World Hydrozoa Database


Hydrozoa source details

Schuchert, P. (2006). The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1. Revue suisse de Zoologie. 113: 325-410.
130026
Schuchert, P.
2006
The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1
Revue suisse de Zoologie
113: 325-410
Publication
This study reviews all European hydrozoan species belonging to the capitate families Acaulidae, Boreohydridae, Candelabridae, Cladocorynidae, Cladonematidae, Margelopsidae, Pennariidae, Protohydridae, and Tricyclusidae. Updated diagnoses for the families and genera are provided and existing taxonomic problems solved or at least outlined. Candelabrum verrucosum Bonnevie, 1898 is regarded as a valid species and redescribed based on a new record from Greenland. Although Spadix purpurea Gosse, 1853 may be a senior synonym of Candelabrum cocksii (Cocks, 1854), the latter is regarded as the valid name, this because the former name has not been used after 1899, while the latter has been widely used (ICZN article 23.9.1.1). Likewise, two senior synonyms of Eleutheria claparedii Hartlaub, 1898 are declared as invalid as they have never been used since their original introduction by Haeckel.
Systematics, Taxonomy
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Acandela Stechow, 1920 accepted as Candelabrum de Blainville, 1830 (additional source)
Acauloides ammisatum Bouillon, 1965 (redescription)
Boreohydra Westblad, 1937 accepted as Plotocnide Wagner, 1885 (redescription)
Boreohydra simplex Westblad, 1937 accepted as Plotocnide borealis Wagner, 1885 (redescription)
Candelabridae Stechow, 1921 (status source)
Candelabrum de Blainville, 1830 (redescription)
Candelabrum cocksii (Cocks, 1854) (redescription)
Candelabrum phrygium (Fabricius, 1780) (redescription)
Candelabrum verrucosum (Bonnevie, 1898) (redescription)
Cladocoryne Rotch, 1871 (redescription)
Cladocoryne floccosa Rotch, 1871 (redescription)
Cladonema novaezelandiae Ralph, 1953 (status source)
Cladonema radiatum Dujardin, 1843 (redescription)
Dendronema stylodendron Haeckel, 1879 (status source)
Eleutheria Quatrefages, 1842 (redescription)
Eleutheria anisonema Haeckel, 1879 accepted as Eleutheria dichotoma Quatrefages, 1842 (source of synonymy)
Eleutheria claparedii Hartlaub, 1889 (redescription)
Eleutheria cnidobdella Haeckel, 1879 accepted as Eleutheria dichotoma Quatrefages, 1842 (source of synonymy)
Eleutheria dichocnida Haeckel, 1879 accepted as Eleutheria dichotoma Quatrefages, 1842 (source of synonymy)
Eleutheria dichotoma Quatrefages, 1842 (redescription)
Eleutheria diplonema Haeckel, 1879 accepted as Eleutheria claparedii Hartlaub, 1889 (source of synonymy)
Eleutheria gemmipara Du Plessis, 1909 accepted as Eleutheria dichotoma Quatrefages, 1842 (source of synonymy)
Eleutheria heptanema Haeckel, 1879 accepted as Eleutheria dichotoma Quatrefages, 1842 (source of synonymy)
Eleutheria heteronema Haeckel, 1879 accepted as Eleutheria claparedii Hartlaub, 1889 (source of synonymy)
Eleutheria hexanema Haeckel, 1879 accepted as Eleutheria dichotoma Quatrefages, 1842 (source of synonymy)
Eleutheria krohni Krumbach, 1907 accepted as Eleutheria dichotoma Quatrefages, 1842 (source of synonymy)
Eleutheria octonema Haeckel, 1879 accepted as Eleutheria dichotoma Quatrefages, 1842 (source of synonymy)
Eleutheria pentanema Haeckel, 1879 accepted as Eleutheria dichotoma Quatrefages, 1842 (source of synonymy)
Eleutheria tetranema Haeckel, 1879 accepted as Eleutheria dichotoma Quatrefages, 1842 (source of synonymy)
Eleutheriidae Russell, 1953 accepted as Cladonematidae Gegenbaur, 1857 (source of synonymy)
Herpusa ulvae O. Schmidt, 1869 accepted as Eleutheria dichotoma Quatrefages, 1842 (source of synonymy)
Lucernaria phrygia Fabricius, 1780 accepted as Candelabrum phrygium (Fabricius, 1780) (basis of record)
Margelopsis haeckelii Hartlaub, 1897 (redescription)
Myriothela minuta Bonnevie, 1898 accepted as Candelabrum phrygium (Fabricius, 1780) (source of synonymy)
Myriothela mitra Bonnevie, 1898 accepted as Candelabrum phrygium (Fabricius, 1780) (source of synonymy)
Myriothelidae Hincks, 1868 accepted as Candelabridae Stechow, 1921 (additional source)
Pennaria Goldfuss, 1820 (redescription)
Pennaria disticha Goldfuss, 1820 (redescription)
Protohydra Greeff, 1869 (redescription)
Protohydra leuckarti Greeff, 1870 (redescription)
Psammohydra Schulz, 1950 (redescription)
Psammohydra nanna Schulz, 1950 (redescription)
Spadix Gosse, 1853 accepted as Candelabrum de Blainville, 1830 (source of synonymy)
Staurocladia Hartlaub, 1917 (redescription)
Staurocladia portmanni Brinckmann, 1964 (redescription)
Symplectaneidae Fraser, 1943 accepted as Candelabridae Stechow, 1921 (basis of record)
Tricyclusa Stechow, 1919 (additional source)
Tricyclusa singularis (Schulze, 1876) (redescription)
Greenlandic Exclusive Economic Zone for Candelabrum verrucosum (Bonnevie, 1898) 
Helgoland for Margelopsis haeckelii Hartlaub, 1897 
North Sea for Margelopsis haeckelii Hartlaub, 1897  (origin: native - endemic)
Vico Equense for Staurocladia portmanni Brinckmann, 1964 
 Diagnosis

Hydroid mostly stolonal, occasionally branched, one oral whorl of four to five capitate tentacles, with or without ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Hydroid with one oral whorl of capitate tentacles, each with up to ten gastrodermal cells, with one aboral whorl ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Cladonematidae with branched oral tentacles; umbrella bell-shaped,with an apical cavity above manubrium. [details]

 Diagnosis

Hydroid with an oral whorl of up to ten capitate tentacles, without aboral filiform tentacles; medusae buds carried ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Eleutheria medusa without brood-chamber, medusae buds within subumbrella, usually eight tentacles, tentacles ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Eleutheria medusa with brood-chamber, medusae buds outside on bell rim or exumbrella, normally six tentacles, ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Capitata with solitary, pelagic hydroids; hydrocaulus absent or reduced to a small process; hydranth vasiform, ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Hydroid stolonal or sessile, hydranths with an oral whorl of capitate tentacles, with or without aboral filiform ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Solitary, usually benthic hydroids, having a conical to pear-shaped hydranth and tapering pedicel ending in a small ... [details]

 Publication date

Publication date of Vigurs name is most likely 1850 and not 1849. [details]

 Status

Stechow (1921: 248) pointed out that the genus Candelabrum de Blainville, 1830 has priority over Myriothela Sars, ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Taxonomic status unclear, polyp stage unknown, usually regarded as synonym of Cladonema radiatum [details]

 Taxonomy

McCrady used Nemopsis gibbesi for a medusa and a pelagic polyp (which proved to be unrelated). The medusa was the ... [details]

 Type locality

Vico Equense in the Gulf of Sorrento, Italy, Mediterranean. [details]

 Validity

Acauloides ammisatum Bouillon, 1965 strongly resembles the vegetative reproduction stage of A. ilonae ... [details]