HABs note details

H. akashiwo is distinguished from Olisthodiscus luteus by its only slightly flattened cells versus the very flattened cells of Olisthodiscus. Also Heterosigma cells rotate during swimming while Olisthodiscus does not. Cells of H. akashiwo are slightly longer than wide, measuring 11-25 micrometer in length. The newly described species H. minor is almost round and measures 7-12 micrometer in diameter. In fixed samples, H. akashiwo can be difficult to identify (see image below). It may be confused with other species whose cells contain several yellow or yellow-brown chloroplasts such as Pseudochattonella or naked stages of other silicoflagellates.
Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø. (1989). Guide to toxic and potentially toxic marine algae.The Fish Inspection Service, Ministry of Fisheries, June 1989, 61 pp.

Engesmo, A.; Eikrem, W.; Seoane, S.; Smith, K.; Edvardsen, B.; Hofgaard, A.; Tomas, C. R. (2016). New insights into the morphology and phylogeny of Heterosigma kashiwo (Raphidophyceae), with the description of Heterosigma minor sp. nov. Phycologia. 55(3): 279-294.
2016-06-07 12:27:38Z
2016-10-11 08:27:20Z