losses and emissions of nitrogen compounds from agriculture and traffic.
 
  
More global approaches were considered in meetings such as the [http://eutro2006.dhi.dk/ International Symposium on Research and Management of Eutrophication in Coastal Ecosystems] from June 20 to 23, 2006 in Nyborg, Denmark.  This meeting included a keynote speaker, a working seminar, produced some outcomes,and led to the creation of an European group to address the issue of [[climate change]] and [[eutrophication]].
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==Baltic Sea==
  
====Causes in Baltic Sea====
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===Causes of eutrophication===
Human-mediated nutrient enrichment<ref name="HELCOM"/> in the Baltic Sea can be caused by input of nutrients in form of:  
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Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment<ref name="HELCOM"/><ref>http://www2.dmu.dk/1_Viden/2_Miljoe-tilstand/3_vand/4_eutrophication/definition.htm Nutrients and Eutrophication in Danish Marine Waters</ref> in the Baltic Sea is caused by input of nutrients from:  
#Direct inputs from point sources (sewage treatment plants, industries)
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*Point sources such as effluents of sewage treatment plants and industries
#Atmospheric deposition
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*Atmospheric deposition in the sea
#Riverine inputs (from activities in the catchment: eg point sources, agricultural losses, atmospheric deposition, natural background losses (natural erosion and leakage of nutrients from areas without much human activities) and stream, river and lake retention)
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*Rivers contaminated by activities in the catchment area such as point sources, agricultural effluents, atmospheric deposition on land, in addition to background releases from natural erosion and leakage of nutrients from areas without much human activities.
  
'''Waterborne:''' Agriculture forestry, scattered dwellings, municipanlities, industries, natural background losses.
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Waterborne inputs are from agriculture forestry, scattered dwellings, municipalities, industries, natural background losses.
  
'''Airborne:''' Nitrogen compounds emitted to atmosphere:  
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Airborne nitrogen inputs are from:  
*Nitrogen oxides: road transportation, energy combustion, shipping
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*Emission of nitrogen oxides from road transport, energy combustion, shipping
*Ammonia emissions: mostly from agriculture.
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*Ammonia emissions, mostly from agriculture
 
*Distant sources
 
*Distant sources
  
'''The role of agriculture in nitrogen inputs:'''
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The main source of nitrogen inputs in the Baltic Sea is from agricultural effluents via rivers caused by:
The main source of nitrogen inputs in Baltic Sea is agricultural discharge via rivers, deriving from:
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*Soil cultivation
#Soil cultivation
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*Fertiliser use
#Fertiliser use
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*Production of of manure
#Use of manure
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*Intensive and uncontrolled agriculture
#Intensive and uncontrolled agriculture
 
  
====Aspects of Eutrophication problem in the Baltic sea<ref name="HELCOM"/>====
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===Impact of eutrophication===
*Excessive [[phytoplankton]] blooms are a major problem – especially of blue-green algae. There are commonly summertime [[algal bloom]]s in most parts of Gulf of Finland, Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Proper and south-western parts of Baltic Sea
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[[image:Baltic.jpg|thumb|right|Fig.3. Cyanobacteria bloom, Western Baltic, 1997. Blue-green algae are potentially harmful to humans.]]
Problems caused:
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Excessive [[phytoplankton]] blooms are a major problem – especially of blue-green algae. Summertime [[algal bloom]]s occur commonly in most parts of the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Proper and south-western parts of the Baltic Sea. Particular problems are:
*bathing people can hardly see their feet
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*bathing people can hardly see their feet (Fig.3)
*blue-green [[ALGADEC - Detection of toxic algae with a semi-automated nucleic acid biosensor|algae potentially toxic]] to humans and animals
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*[[ALGADEC - Detection of toxic algae with a semi-automated nucleic acid biosensor|blue-green algae]] potentially toxic to humans and animals
*large mats of drifting algae deposited along shores and decay
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*decaying large mats of drifting algae stranded along the shores
  
====Baltic Sea Solutions====
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===Solutions===
 
The following steps have been suggested<ref name="HELCOM"/>
 
The following steps have been suggested<ref name="HELCOM"/>
 
#Establish overall goals and target values
 
#Establish overall goals and target values
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#Evaluate whether the goals and targets have been fulfilled or not
 
#Evaluate whether the goals and targets have been fulfilled or not
  
'''Main drivers:'''
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===Main drivers===
*European Directives (see links below)
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*EU directives <ref>http://www.EEA.europa.eu European Environment Agency</ref>
*Decisions and recommendations adopted by [http://www.helcom.fi HELCOM]
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*Decisions and recommendations adopted by HELCOM <ref>http://www.HELCOM.fi HELCOM</ref><ref>http://www.BSPC.net Baltic Sea Parlimentary Conference</ref><ref>http://www.BONUSportal.org BONUS] for the future of the Baltic Sea</ref>
 
*National action plans
 
*National action plans
  
==EU Directives:==
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==Wadden Sea==
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In contrast to the enclosed nature of the Baltic, the Wadden Sea is a very open system. Strong tides exchange water and particulate matter between the Wadden Sea and the North Sea.
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===Causes===
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Human eutrophication drivers in the Wadden Sea are to a large extent similar as in the Baltic including direct inputs, atmospheric deposition and riverine inputs. But some notable differences exist:
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#Riverine input (Fig.4): both local and distant riverine sources drive the Wadden Sea eutrophication. Residual currents in the North Sea transport nutrients from large rivers outside of the Wadden Sea like the river Rhine and Maas into the Wadden Sea
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#Direct input: This used to be a large local problem in the 1970’s but solved in the 1980’s
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#Input from the North Sea: This source of organic matter and nutrients used to be one of the drivers of the high fertility of the Wadden Sea but amplified eutrophication problems since the 1970’s due to increased North Sea nutrient concentrations.
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Agriculture is the main driver of surplus nitrogen and phosphorus <ref>https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/378/publikationen/reaktiver_stickstoff_in_deutschland_0.pdf</ref>.
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[[image:RhineConcNitratePhosphate.jpg|600px|thumb|centre|Fig.4. Historic development of nitrate (a) and phosphate (b) concentrations in the Rhine. Original graph is by van Bennekom and Wetsteijn (1990) <ref> van Bennekom AJ, Wetsteijn FJ (1990) The winter distribution of nutrients in the southern bight of the North Sea (1961-1978) and in the estuaries of the Scheldt and the Rhine/Meuse. Neth J Sea Res 25:75- 87</ref>, updated with more recent data from Rijkswaterstaat (live.waterbase.nl) measured at the Dutch-German border near Lobith. Note that nitrate and phosphate do not represent the total N and P concentrations. Nutrient input sharply increased since the 1940s, reached a maximum during the 1980s and decreased afterwards due to appropriate measures.]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
===Impact of eutrophication===
 +
Eutrophication problems were recognized in the 1970’s and reached a maximum in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Political decisions in the 1970`s and 1980’s lead to a marked decrease in nutrient input and eutrophication problems <ref>Van Beusekom JEE, Fock H, de Jong F, Diel-Christiansen S, Christiansen B (2001) Wadden Sea specific eutrophication criteria. Wadden Sea Ecosystem 14:1-115</ref><ref>De Jong F (2007) Marine eutrophication in perspective: on the relevance of ecology for environmental policy. Springer Science & Business Media</ref><ref>http://qsr.waddensea-worldheritage.org/reports/introduction</ref>.
 +
The following problems were encountered
 +
*Excessive phytoplankton blooms.
 +
*Shifts in phytoplankton composition towards the dominance of the non-silicified phytoplankter Phaeocystis pouchetii and foam formation on beaches <ref>http://www.vliz.be/projects/iseca/images/dels/Phaeocystis%20and%20foam%20on%20the%20beach.pdf</ref>
 +
*Decrease in seagrass
 +
*Increase in green macroalgae
 +
*Black spots: large anoxic areas on tidal flats
 +
 
 +
===Solutions===
 +
A first step to solve the Wadden Sea/North Sea eutrophication problem was the decision in 1990 at the International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea in London to reduce the nutrient loads to 50% of the 1985-1987 levels <ref>https://www.ospar.org/site/assets/files/1239/declarations_compilation_1995.pdf</ref>. Especially the reduction of N loads appeared to be problematic but about 30 years later, riverine loads into the Wadden Sea indeed are indeed about 50% lower (Fig.4). This led to a reduction in phytoplankton biomass, a reduction in green macroalgae coverage and in the northern Wadden Sea to a recovery of seagrass <ref>http://qsr.waddensea-worldheritage.org/reports/eutrophication</ref><ref>http://qsr.waddensea-worldheritage.org/reports/seagrass</ref>.
 +
 
 +
===Main Drivers===
 +
*European Directives
 +
*Decisions and recommendations adopted by OSPAR <ref>http:// OSPAR.ORG</ref>
 +
*Trilateral Wadden Sea Plan <ref>http://www.waddensea-secretariat.org/management/wadden-sea-plan-2010</ref>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==EU Directives related to eutrophication==
 
:[http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-urbanwaste/directiv.html EC Urban Waster Water Treatment Directive]
 
:[http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-urbanwaste/directiv.html EC Urban Waster Water Treatment Directive]
 
:[http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-nitrates/directiv.html EC Nitrates Directive]
 
:[http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-nitrates/directiv.html EC Nitrates Directive]
Line 160: Line 202:
 
:[http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/marine.htm Marine Strategy Directive]
 
:[http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/marine.htm Marine Strategy Directive]
  
==See also==
 
:[[Theme 4]] - Pollution
 
:[[Water quality/pollution]]
 
  
==External links==
 
:[http://www.BSPC.net Baltic Sea Parlimentary Conference ]
 
:[http://www.bernet.org/wm125051 BERNET:] Baltic Eutrophication Regional Network
 
:[http://www.BONUSportal.org BONUS] for the future of the Baltic Sea
 
:[http://www.EEA.europa.eu European Environment Agency ]
 
:[http://www.HELCOM.fi HELCOM ]
 
:HELCOM Indicator fact sheets:
 
::[http://www.helcom.fi/environment2/ifs/ifs2005/en_GB/inflow water exchange]
 
::[http://www.helcom.fi/environment2/ifs/ifs2005/en_GB/winternutriets winter nutrient concentrations]
 
::[http://www.helcom.fi/environment2/ifs/ifs2005/en_GB/transparency water clarity]
 
::[http://www.helcom.fi/environment2/ifs/ifs2005/en_GB/blooms algal blooms]
 
::[http://www.helcom.fi/environment2/ifs/ifs2005/Chlorophyll-a/en_GB/chlorophyll chlorophyll-a concentrations]
 
::[http://www.helcom.fi/environment2/ifs/ifs2005/en_GB/oxygen_deepbasins hydrography and oxygen in the deep basins]
 
:[http://www.MARE.su.se MARE] Research program on Baltic Sea environmental issues
 
:[http://www.dmu.dk/International/Water/ National Environment Research Institute (DK) Aquatic page]
 
:[http://www2.dmu.dk/1_Viden/2_Miljoe-tilstand/3_vand/4_eutrophication/definition.htm Nutrients and Eutrophication in Danish Marine Waters]
 
:[http://www.OSPAR.org OSPAR] For the protection of the marine environment of the north-east Atlantic
 
:[http://www.waterforecast.com/defaultUK.asp The Water Forecast]
 
:Wikipedia: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eutrophication Eutrophication article]
 
:[http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/europe/what_we_do/baltics/our_work/index.cfm WWF Baltic Ecoregion Programme]
 
  
==References==
+
=Related articles=
:[http://sea.helcom.fi/dps/docs/documents/Monitoring%20and%20Assessment%20Group%20(MONAS)/EUTRO-PRO/EUTRO-PRO%203,%202006/BSPC%20Nutrients%20and%20Eutrophication%20in%20the%20BS.pdf Nutrients and Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea - Effects, Causes, Solutions] (HELCOM) - main reference for this article
+
Related articles are listed in [[Eutrophication]].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==External link==
 +
Wikipedia [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eutrophication Eutrophication article]
  
<references/>
 
  
==Further Reading==
+
=Further Reading=
 
The Biology and Ecology of Seagrasses (ed. Brant W. Touchette), 2007. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Volume 350, Issues 1-2, Pages 1-260 (9 November 2007), . http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00220981
 
The Biology and Ecology of Seagrasses (ed. Brant W. Touchette), 2007. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Volume 350, Issues 1-2, Pages 1-260 (9 November 2007), . http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00220981
  
 +
 +
 +
=References=
 +
 +
<references/>
  
 
{{author
 
{{author
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[[category:Theme 6]]
 
 
[[category:Baltic]]
 
[[category:Baltic]]
[[category:Black sea]]
+
[[Category:Coastal and marine ecosystems]]  
[[category:Mediterranean]]
+
[[Category:Eutrophication]]
[[category:Atmospheric processes, air and climate]]
 
[[category:Biological processes and organisms]]
 
[[category:Ecological processes and ecosystems]]
 
[[category:Land and ocean interactions]]
 

Latest revision as of 21:18, 7 August 2019



Introduction

Fig.1. Noctiluca milaris (sea sparkle) bloom, German Bight, 2000


Eutrophication is the excessive loading of water with nutrients, dissolved substances containing the elements P, N and Si needed by organisms for growth. Nutrient loading of coastal waters is caused by increased inputs of nutrients from activities in the upstream catchment, atmospheric deposition and local effluents. The negative effects of eutrophication on marine ecosystems include: algal blooms (Fig.1), increased growth of macroalgae, increased sedimentation and oxygen consumption, oxygen depletion in lower water layers and, sometimes, mortality of benthic animals and fish. Mitigation of the negative effects of eutrophication requires reduction of nutrient inputs and an ecosystem-based management strategy. The bio-geochemical cycles of nutrients are discussed in the article Continental Nutrient Sources and Nutrient Transformation.





Eutrophication as a global-scale issue

Biomass production in coastal waters - the conversion of light and carbon dioxide into living organic matter – is mainly limited by availability of nitrogen and/or phosphorus (light is a limiting factor in turbid zones). Eutrophication leads to increased biomass production that disturbs the natural ecological balance in the coastal zone, with serious detrimental consequences for biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, recreational activities and fisheries. The anthropogenic alteration of the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles takes place at a global scale and is considered as one of the biggest threats to marine ecosystem health for decades[1] [2] [3]. Coastal regions throughout the world, including Europe, are affected by eutrophication. It is usually treated in science and management as a local or regional phenomenon, but eutrophication is actually, like climate change, a global issue.


The meaning of eutrophication

Eutrophication 
“eu” = “well” or “good”
“trope” = “nourishment”

But is “eutrophication” good?

  • In general: NO … it is actually ”bad” …
  • Too many nutrients in the wrong places may cause problems and result in changes in structure, function and stability of the marine ecosystems.


Effects of Eutrophication

The different processes and possible effects of coastal eutrophication on the marine ecosystem are well documented[4] [5] [6] (Fig.2):

  • toxic algal blooms
  • reduced depth distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation
  • increased growth of nuisance macroalgae
  • increased sedimentation
  • increased oxygen consumption
  • oxygen depletion in lower water layers
  • sometimes dead benthic animals and fish.


Fig.2. Sources of nutrient input to the marine environment and simplified schemes showing eutrophication effects arising from nutrient enrichment [7].


Eutrophication causes structural changes throughout the marine ecosystem and reduces ecosystem resilience. Eutrophication issues are often divided into three groups [8]:

  1. Causative factors: inputs, elevated nutrient concentrations, Redfield ratio changes
  2. Direct effects on primary producers - phytoplankton and submerged aquatic vegetation
  3. Indirect effects (secondary effects) related to zooplankton, fish and ínvertebrate benthic fauna (animals living on and in the seabed).

The following responses to increased nutrient inputs are observed in the Baltic Sea [8]:

  • Increased phytoplankton primary production, which increases biomass, which decreases light penetration through the water column. Reduced light penetration reduces the depth at which macroalgae and seagrasses can grow.
  • Increased nutrient inputs generally entail a change in ratio between dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, the DIN:DIP ratio. Optimal is 16:1 – called the Redfield ratio. A significantly lower ratio can cause nitrogen limitation, whereas a higher ratio can lead to phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton primary production. Species that are less sensitive for their growth to the optimal DIN:DIP ratio outcompete more sensitive species.
  1. Increased planktonic primary production compared to benthic production
  2. Dominance of microbial food webs over linear planktonic food chains
  3. Dominance of non-siliceous phytoplankton species over diatom species
  4. Dominance of gelatinous zooplankton (jellyfish) over crustacean zooplankton


Some effects are discussed more in detail below.

Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton is at the base of pelagic food webs in aquatic systems. As the turnover time is less that a few days, it respond rapidly to nutrient concentration changes. Changes are observed in:

  • Primary production
  • Biomass (chlorophyll-a concentration, or carbon biomass)
  • Bloom frequency

Submerged aquatic vegetation

Submerged aquatic vegetation is affected by eutrophication through[8]:

  • Reduced light penetration and shadowing effects from phytoplankton, which modifies the depth distribution, biomass, composition and species diversity and leads to a decline of seagrass meadows and perennial macroalgae, which are important nursery areas for coastal fish populations;
  • Increased growth of filamentous and short lived nuisance macroalgae at the cost of long lived species, which leads to a change in structure of macroalgae communities with reduced diversity.

Oxygen depletion

Oxygen depletion, or hypoxia, is a commonly observed phenomenon low in the water column [8]. This effect can be episodic, occuring persistently, seasonally (most common in summer/autumn), or episodically in the coastal zone.

  • Lethality of low oxygen concentrations depends on the species. Fish and crustaceans have higher oxygen requirements; other species have lower requirements.
  • Hypoxic and anoxic (no oxygen) conditions may results in formation and release of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), which is lethal to many organisms.
  • Anoxic periods cause the release of phophorus from sediments. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and ammonium are released under hypoxic conditions. DIP and ammonium enhance algal blooms.

Invertebrate benthic fauna

Invertebrate benthic fauna can cope with oxygen depletion to varying degrees (days – month) [8]. If O2 drops to zero and H2S is released all organisms are killed immediately. Mobile benthic invertebrates in sediment move to the surface when O2 decreases - catches of fish and crustaceans are increased under such conditions. It is difficult to predict when animals will return after anoxic episodes. The size of the affected area plays a role: small areas are recolonised more quickly than larger areas.


Climate change

Global warming is predicted to increase hypoxia conditions. A 4 degree temperature increase is projected to result in a doubling of hypoxia in some parts of North Sea. For example, eelgrass is very sensitive to low oxygen concentrations, and dies off under these conditions (often in combination with high temperatures).

By burying carbon (and nutrients) in sediments, the marine environment contributes to mitigating climate change. In ocean regions where primary production is nutrient-limited, eutrophication will enhance carbon storage in marine sediments. Carbon is also stored in the oceans by dissolution of CO2 as carbonic acide. However, the resulting ocean acidification is a threat for many marine organisms.


Eutrophication monitoring

For this topic the reader is referred to the following articles:


Eutrophication modelling

Information on eutrophication modelling can be found in the articles Coupled hydrodynamic - water quality - ecological modelling and Modelling marine and coastal eutrophication.


European Regional Seas

Within Europe, regional seas such as the Baltic Sea, the Wadden Sea, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea suffer currently strong adverse impacts of eutrophication, which will be further exacerbated by climate change. The main source of nitrogen to European coastal waters are agricultural effluents discharged into the sea via rivers. Another important source is atmospheric deposition of nitrogen that results from ammonia evaporation in animal husbandry and from fossil fuel combustion in traffic, industry and households[9]. For phosphorus, the major sources are treated and untreated discharges to the sea from households and industry as well as soil erosion[9].


Baltic Sea

Causes of eutrophication

Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment[8][10] in the Baltic Sea is caused by input of nutrients from:

  • Point sources such as effluents of sewage treatment plants and industries
  • Atmospheric deposition in the sea
  • Rivers contaminated by activities in the catchment area such as point sources, agricultural effluents, atmospheric deposition on land, in addition to background releases from natural erosion and leakage of nutrients from areas without much human activities.

Waterborne inputs are from agriculture forestry, scattered dwellings, municipalities, industries, natural background losses.

Airborne nitrogen inputs are from:

  • Emission of nitrogen oxides from road transport, energy combustion, shipping
  • Ammonia emissions, mostly from agriculture
  • Distant sources

The main source of nitrogen inputs in the Baltic Sea is from agricultural effluents via rivers caused by:

  • Soil cultivation
  • Fertiliser use
  • Production of of manure
  • Intensive and uncontrolled agriculture

Impact of eutrophication

Fig.3. Cyanobacteria bloom, Western Baltic, 1997. Blue-green algae are potentially harmful to humans.

Excessive phytoplankton blooms are a major problem – especially of blue-green algae. Summertime algal blooms occur commonly in most parts of the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Proper and south-western parts of the Baltic Sea. Particular problems are:

  • bathing people can hardly see their feet (Fig.3)
  • blue-green algae potentially toxic to humans and animals
  • decaying large mats of drifting algae stranded along the shores

Solutions

The following steps have been suggested[8]

  1. Establish overall goals and target values
  2. Implement relevant measures directly linked to fulfillment of these overall goals and targets
  3. Carry out monitoring
  4. Conduct assessments
  5. Evaluate whether the goals and targets have been fulfilled or not

Main drivers

  • EU directives [11]
  • Decisions and recommendations adopted by HELCOM [12][13][14]
  • National action plans


Wadden Sea

In contrast to the enclosed nature of the Baltic, the Wadden Sea is a very open system. Strong tides exchange water and particulate matter between the Wadden Sea and the North Sea.

Causes

Human eutrophication drivers in the Wadden Sea are to a large extent similar as in the Baltic including direct inputs, atmospheric deposition and riverine inputs. But some notable differences exist:

  1. Riverine input (Fig.4): both local and distant riverine sources drive the Wadden Sea eutrophication. Residual currents in the North Sea transport nutrients from large rivers outside of the Wadden Sea like the river Rhine and Maas into the Wadden Sea
  2. Direct input: This used to be a large local problem in the 1970’s but solved in the 1980’s
  3. Input from the North Sea: This source of organic matter and nutrients used to be one of the drivers of the high fertility of the Wadden Sea but amplified eutrophication problems since the 1970’s due to increased North Sea nutrient concentrations.

Agriculture is the main driver of surplus nitrogen and phosphorus [15].


Fig.4. Historic development of nitrate (a) and phosphate (b) concentrations in the Rhine. Original graph is by van Bennekom and Wetsteijn (1990) [16], updated with more recent data from Rijkswaterstaat (live.waterbase.nl) measured at the Dutch-German border near Lobith. Note that nitrate and phosphate do not represent the total N and P concentrations. Nutrient input sharply increased since the 1940s, reached a maximum during the 1980s and decreased afterwards due to appropriate measures.


Impact of eutrophication

Eutrophication problems were recognized in the 1970’s and reached a maximum in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Political decisions in the 1970`s and 1980’s lead to a marked decrease in nutrient input and eutrophication problems [17][18][19]. The following problems were encountered

  • Excessive phytoplankton blooms.
  • Shifts in phytoplankton composition towards the dominance of the non-silicified phytoplankter Phaeocystis pouchetii and foam formation on beaches [20]
  • Decrease in seagrass
  • Increase in green macroalgae
  • Black spots: large anoxic areas on tidal flats

Solutions

A first step to solve the Wadden Sea/North Sea eutrophication problem was the decision in 1990 at the International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea in London to reduce the nutrient loads to 50% of the 1985-1987 levels [21]. Especially the reduction of N loads appeared to be problematic but about 30 years later, riverine loads into the Wadden Sea indeed are indeed about 50% lower (Fig.4). This led to a reduction in phytoplankton biomass, a reduction in green macroalgae coverage and in the northern Wadden Sea to a recovery of seagrass [22][23].

Main Drivers

  • European Directives
  • Decisions and recommendations adopted by OSPAR [24]
  • Trilateral Wadden Sea Plan [25]


EU Directives related to eutrophication

EC Urban Waster Water Treatment Directive
EC Nitrates Directive
EU Water Framework Directive
Marine Strategy Directive


Related articles

Related articles are listed in Eutrophication.


External link

Wikipedia Eutrophication article


Further Reading

The Biology and Ecology of Seagrasses (ed. Brant W. Touchette), 2007. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Volume 350, Issues 1-2, Pages 1-260 (9 November 2007), . http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00220981


References

  1. Ryther and Dunstan, 1971
  2. Nixon, S. W. (1995) Coastal marine eutrophication: a definition, social causes, and future concerns. Ophelia, 41, 199–219.[ISI]
  3. Bachmann, R. W., Cloern, J. E., Heckey, R. E. et al. (eds) (2006) Eutrophication of freshwater and marine ecosystems. Limnol. Oceanogr., 51 (1, part 2), 351–800.
  4. Cloern, J. (2001) Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 210, 223–253.[ISI]
  5. Conley, D. J., Markager, S., Andersen, J. et al. (2002) Coastal eutrophication and the Danish National Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Program. Estuaries, 25, 706–719.[Medline]
  6. Rönnberg, C. and Bonsdorff, E. (2004) Baltic Sea eutrophication: area-specific ecological consequences. Hydrobiologia, 514, 227–241.[CrossRef][ISI]
  7. OSPAR 2010. Quality Status Report.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 HELCOM (2006) Andersen, J (DHI) and Pawlak, J (MEC), Nutrients and Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea – Effects, Causes, Solutions. Baltic Sea Parliamentary Conference.[1]
  9. 9.0 9.1 Ærtebjerg, G. et al., Eutrophication in Europe’s Coastal Waters. Topic Report No 7/2001. European Environment Agency. [2]
  10. http://www2.dmu.dk/1_Viden/2_Miljoe-tilstand/3_vand/4_eutrophication/definition.htm Nutrients and Eutrophication in Danish Marine Waters
  11. http://www.EEA.europa.eu European Environment Agency
  12. http://www.HELCOM.fi HELCOM
  13. http://www.BSPC.net Baltic Sea Parlimentary Conference
  14. http://www.BONUSportal.org BONUS] for the future of the Baltic Sea
  15. https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/378/publikationen/reaktiver_stickstoff_in_deutschland_0.pdf
  16. van Bennekom AJ, Wetsteijn FJ (1990) The winter distribution of nutrients in the southern bight of the North Sea (1961-1978) and in the estuaries of the Scheldt and the Rhine/Meuse. Neth J Sea Res 25:75- 87
  17. Van Beusekom JEE, Fock H, de Jong F, Diel-Christiansen S, Christiansen B (2001) Wadden Sea specific eutrophication criteria. Wadden Sea Ecosystem 14:1-115
  18. De Jong F (2007) Marine eutrophication in perspective: on the relevance of ecology for environmental policy. Springer Science & Business Media
  19. http://qsr.waddensea-worldheritage.org/reports/introduction
  20. http://www.vliz.be/projects/iseca/images/dels/Phaeocystis%20and%20foam%20on%20the%20beach.pdf
  21. https://www.ospar.org/site/assets/files/1239/declarations_compilation_1995.pdf
  22. http://qsr.waddensea-worldheritage.org/reports/eutrophication
  23. http://qsr.waddensea-worldheritage.org/reports/seagrass
  24. http:// OSPAR.ORG
  25. http://www.waddensea-secretariat.org/management/wadden-sea-plan-2010
The main author of this article is Caitlin Pilkington
Please note that others may also have edited the contents of this article.

Citation: Caitlin Pilkington (2019): Eutrophication in coastal environments. Available from http://www.coastalwiki.org/wiki/Eutrophication_in_coastal_environments [accessed on 26-02-2020]