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Echinoidea source details

Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
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Brissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841) (additional source)
Cidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Echinocardium flavescens (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Echinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 (additional source)
Echinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Echinus acutus Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Gracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Echinus acutus var. flemingii Forbes, 1841 accepted as Echinus acutus acutus Lamarck, 1816 represented as Echinus acutus Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Gracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816) (basis of record)
Echinus acutus var. mediterraneus Diakonov, 1923 accepted as Echinus acutus acutus Lamarck, 1816 represented as Echinus acutus Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Gracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816) (basis of record)
Echinus acutus var. norvegicus Düben & Koren, 1844 accepted as Echinus acutus norvegicus Düben & Koren, 1844 accepted as Gracilechinus acutus norvegicus (Düben & Koren, 1844) (basis of record)
Echinus elegans Düben & Koren, 1844 accepted as Gracilechinus elegans (Düben & Koren, 1844) (additional source)
Echinus esculentus Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Echinus tenuispinus Norman, 1868 (additional source)
Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Psammechinus miliaris (P.L.S. Müller, 1771) (additional source)
Spatangus purpureus O.F. Müller, 1776 (additional source)
Spatangus raschi Lovén, 1869 (additional source)
Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) (additional source)
Arctic Ocean for Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Arctic Ocean for Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) 
Azores for Echinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Brissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841) 
British Isles for Cidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Cidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Echinocardium flavescens (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Echinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 
British Isles for Echinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Echinus esculentus Linnaeus, 1758 
British Isles for Psammechinus miliaris (P.L.S. Müller, 1771) 
British Isles for Spatangus purpureus O.F. Müller, 1776 
British Isles for Spatangus raschi Lovén, 1869 
British Isles for Spatangus raschi Lovén, 1869 
Cape Verde for Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816)  (inaccurate)
Channel Islands for Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
Channel Islands for Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816) 
Cornwall for Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
Devon for Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
English Channel for Echinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 
Faroe Islands for Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Island of Skye for Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mediterranean Sea for Echinus acutus var. mediterraneus Diakonov, 1923 
Mediterranean Sea for Echinus acutus var. norvegicus Düben & Koren, 1844 
Mediterranean Sea for Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816) 
North East Atlantic for Brissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841) 
North East Atlantic for Cidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) 
North East Atlantic for Echinocardium flavescens (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
North East Atlantic for Echinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 
North East Atlantic for Echinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
North East Atlantic for Echinus acutus var. flemingii Forbes, 1841 
North East Atlantic for Echinus acutus var. norvegicus Düben & Koren, 1844 
North East Atlantic for Echinus elegans Düben & Koren, 1844 
North East Atlantic for Echinus esculentus Linnaeus, 1758 
North East Atlantic for Psammechinus miliaris (P.L.S. Müller, 1771) 
North East Atlantic for Spatangus purpureus O.F. Müller, 1776 
North East Atlantic for Spatangus raschi Lovén, 1869 
North East Atlantic for Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816) 
North East Coast of England  for Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
North Pacific for Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
North Pacific for Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) 
North West Atlantic for Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
North West Atlantic for Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) 
Northern North Pacific for Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Norway for Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Norway for Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) 
Orkney for Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) 
Scilly Isles for Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
Scotland for Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Shetlands for Echinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 
Shetlands for Echinus elegans Düben & Koren, 1844 
Shetlands for Echinus tenuispinus Norman, 1868 
Shetlands for Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Shetlands for Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) 
West Africa for Echinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
West Ireland for Echinus elegans Düben & Koren, 1844 
West Ireland for Echinus tenuispinus Norman, 1868 
West Ireland for Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
West Scotland for Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
 Authority

(Forbes M.S. in Thompson, 1840) [details]

 Authority

(Gunnerus, 1767) [details]

 Authority

Ayres, 1851 [details]

 Authority

Koren, 1844 [details]

 Authority

M. Sars, 1861 [details]

 Breeding

Auricularia larva [details]

 Breeding

Auricularia larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Auricularia larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Barrel - shaped, red larvae. Early spring [details]

 Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Summer. [details]

 Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Winter-spring. [details]

 Breeding

Brachiolaria larva. Spring. [details]

 Breeding

Brood young under membrane [details]

 Breeding

Broods young in spring [details]

 Breeding

Broods young. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Can reproduce by fission [details]

 Breeding

Direct development? Winter [details]

 Breeding

Doliolaria larva [details]

 Breeding

Doliolaria larva. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Doliolatia larva [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. January to May [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. February to May [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Spring to autumn [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Early sumer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer - autumn [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Eggs released, larvae not known. Juveniles of the Arctic species G. eucnemis are known to live on, or in, the ... [details]

 Breeding

Eggs, attached to genital pinnules, hatch to barrel-shaped ciliated larva; settlement stage is pentacrinoid. All ... [details]

 Breeding

Eggs, shed freely, larvae and pentacrinoid as in A. bifida[details]

 Breeding

Hermaphrodite, possibly self-fertilising, viviparous. May-September? [details]

 Breeding

Hermaphrodite. Planktonic brachiloraia larva. Spring - summer [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs, probable direct development [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs, probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs; non-pelagic development [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs; probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Large red eggs. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Lecithotrophic, probaly planktonic larva. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Mature early summer [details]

 Breeding

Mature in summer [details]

 Breeding

Non-feeding barrel-shaped red larva. February - March [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Autumn. [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Spring - Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. April-May [details]

 Breeding

Ophipluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Planktonic bipinnaria and brachilaria larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Probably involves planktonic larva [details]

 Breeding

Probably involving planktonic larva [details]

 Breeding

Probably ophiopluteus larva [details]

 Breeding

Probably planktonic larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Protandrous hermaphrodite; eggs are laid in creviices, but are not brooded. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Simultaneous hermaphrodite. Eggs are laid in masses and are brooded for three weeks under the humped body. May-June. [details]

 Breeding

Viviparous, can contain several developing young [details]

 Breeding

Yolky eggs, probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Yolky eggs, probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Yolky eggs. Spring [details]

 Distribution

20 to more than 200 m depth, in muddy sand and fine gravel, Irish Sea, Clyde and North Sea [details]

 Distribution

20 to more than 200 m depth, in muddy sand and fine gravel, Irish Sea, Clyde and North Sea [details]

 Distribution

4 to 20 m depth, in coarse sand, near Helgoland in the southern North Sea (Menker, 1970). The type specimen was ... [details]

 Distribution

40 to 70 m, in muddy sand, northern North Sea; reported from the Isle of Man, 2 m depth [details]

 Distribution

A deep water species, found occasionally between 100 and 200 m near the edge of the continental shelf to the west ... [details]

 Distribution

At 10 m in fine glutinous black mud in Strangford Lough, Nnorthern Ireland, also found in mud and shell gravel at ... [details]

 Distribution

At 20 to 30 m depth, crevice-living; apparently rare, found near Plymouth (Devon), Galway (Ireland) and Les ... [details]

 Distribution

At about 10 to 20 m depth, in sand, Galway Bay (Ireland) and Plymouth (southwest England); probably overlooked elsewhere [details]

 Distribution

At about 20 m depth in muddy sand or fine gravel; Isle of Man, Galway, probably overlooked elsewhere [details]

 Distribution

At about 50 m depth, on sand, apparently rather rare in the Western English Channel, reported from the Isle of Man ... [details]

 Distribution

At depths of 10 to more than 20 m, in soft sediments with shell gravel, all round the Britsh Isles, except perhaps ... [details]

 Distribution

At depths of more than 100 m, on sand and gravel, off northern and western coasts of the British Isles [details]

 Distribution

At more than 150 m depth, on mud or muddy sand, near the edge of the continental shelf, off western Ireland [details]

 Distribution

At the edge of the continental shelf in depths of 130 m to 200 m, to the west of Ireland and around Shetland [details]

 Distribution

Common on the lower shore and sublittoral region of the northern coast of British Isles and down to at least 100 m ... [details]

 Distribution

Deeper than 200 m, on stones and gravel. Vars flemingii and norvegicus occur in the western Channel, off western ... [details]

 Distribution

Epifaunal on soft sediments in Carlingford Lough, Irish east coast; otherwise uncertain because of confusion with ... [details]

 Distribution

Found at about 30 m depth, burrowing in sand, near Plymouth and in werstern Ireland, probably overlooked elsewhere [details]

 Distribution

Found in 115 - 120 m depth near the Shetlands and off western Ireland [details]

 Distribution

From 10 to more than 200 m depth, buried in sand or muddy san, around the wstern coats of the British Isles, from ... [details]

 Distribution

From 5 to more than 200 m depth, in muddy sand or mud, all round the British Isles, except, possibly, the southeast [details]

 Distribution

From 50 to more than 200 m depth, on mud, off western Ireland and western Scotland, including the Minch and the Clyde [details]

 Distribution

From about 10 to more than 200 m depth, common on sand, muddy sand and fine gravel, all round the British Isles [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, on shell or gravel grounds, S. pallidus tends to live within the ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, among rocks, stones and seaweed; northern Scotland, Orkeny, Shetland and ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to about 50 m depth, on rocks or stones, with a preference for vertical faces; common around ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to nearly 200 m depth, on rock and gravel, on west and southwest coasts of the British Isles, ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, mainly on coarse sand and gravel, all round the British Isles [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to 50 m depth, typical of the algal zone. British distribution not completely known, but it ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal, down to more than 200 m depth, on rocky and stony shores and offshore rough grounds, Scotland, ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal, but mainly in the sublittoral zone, down to 40 m depth, occasionally deeper, on rocks, stones ... [details]


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