World Hydrozoa Database


Hydrozoa source details

Schuchert, P. (2007). The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera part 2. Revue suisse de Zoologie. 114: 195-396.
130045
Schuchert, P.
2007
The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera part 2
Revue suisse de Zoologie
114: 195-396
Publication
This study reviews all European species belonging to the filiferan families Bougainvilliidae, Cytaeididae, Rathkeidae, and Pandeidae. Updated diagnoses for the families and genera are provided and taxonomic problems solved or at least outlined. Lizzia blondina is removed from the Bougainvilliidae and transferred to the Rathkeidae based on results from 16S sequence data. Dysmorphosa minuta Mayer, 1900 is regarded as a synonym of Lizzia blondina; morphological and molecular evidence is provided. Cytaeis minima Trinci, 1903, formerly included in the Hydractiniidae, is transferred to a new genus Podocorynoides and included in the Rathkeidae as Podocorynoides minima (Trinci, 1903). Perigonimus nanellus Stechow, 1919 belongs to the genus Dicoryne and is likely a synonym of Dicoryne conybearei (Allman, 1864). Perigonimus nudus Stechow, 1919 is recognized as a new synonym of Eirene viridula (Péron & Lesueur, 1810). The Mediterranean records of Rhizorhagium michaeli and R. arenosum are most likely based on misidentifications of Pachycordyle pusilla (Motz-Kossowska, 1905). Annatiara lempersi Bleeker & van der Spoel, 1988 is a synonym of Annatiara affinis (Hartlaub, 1914).
Eastern Atlantic
Systematics, Taxonomy
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Amphinema Haeckel, 1879 (redescription)
Amphinema biscayana (Browne, 1907) (additional source)
Amphinema bouilloni Schuchert, 2007 (original description)
Amphinema dinema (Péron & Lesueur, 1810) (redescription)
Amphinema krampi Russell, 1956 (redescription)
Amphinema rubrum (Kramp, 1957) (redescription)
Amphinema rugosum (Mayer, 1900) (redescription)
Amphinema turrida (Mayer, 1900) (redescription)
Annatiara affinis (Hartlaub, 1914) (redescription)
Annatiara lempersi Bleeker & van der Spoel, 1988 accepted as Annatiara affinis (Hartlaub, 1914) (source of synonymy)
Atractylis Wright, 1858 accepted as Bougainvillia Lesson, 1830 (basis of record)
Atractylis linearis Alder, 1862 accepted as Bougainvillia britannica (Forbes, 1841) (source of synonymy)
Atractylis palliata Wright, 1861 accepted as Leuckartiara octona (Fleming, 1823) (basis of record)
Atractylis repens Wright, 1858 accepted as Leuckartiara octona (Fleming, 1823) (basis of record)
Bimeria Wright, 1859 (redescription)
Bimeria fragilis Stechow, 1919 accepted as Garveia grisea (Motz-Kossowska, 1905) (source of synonymy)
Bimeria vestita Wright, 1859 (redescription)
Bougainvillia alderi (Hodge, 1863) accepted as Bougainvillia muscus (Allman, 1863) (status source)
Bougainvillia aurantiaca Bouillon, 1980 (additional source)
Bougainvillia autumnalis Hartlaub, 1897 accepted as Bougainvillia muscus (Allman, 1863) (source of synonymy)
Bougainvillia benedenii Bonnevie, 1898 accepted as Bougainvillia muscus (Allman, 1863) (source of synonymy)
Bougainvillia britannica (Forbes, 1841) (redescription)
Bougainvillia flavida Hartlaub, 1897 accepted as Bougainvillia britannica (Forbes, 1841) (source of synonymy)
Bougainvillia fruticosa Allman, 1864 accepted as Bougainvillia muscus (Allman, 1863) (status source)
Bougainvillia Gibbsi Mayer, 1900 accepted as Bougainvillia muscus (Allman, 1863) (status source)
Bougainvillia macloviana Lesson, 1830 (redescription)
Bougainvillia muscoides (Sars, 1846) (redescription)
Bougainvillia muscus (Allman, 1863) (redescription)
Bougainvillia nigritella Forbes, 1848 accepted as Bougainvillia muscoides (Sars, 1846) (status source)
Bougainvillia obscura Bonnevie, 1898 accepted as Bougainvillia muscoides (Sars, 1846) (status source)
Bougainvillia paradoxa Mereschowsky, 1879 accepted as Bougainvillia superciliaris (L. Agassiz, 1849) (status source)
Bougainvillia platygaster (Haeckel, 1879) (redescription)
Bougainvillia principis (Steenstrup, 1850) (redescription)
Bougainvillia pyramidata (Forbes & Goodsir, 1853) (redescription)
Bougainvillia ramosa (Van Beneden, 1844) accepted as Bougainvillia muscus (Allman, 1863) (status source)
Bougainvillia superciliaris (L. Agassiz, 1849) (redescription)
Bougainvillia triestina Hartlaub, 1911 (status source)
Bougainvilliidae Lütken, 1850 (additional source)
Catablema vesicarium (A. Agassiz, 1862) (redescription)
Codonorchis octaedrus Haeckel, 1879 (status source)
Cytaeandra Haeckel, 1879 accepted as Podocoryna M. Sars, 1846 (basis of record)
Cytaeididae L. Agassiz, 1862 (redescription)
Cytaeis Eschscholtz, 1829 (status source)
Cytaeis minima Trinci, 1903 accepted as Podocorynoides minima (Trinci, 1903) (new combination reference)
Cytaeis pusilla Gegenbaur, 1856 (status source)
Cytaeis tetrastyla Eschscholtz, 1829 (redescription)
Dicoryne Allman, 1859 (redescription)
Dicoryne conferta (Alder, 1856) (redescription)
Dicoryne conybearei (Allman, 1864) (redescription)
Dysmorphosa minuta Mayer, 1900 accepted as Lizzia blondina Forbes, 1848 (source of synonymy)
Eudendrium pusillum Wright, 1857 accepted as Leuckartiara octona (Fleming, 1823) (source of synonymy)
Eudendrium sessile Wright, 1857 accepted as Leuckartiara octona (Fleming, 1823) (basis of record)
Garveia Wright, 1859 (redescription)
Garveia arborea (Browne, 1907) (redescription)
Garveia crassa (Stechow, 1923) (additional source)
Garveia franciscana (Torrey, 1902) (redescription)
Garveia grisea (Motz-Kossowska, 1905) (redescription)
Garveia nutans Wright, 1859 (redescription)
Halitholus Hartlaub, 1914 (additional source)
Halitholus cirratus Hartlaub, 1913 (redescription)
Halitholus pauper Hartlaub, 1914 (redescription)
Hydrichthys cyclothonis Damas, 1934 (redescription)
Hydrichthys sarcotretis (Jungersen, 1913) (redescription)
Hydrodendrium Nutting, 1906 accepted as Hydractinia Van Beneden, 1844 (basis of record)
Hydronema Stechow, 1921 accepted as Hydractinia Van Beneden, 1844 (basis of record)
Ichthyocodium Jungersen, 1913 accepted as Hydrichthys Fewkes, 1887 (new combination reference)
Kinetocodium Kramp, 1921 (redescription)
Kinetocodium danae Kramp, 1921 (redescription)
Koellikeria L. Agassiz, 1862 accepted as Koellikerina Kramp, 1939 (source of synonymy)
Koellikerina fasciculata (Péron & Lesueur, 1810) (redescription)
Leuckartiara abyssi (G.O. Sars, 1874) accepted as Neoturris abyssi (G.O. Sars, 1874) accepted as Neoturris pileata (Forsskål, 1775) (redescription)
Leuckartiara brownei Larson & Harbison, 1990 (additional source)
Leuckartiara grimaldii Ranson, 1936 (additional source)
Leuckartiara nobilis Hartlaub, 1914 (redescription)
Leuckartiara octona (Fleming, 1823) (redescription)
Leuckartiara octona var. minor Ling, 1937 accepted as Leuckartiara octona (Fleming, 1823) (basis of record)
Lizzella hyalina (Van Beneden, 1866) accepted as Rathkea hyalina (van Beneden, 1867) (status source)
Lizzia Forbes, 1846 (redescription)
Lizzia blondina Forbes, 1848 (redescription)
Lizzia elisabethae Haeckel, 1879 (status source)
Lizzia octostyla (Haeckel, 1879) (redescription)
Medusa pileata Forsskål, 1775 accepted as Neoturris pileata (Forsskål, 1775) (basis of record)
Merga galleri Brinckmann, 1962 (redescription)
Merga reesi Russell, 1956 (redescription)
Merga tergestina (Neppi & Stiasny, 1912) (redescription)
Merga tregoubovii Picard, 1960 (redescription)
Merga violacea (Agassiz & Mayer, 1899) (redescription)
Nemopsis Agassiz, 1849 (redescription)
Nemopsis bachei L. Agassiz, 1849 (redescription)
Neoturris Hartlaub, 1914 (redescription)
Neoturris breviconis (Murbach & Shearer, 1902) (redescription)
Neoturris pileata (Forsskål, 1775) (redescription)
Nubiella mitra Bouillon, 1980 (additional source)
Oceania ampullacea Sars, 1835 accepted as Neoturris pileata (Forsskål, 1775) (basis of record)
Oceania coronata Allman, 1871 accepted as Leuckartiara octona (Fleming, 1823) (basis of record)
Oceania episcopalis Forbes, 1848 accepted as Neoturris pileata (Forsskål, 1775) (additional source)
Oceania gaedii Van Beneden, 1867 accepted as Leuckartiara octona (Fleming, 1823) (basis of record)
Oceania Lesueurii Péron & Lesueur, 1810 accepted as Neoturris pileata (Forsskål, 1775) (basis of record)
Oceania pileus de Blainville, 1830: accepted as Neoturris pileata (Forsskål, 1775) (basis of record)
Octotiara russelli Kramp, 1953 (redescription)
Bermuda for Bougainvillia aberrans Calder, 1993 
European waters (ERMS scope) for Bougainvillia superciliaris (L. Agassiz, 1849) 
 Diagnosis

Colonial hydroids, branched or not, perisarc not ensheathing bases of tentacles; hydranth with one whorl of ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Colonies stolonal or erect, with perisarc enveloping hydranth and extending as a sheath over proximal ends of ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Hydroid colony stolonal or branched, more rarely hydranths sessile; perisarc terminating at base of hydranth or ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Hydroids colonial, stolonal or branching, covered by perisarc infested with foreign material; filmy perisarc also ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Hydroids solitary or colonial; hydranths stolonal, branched, or rarely sessile, arising from creeping hydrorhiza; ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Hydroids, solitary, small, club-shaped, with pedal disk, hydrocaulus not distinctly delimited from hydranth body, ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Medusa bell-shaped, manubrium either with four elongated lips forming simple or branched oral arms with terminal ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Medusa jelly thick; no peduncle, basal trunk of oral tentacles long, ocelli crescentic or oval, often appearing ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Medusa mostly with an apical projection of variable size. Manubrium voluminous, connected to radial canals by ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Medusae with four or eight simple, unbranched perradial oral tentacles inserting at level of mouth rim; with ... [details]

 Distribution

A northern boreal medusa occurring in coastal areas from the Barents Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea. ... [details]

 Distribution

Atlantic Ocean, off Brittany (Russell, 1956b); Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal (Navas, 1971; Navas-Pereira & Vannucci, ... [details]

 Nomenclature

Genus Codonorchis is unrecognizable [details]

 Remark

KEY TO THE GENERA OF THE BOUGAINVILLIIDAE: see Schuchert (2007) [details]

 Status

An indeterminate species, could be Amphinema rugosum or A. dinema (see Rees, 1956a). [details]

 Status

An unrecognizable species, likely a synonym (aberrant form) of Rathkea octopunctata [details]

 Status

could be conspecific with Pachycordyle navis (Millard, 1959)  [details]

 synonymy

Nigritina atlantica Steenstrup. – Kramp, 1961: 64, name not available. Cytaeis tetrastyla Eschscholtz, 1829: ... [details]

 synonymy

Perigonimus schneideri Motz-Kossowska, 1905: 72, fig. 6i. – Rees, 1956a: 344. ? Perigonimus steinachi ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Likely belongs to the genus Bougainvillia. [details]

 Taxonomy

perhaps the polyp of Halitholus cirratus Hartlaub, 1914 [details]

 Taxonomy

Taxonomic position unclear, adult medusa unknown. [details]

 Taxonomy

The genus Lizzia was transferred to the Family Rathkeidae based on 16S DNA data [details]

 Type species

When Forbes (1846: 286) defined the genus Lizzia he stated «..founded for Cytaeis octopunctata of Sars...». This ... [details]

 Validity

Podocoryne alderi Hodge, 1863 is synonym of B. muscus (medusa only). [details]

 Validity

See Schuchert (2007: 359) why this combination is not valid. [details]

 Validity

unrecognizable species, likely a synonym of Rathkea octopunctata [details]