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Echinoidea taxon details

Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777)

124392  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:124392)

accepted
Species
Amphidetus cordatus (Pennant, 1777) (transferred to Echinocardium)
Amphidetus kurtzii Girard, 1852 (subjective junior synonym)
Amphidetus kürtzii Girard, 1852 (subjective junior synonym)
Amphidetus novæ zelandiæ Perrier, 1869 (incorrect original spelling (mandatory changed according to ICZN 4th Ed. Article 32.5.2.2.))
Amphidetus novaezelandiae Perrier, 1869 (subjective junior synonym)
Amphidetus zealandicus (Gray, 1851) (subjective junior synonym)
Amphidotus cordatus (Pennant, 1777) (misspelling & transferred to Echinocardium)
Echinocardium australe Gray, 1851 (subjective junior synonym)
Echinocardium cordatus (Pennant, 1777) (incorrect declination of species name)
Echinocardium kurtzii (Girard, 1852) (subjective junior synonym)
Echinocardium sebae Gray, 1825 (subjective junior synonym)
Echinocardium stimpsonii A. Agassiz, 1864 (subjective junior synonym)
Echinocardium zealandicum Gray, 1851 (subjective junior synonym)
Echinus cordatum Pennant, 1777 (transferred to Echinocardium)
Echinus cordatus Pennant, 1777 (transferred to Echinocardium)
Spatangus arcuarius Lamarck, 1816 (subjective junior synonym)
Spatangus cordatus (Pennant, 1777) (transferred to Echinocardium)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
recent only
Pennant, T., (1777) British Zoology, vol. IV. Crustacea. Mollusca. Testacea: i-viii, 1-154, Plates 1-93. London., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/127011
page(s): 236 [details]   
Depth range 0-230 m  
Depth range 0-230 m [details]

Description The cordiform body of the sea potato is protected by a calcite skeleton and measures up to 60 mm.
The skeleton is covered...  
Description The cordiform body of the sea potato is protected by a calcite skeleton and measures up to 60 mm.
The skeleton is covered with soft spines that lie flat on the body and point towards the back. Yellowish brown in colour. [details]

Distribution Lower shore and subtidal to 200 m depth, burrowing in sand or muddy sand, all round the British Isles. Apparently...  
Distribution Lower shore and subtidal to 200 m depth, burrowing in sand or muddy sand, all round the British Isles. Apparently cosmopolitan in temperate seas [details]

Distribution Cosmopolitan (World Oceans)  
Distribution Cosmopolitan (World Oceans) [details]

Distribution In the 1976-1986 period Echinocardium cordatum was mainly found near the Flemish Banks (maximum 50 ind./m2) whereas it was...  
Distribution In the 1976-1986 period Echinocardium cordatum was mainly found near the Flemish Banks (maximum 50 ind./m2) whereas it was absent in the eastern coastal zone and near the Hinder Banks. In the 1994-2001 period the species is clearly distributed more widely: E. cordatum was only absent in the eastern coastal zone and reached densities up to 200 ind./m2. As the species lives burrowed in the sand (up to 20 cm deep) there is a real chance that the Van Veen grab fails to scoop up E. cordatum. Consequently, the species may have a broader distribution than mentioned here. [details]

Distribution This cosmopolitan echinoderrn was found in about half of all samples. The species is very abundant north of the Dutch...  
Distribution This cosmopolitan echinoderrn was found in about half of all samples. The species is very abundant north of the Dutch Wadden islands and is also present in Delta and the western part of the Wadden Sea. The distribution of the biomass is very patchy. [details]
Kroh, A. & Mooi, R. (2018). World Echinoidea Database. Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777). Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/echinoidea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=124392 on 2018-02-20
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2006-07-18 06:32:47Z
changed
Camba Reu, Cibran
2010-03-19 14:42:39Z
changed
2013-08-26 18:24:18Z
changed

original description Pennant, T., (1777) British Zoology, vol. IV. Crustacea. Mollusca. Testacea: i-viii, 1-154, Plates 1-93. London., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/127011
page(s): 236 [details]   

original description  (ofEchinocardium sebae Gray, 1825) Gray J.E. 1825. An attempt to divide the Echinida, or Sea Eggs, into natural families. Annals of Philosophy, new series 10, 423-431., available online at https://archive.org/stream/annalsofphilosop10lond#page/422/mode/2up
page(s): 430 [details]   

original description  (ofEchinus cordatus Pennant, 1777) Pennant, T., (1777) British Zoology, vol. IV. Crustacea. Mollusca. Testacea: i-viii, 1-154, Plates 1-93. London., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/127011
page(s): 69; pl. 34: fig. 75 [details]   

original description  (ofSpatangus arcuarius Lamarck, 1816) Lamarck, J. B. M. de. (1816). Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. Tome troisième. Paris: Deterville/Verdière. 612 pp., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/47702
page(s): 32 [details]   

original description  (ofEchinocardium australe Gray, 1851) Gray J.E. 1851. Descriptions of some new genera and species of Spatangidae in the British Museum. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 2nd Series 7, 130-134., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/48970#page/156/mode/1up
page(s): 131 [details]   

original description  (ofEchinocardium stimpsonii A. Agassiz, 1864) Agassiz, A. (1864). Synopsis of the echinoids collected by Dr. W. Stimpson on the North Pacific Exploring Expedition under the command of Captains Ringgold and Rodgers. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 15 (1863), 352-361., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/18294#page/358/mode/1up
page(s): 360 [details]   

original description  (ofEchinocardium zealandicum Gray, 1851) Gray J.E. 1851. Descriptions of some new genera and species of Spatangidae in the British Museum. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 2nd Series 7, 130-134., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/48970#page/156/mode/1up
page(s): 131 [details]   

original description  (ofAmphidetus novaezelandiae Perrier, 1869) Perrier, E. (1869). Recherche sur les pédicellaires et les ambulacres des astérides et des oursins. Thèses présentées à la Faculté des Sciences de Paris pour obtenir le Grade de Docteur ès Sciences Naturelles Victor Masson et fils, Paris. 5-188, plates 1-7., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/49472#page/11/mode/1up
page(s): 176 [details]   

original description  (ofAmphidetus kurtzii Girard, 1852) Girard, J.P. (1852). Descriptions of two new genera and two new species of planaria. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 4: 210-214., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/35742#page/218/mode/1up
page(s): 213-214 [details]   

original description  (ofAmphidetus novæ zelandiæ Perrier, 1869) Perrier, E. (1869). Recherche sur les pédicellaires et les ambulacres des astérides et des oursins. Thèses présentées à la Faculté des Sciences de Paris pour obtenir le Grade de Docteur ès Sciences Naturelles Victor Masson et fils, Paris. 5-188, plates 1-7., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/49472#page/11/mode/1up
page(s): 176 [details]   

basis of record Hansson, H.G. (2001). Echinodermata, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,. 50: pp. 336-351. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Clark, A.M. & Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp. [details]   

additional source Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France. 307 pp., available online at http://www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/145561.pdf [details]   

additional source Mah, C.L.; McKnight, D.G.; Eagle, M.K.; Pawson, D.L.; Améziane, N.; Vance, D.J.; Baker, A.N.; Clark, H.E.S.; Davey, N. (2009). Phylum Echinodermata: sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, sea lilies. In: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 371-400. [details]   

additional source Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 152-157 [details]   

additional source Liu J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. China Science Press. 1267 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Dyntaxa. (2013). Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at www.dyntaxa.se [15-01-2013]., available online at http://www.dyntaxa.se [details]   

additional source Hansson, H. (2004). North East Atlantic Taxa (NEAT): Nematoda. Internet pdf Ed. Aug 1998., available online at http://www.tmbl.gu.se/libdb/taxon/taxa.html [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

basis of record  (ofAmphidetus novae zealandiae) Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 152-157 [details]   

basis of record  (ofAmphidetus novaezelandiae Perrier, 1869) Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 152-157 [details]   

basis of record  (ofEchinocardium sebae Gray, 1825) Hansson, H.G. (2001). Echinodermata, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,. 50: pp. 336-351. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source  (ofEchinocardium sebae Gray, 1825) Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 152-157 [details]   

basis of record  (ofSpatangus arcuarius Lamarck, 1816) Hansson, H.G. (2001). Echinodermata, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,. 50: pp. 336-351. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source  (ofEchinus cordatus Pennant, 1777) Hansson, H. (2004). North East Atlantic Taxa (NEAT): Nematoda. Internet pdf Ed. Aug 1998., available online at http://www.tmbl.gu.se/libdb/taxon/taxa.html [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

basis of record  (ofEchinus cordatus Pennant, 1777) Hansson, H.G. (2001). Echinodermata, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,. 50: pp. 336-351. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source  (ofEchinus cordatus Pennant, 1777) Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 152-157 [details]   

basis of record  (ofAmphidetus kürtzii Girard, 1852) Hansson, H.G. (2001). Echinodermata, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,. 50: pp. 336-351. (look up in IMIS[details]   

status source  (ofAmphidetus kürtzii Girard, 1852) Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 153 [details]   

basis of record  (ofAmphidetus zealandicus (Gray, 1851)) Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 152-157 [details]   

basis of record  (ofSpatangus cordatus (Pennant, 1777)) Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 152-157 [details]   

basis of record  (ofAmphidotus cordatus (Pennant, 1777)) Robertson, D. 1871. Notes on Amphidotus cordatus (Penn). Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, New Series 11, 25-27., available online at http://jcs.biologists.org/content/s2-11/41/25.full.pdf+html
page(s): 25 [details]   

basis of record  (ofEchinocardium caudatum) Deecke, W. 1913. Paläontologische Betrachtungen. III. Über Echinoideen. Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie 1913, 498-507, 526-534.
page(s): 499 [details]   

basis of record  (ofAmphidetus cordatus (Pennant, 1777)) Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 152-157 [details]   

basis of record  (ofAmphidetus kurtzii Girard, 1852) Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 152-157 [details]   

basis of record  (ofEchinocardium zealandicum Gray, 1851) Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 152-157 [details]   

basis of record  (ofEchinocardium cordatus (Pennant, 1777)) Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 152-157 [details]   

basis of record  (ofEchinocardium kurtzii (Girard, 1852)) Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 152-157 [details]   

basis of record  (ofEchinocardium stimpsonii A. Agassiz, 1864) Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 152-157 [details]   

additional source  (ofSpatangus arcuarius Lamarck, 1816) Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 152-157 [details]   

basis of record  (ofEchinocardium australe Gray, 1851) Ludwig, H. (1899). Echinodermen des Sansibargebietes. Abhandl. d. Senckenb. naturf. Ges., Bonn, Vol. 21(1): 537 - 563. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source  (ofEchinocardium australe Gray, 1851) Mortensen, T. (1951). A Monograph of the Echinoidea. V, 2. Spatangoida II. Amphisternata II. Spatangidæ, Loveniidæ, Pericosmidæ, Schizasteridæ, Brissidæ, 593 pp., C. A. Reitzel, Copenhagen.
page(s): 152-157 [details]   

context source (Deepsea) Census of Marine Life (2012). SYNDEEP: Towards a first global synthesis of biodiversity, biogeography and ecosystem function in the deep sea. Unpublished data (datasetID: 38), available online at http://www.comlsecretariat.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/SYNDEEP-Towards-a-first-global-synthesis-of-biodiversity-biogeography-and-ecosystem-function-in-the-deep-sea-Eva-Ramirez-Llodra-et-al..pdf [details]   

context source (Schelde) Maris, T.; Beauchard, O.; Van Damme, S.; Van den Bergh, E.; Wijnhoven, S.; Meire, P. (2013). Referentiematrices en Ecotoopoppervlaktes Annex bij de Evaluatiemethodiek Schelde-estuarium Studie naar “Ecotoopoppervlaktes en intactness index”. Monitor Taskforce Publication Series, 2013-01. NIOZ: Yerseke. 35 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien 
 

From editor or global species database
Depth range 0-230 m [details]

From other sources
Biology Breeding occurs in summer. The pelagic larvae are sometimes found in enormous quantities and likewise the young can be found in large amounts on the sediment surface. The growth rate of E. cordatum varies with the environment. It grows faster in shallow, sandy than in deep, muddy areas, possibly under the influence of temperature. The species can live for 10 to 20 years (Mortensen, 1927; Wolff, 1973; Fish & Fish, 1989; Rees & Dare, 1993).
Depending on the temperature, the species digs a few centimetres to about 20 cm deep into the sediment. A respiratory channel (chimney) leads from the hole to the surface and one or two sanitary drains are located horizontally behind the echinoid. The animal is isolated from the sediment by a mucus veil, which plasters the burrow. E. cordatum plays an important role in sediment bioturbation (Mortensen, 1927; De Ridder et al., 1987; Fish & Fish, 1989; Rees & Dare, 1993). E. cordatum is a non-selective deposit feeder. lt collects particles from the s [details]

Breeding Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

Description The cordiform body of the sea potato is protected by a calcite skeleton and measures up to 60 mm.
The skeleton is covered with soft spines that lie flat on the body and point towards the back. Yellowish brown in colour. [details]

Distribution Lower shore and subtidal to 200 m depth, burrowing in sand or muddy sand, all round the British Isles. Apparently cosmopolitan in temperate seas [details]

Distribution Cosmopolitan (World Oceans) [details]

Distribution In the 1976-1986 period Echinocardium cordatum was mainly found near the Flemish Banks (maximum 50 ind./m2) whereas it was absent in the eastern coastal zone and near the Hinder Banks. In the 1994-2001 period the species is clearly distributed more widely: E. cordatum was only absent in the eastern coastal zone and reached densities up to 200 ind./m2. As the species lives burrowed in the sand (up to 20 cm deep) there is a real chance that the Van Veen grab fails to scoop up E. cordatum. Consequently, the species may have a broader distribution than mentioned here. [details]

Distribution This cosmopolitan echinoderrn was found in about half of all samples. The species is very abundant north of the Dutch Wadden islands and is also present in Delta and the western part of the Wadden Sea. The distribution of the biomass is very patchy. [details]

Ecology Ecology: benthic, inshore, continental shelf, deposit feeder. General distribution: temperate, discontinuous (west Pacific Ocean, NZ, South Africa, Gulf of California, north Atlantic Ocean), depth range 0-230? m. (Rowe & Gates, 1995).
Also distributed in Australia (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

Habitat The fact that E. cordatum is present in the entire area (North Sea) indicates that the echinoderm is not very selective with regard to the type of sediment, although a slight preference for sandy bottoms can be detected. Earlier investigations suggest that, indeed, sandy substrates may be favoured (Rees & Dare, 1993). In a study along a transect in the central and southern North Sea, Duineveld & Jenness (1984) found E. cordatum to account for 50% of the benthic biomass at sandy sites and 5% at muddy sites. [details]

Habitat Echinocardium cordatum occurs in sediments with a wide range of grain sizes (median grain size up to 650 μm), but clearly prefers sediments with a median grain size of 200 to 300 μm (relative occurrence ± 40%). The species is only found in sediments with a low mud content (< 20%). [details]

Morphology This sea urchin has a heart-shaped test, usually 40-50 mm in length. lt is covered with a large number of closely set spines, most of them directed backwards. In profile the highest point of the test lies towards the posterior. lt is yellow-brown in colour (Mortensen, 1927; Southward, 1972; Fish & Fish, 1989; Hayward & Ryland, 1990). [details]

Remark Type data: status and whereabouts undetermined. Type locality: Unknown (Britain) (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]
 

LanguageName 
Albanian iriqi zemër i detit  [details]
Dutch zeeklithartegel  [details]
English sea-potatoheart-urchin  [details]
French oursin-coeuroursin de sable  [details]
German kleiner Herzigel  [details]
Japanese オカメブンブクOkame-bunbuku  [details]
Norwegian Bokmål sandsjømus  [details]
Norwegian Nynorsk sandsjømus  [details]
Spanish erizo corazón  [details]
Swedish hjärtsjöborre  [details]

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