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Schuchert, P. (2010). The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 2. Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 117: 337-555.
145433
Schuchert, P.
2010
The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 2
Revue Suisse de Zoologie
117: 337-555
Publication
This study concludes the series of reviews on European athecate hydroids and anthomedusae, providing updated classifications, descriptions, and illustrations of all species. The present work mainly treats the remaining capitate families, but taxonomic comments and updates on some filiferan taxa are also given. The genus name Russellia Kramp, 1957 is preoccupied and the new name Heterotentacula n. gen. and the family level name Heterotentaculidae n. fam. is proposed to replace them. Janiopsis Bouillon, 1980 is also a preoccupied genus name. No replacement name is necessary as Janiopsis is regarded as congeneric with Merga Hartlaub, 1914. The frequently used genus name Heterotiara Maas, 1905 is invalid and must be replaced by Protiaropsis Stechow, 1919. Tubularia ralphi Bale, 1884, Tubularia gracilis von Lendenfeld, 1885, Tubularia australis Stechow, 1924, and Tubularia warreni Ewer, 1953 are all recognized as new synonyms of Ectopleura crocea (L. Agassiz, 1862). Mediterranean records of Ectopleura minerva Mayer, 1900 are here attributed to E. wrighti and E. minerva does not likely occur in European waters. A reexamination of the type material of Corymorpha appelloefi Bonnevie, 1901 made it clear that it must be regarded as synonym of Corymorpha nutans M. Sars, 1835. Meiorhopalon arenicolum Salvin-Plawen, 1987 is recognized as a new synonym of Euphysa aurata Forbes, 1848. Examination of the type material of Coryne filiformis (Rees, 1936) showed that it is inseparable from Coryne pintneri Schneider, 1898. C. filiformis must thus be regarded as a new synonym of C. pintneri. Eugotoea petalina Margulis, 1989 is likewise a new synonym of Rhabdoon singulare Keferstein & Ehlers, 1861.
Systematics, Taxonomy
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Acrochordium Meyen, 1834 accepted as Zanclea Gegenbaur, 1856 (basis of record)
Actinogonium Allman, 1872 accepted as Coryne Gaertner, 1774 (basis of record)
Amalthaeidae Haeckel, 1879 accepted as Corymorphidae Allman, 1872 (basis of record)
Bouillonia cornucopia (Bonnevie, 1898) (redescription)
Branchiocerianthidae Broch, 1916 accepted as Corymorphidae Allman, 1872 (basis of record)
Branchiocerianthus imperator (Allman, 1888) (redescription)
Branchiocerianthus italicus Stechow, 1921 (redescription)
Capsularia Modeer, 1793 accepted as Coryne Gaertner, 1774 (basis of record)
Codonidae Haeckel, 1879 accepted as Corynidae Johnston, 1836 (additional source)
Codonium Haeckel, 1879 (basis of record)
Codonium codonoforum Haeckel, 1879 accepted as Codonium proliferum (Forbes, 1848) (basis of record)
Codonium proliferum (Forbes, 1848) (new combination reference)
Corina Schweigger, 1820 accepted as Coryne Gaertner, 1774 (basis of record)
Corine Cuvier, 1798 accepted as Coryne Gaertner, 1774 (basis of record)
Corymorpha abyssalis Broch, 1910 accepted as Corymorpha groenlandica (Allman, 1876) (source of synonymy)
Corymorpha appellöfi Bonnevie, 1901 accepted as Corymorpha nutans M. Sars, 1835 (source of synonymy)
Corymorpha bigelowi (Maas, 1905) (additional source)
Corymorpha forbesii (Mayer, 1894) (redescription)
Corymorpha glacialis M. Sars, 1860 (redescription)
Corymorpha groenlandica (Allman, 1876) (redescription)
Corymorpha nana Alder, 1857 (redescription)
Corymorpha nutans M. Sars, 1835 (redescription)
Corymorpha petalina (Margulis, 1989) accepted as Rhabdoon singulare Keferstein & Ehlers, 1861 (source of synonymy)
Corymorpha sarsii Steenstrup, 1855 (redescription)
Coryna Bosc, 1802 accepted as Coryne Gaertner, 1774 (basis of record)
Coryne filiformis (Rees, 1936) accepted as Coryne pintneri Schneider, 1897 (source of synonymy)
Coryne prolifera (Forbes, 1848) accepted as Codonium proliferum (Forbes, 1848) (additional source)
Coryne vermicularis Hincks, 1866 accepted as Coryne pusilla Gaertner, 1774 (source of synonymy)
Dipurena McCrady, 1859 accepted as Slabberia Forbes, 1846 (status source)
Discomitra Haeckel, 1888 accepted as Porpita Lamarck, 1801 (source of synonymy)
Ectopleura attenoides (Coughtrey, 1876) (status source)
Ectopleura crocea (Agassiz, 1862) (redescription)
Ectopleura dumortierii (Van Beneden, 1844) (redescription)
Ectopleura larynx (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (redescription)
Ectopleura ralphi (Bale, 1884) accepted as Ectopleura crocea (Agassiz, 1862) (source of synonymy)
Eucoryne Broch, 1910 accepted as Coryne Gaertner, 1774 (basis of record)
Eugotoea petalina Margulis, 1989 accepted as Rhabdoon singulare Keferstein & Ehlers, 1861 (additional source)
Eugotoea petalina Margulis, 1989 accepted as Rhabdoon singulare Keferstein & Ehlers, 1861 (source of synonymy)
Euphysa arenicola (Salvini-Plawen, 1987) accepted as Euphysa aurata Forbes, 1848 (source of synonymy)
Euphysa aurata Forbes, 1848 (redescription)
Euphysa flammea (Hartlaub, 1902) (redescription)
Euphysa tentaculata Linko, 1905 (redescription)
Fistulana Müller, 1776 accepted as Coryne Gaertner, 1774 (basis of record)
Fistularia Müller, 1776 accepted as Coryne Gaertner, 1774 (basis of record)
Gemellaria Allman, 1872 accepted as Zanclea Gegenbaur, 1856 (basis of record)
Gemmaria McCrady, 1859, accepted as Zanclea Gegenbaur, 1856 (basis of record)
Guentherella Weill, 1934 accepted as Zanclea Gegenbaur, 1856 (basis of record)
Gymnogonos crassicornis Bonnevie, 1898 (redescription)
Gymnogonos obvolutus (Kramp, 1933) (additional source)
Halobotrys Carus, 1885 accepted as Coryne Gaertner, 1774 (basis of record)
Halocharis L. Agassiz, 1862 accepted as Zanclea Gegenbaur, 1856 (basis of record)
Halocoryne epizoica Hadzi, 1917 (redescription)
Halocorynidae Picard, 1957 accepted as Zancleidae Russell, 1953 (basis of record)
Halybothrys Bedot, 1910 accepted as Coryne Gaertner, 1774 (basis of record)
Hermia Johnston, 1838 accepted as Coryne Gaertner, 1774 (basis of record)
Heterotentacula Schuchert, 2010 (original description)
Heterotentacula mirabilis (Kramp, 1957) (new combination reference)
Heterotentaculidae Schuchert, 2010 (original description)
Heterotiara Maas, 1905 accepted as Protiaropsis Stechow, 1919 (source of synonymy)
Hybocodon prolifer Agassiz, 1860 (redescription)
Hydra Linnaeus, 1758 (redescription)
Hydra circumcincta Schulze, 1914 (redescription)
Hydra dioecia Downing, 1905 accepted as Hydra oligactis Pallas, 1766 (basis of record)
Hydra oligactis Pallas, 1766 (redescription)
Hydra oxycnida Schulze, 1914 (redescription)
Hydra viridissima Pallas, 1766 (redescription)
Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766 (redescription)
Hydra vulgaris var. aurantiaca Ehrenberg, 1838 accepted as Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766 (basis of record)
Hydridae Dana, 1846 (additional source)
Hypolytidae accepted as Corymorphidae Allman, 1872 (basis of record)
Meiorhopalon arenicolum von Salvini-Plawen, 1987 accepted as Euphysa aurata Forbes, 1848 (source of synonymy)
Mnestra Krohn, 1853 accepted as Zanclea Gegenbaur, 1856 (basis of record)
Moerisia inkermanica Paltschikowa-Ostroumowa, 1925 (redescription)
Odessia maeotica (Ostroumoff, 1896) (redescription)
Oonautes hanseni Damas, 1936 (redescription)
Pandea maasi Mayer, 1910 accepted as Euphysa flammea (Hartlaub, 1902) (source of synonymy)
Paracoryne huvei Picard, 1957 (redescription)
Paragoteidae accepted as Corymorphidae Allman, 1872 (basis of record)
Paragotoea bathybia Kramp, 1942 (redescription)
Plotocnide borealis Wagner, 1885 (additional source)
Porpita porpita (Linnaeus, 1758) (redescription)
Porpitellidae Haeckel, 1888 accepted as Porpitidae Goldfuss, 1818 (source of synonymy)
Rhabdoon Keferstein & Ehlers, 1861 (redescription)
Rhabdoon singulare Keferstein & Ehlers, 1861 (redescription)
Rosalinda Totton, 1949 (additional source)
Rosalinda incrustans (Kramp, 1947) (redescription)
Rosalinda williami Totton, 1949 (redescription)
Sarsiadae Forbes, 1848 accepted as Corynidae Johnston, 1836 (basis of record)
Siphonohydra adriatica Salvini-Plawen, 1966 (redescription)
Slabberia Forbes, 1846 (status source)
Slabberia halterata Forbes, 1846 (status source)
Slabberia simulans (Bouillon, 1965) (basis of record)
Slabberia strangulata (McCrady, 1859) (basis of record)
Stauridiosarsia Mayer, 1910 (status source)
Stauridiosarsia producta (Wright, 1858) (additional source)
Staurocoryne Rotch, 1872 accepted as Coryne Gaertner, 1774 (basis of record)
Staurocoryne filiformis Rees, 1936 accepted as Coryne pintneri Schneider, 1897 (source of synonymy)
Steenstrupiini Cockerell, 1911 accepted as Corymorphidae Allman, 1872 (basis of record)
Stipula M. Sars, 1829 accepted as Coryne Gaertner, 1774 (basis of record)
Syncorine Spagnoli, 1871 accepted as Coryne Gaertner, 1774 (basis of record)
Arctic for Euphysa flammea (Hartlaub, 1902) 
Arctic for Gymnogonos crassicornis Bonnevie, 1898 
Barents Sea for Euphysa flammea (Hartlaub, 1902) 
Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone for Moerisia inkermanica Paltschikowa-Ostroumowa, 1925 
Bulgarian Exclusive Economic Zone for Moerisia inkermanica Paltschikowa-Ostroumowa, 1925 
Dutch Exclusive Economic Zone for Moerisia inkermanica Paltschikowa-Ostroumowa, 1925 
European waters (ERMS scope) for Ectopleura minerva Mayer, 1900  (inaccurate)
French Exclusive Economic Zone for Moerisia inkermanica Paltschikowa-Ostroumowa, 1925 
Guernsey Exclusive Economic Zone for Moerisia inkermanica Paltschikowa-Ostroumowa, 1925 
Hardangerfjord for Branchiocerianthus norvegicus Brattström, 1956 
Indian Exclusive Economic Zone for Moerisia inkermanica Paltschikowa-Ostroumowa, 1925 
Indo-Pacific for Euphysora bigelowi Maas, 1905 
Italian Exclusive Economic Zone for Moerisia inkermanica Paltschikowa-Ostroumowa, 1925 
Mediterranean Sea for Ectopleura minerva Mayer, 1900  (inaccurate)
Mediterranean Sea for Paracoryne huvei Picard, 1957 
Mediterranean Sea for Paragotoea bathybia Kramp, 1942 
New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone for Ectopleura attenoides (Coughtrey, 1876) 
South African Exclusive Economic Zone for Moerisia inkermanica Paltschikowa-Ostroumowa, 1925 
Spitsbergen for Tubularia regalis Boeck, 1860 
 Authority

Linko (1905) is usually credited as author of the name, certainly following the influential synopses of Kramp ... [details]

 Biology

Deep water medusa, usually in 200-700, maximally 2000 m depth [details]

 Diagnosis

Hydroid with polymorphic hydranths, differentiated into gastrozooids, gonozooids, and dactylozooids; colony flat, ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Hydroids colonial, polyps issued from creeping stolons, sessile or with usually unbranched pedicel; polyps ... [details]

 Diagnosis

The least inclusive clade comprising the species Slabberia halterata Forbes, 1846 and Slabberia simulans (Bouillon, ... [details]

 Diagnosis

The least inclusive clade comprising the species Stauridiosarsia producta (Wright, 1858); St. ophiogaster Haeckel, ... [details]

 Diagnosis

The least inclusive clade comprising the species Coryne pusilla Gaertner, 1774; C. pintneri Schneider, 1898; and C. eximia ... [details]

 Distribution

All records outside the Mediterranean are erroneous. [details]

 Distribution

This is an arctic species and it is thus very unlikely to be present in the Mediterranean. The Mediterranean record ... [details]

 Reproduction

Gonophore is a free medusa, polyp is unknown. [details]

 Reproduction

Gonophore is a free medusa, both medusa and polyp are known. [details]

 Reproduction

Gonophores are sessile sporosacs. [details]

 Status

Has been synonymized with E. larynx, but it may be valid [details]

 Status

Most probably a synonym of Moerisia inkermanica Paltschikowa-Ostroumowa, 1925 [details]

 Status

The genus name Slabberia Forbes, 1846 was widely used until Mayer (1910: 719) noted that the name is a junior ... [details]

 Status

This name has very often incorrectly been applied to animals now considered to belong to different species. The ... [details]

 Synonymy

in part Codonium princeps. -- Levinsen, 1893: 143. in part Sarsia brachygaster Grönberg, 1898: 459, pl. 27 figs ... [details]

 Taxonomy

The genus name Slabberia Forbes, 1846 was widely used until Mayer (1910: 719) noted that the name is a junior ... [details]

 Type locality

Off Yokohama, Japan, 34.617°N 140.533°E, 3422 m depth and North Pacific, 37.683°N 177.067°W 5293 m depth [details]

 Validity

Zanclea Gegenbaur, 1857; type species Zanclea costata Gegenbaur, 1857 by monotypy, gender is feminine, placed on the ... [details]