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Echinoidea source details

Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
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Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocardium flavescens (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus acutus Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus acutus var. flemingii Forbes, 1841 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus acutus acutus Lamarck, 1816 represented as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus acutus Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816) (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus acutus var. mediterraneus Diakonov, 1923 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus acutus acutus Lamarck, 1816 represented as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus acutus Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816) (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus acutus var. norvegicus Düben & Koren, 1844 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus acutus norvegicus Düben & Koren, 1844 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGracilechinus acutus norvegicus (Düben & Koren, 1844) (basis of record)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus elegans Düben & Koren, 1844 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGracilechinus elegans (Düben & Koren, 1844) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus esculentus Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus tenuispinus Norman, 1868 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorParacentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPsammechinus miliaris (P.L.S. Müller, 1771) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpatangus purpureus O.F. Müller, 1776 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpatangus raschi Lovén, 1869 (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) (additional source)
Arctic Ocean for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Arctic Ocean for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) 
Azores for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841) 
British Isles for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocardium flavescens (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 
British Isles for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus esculentus Linnaeus, 1758 
British Isles for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPsammechinus miliaris (P.L.S. Müller, 1771) 
British Isles for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpatangus purpureus O.F. Müller, 1776 
British Isles for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpatangus raschi Lovén, 1869 
British Isles for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpatangus raschi Lovén, 1869 
Cape Verde for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816)  (inaccurate)
Channel Islands for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorParacentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
Channel Islands for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816) 
Cornwall for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorParacentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
Devon for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorParacentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
English Channel for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 
Faroe Islands for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Island of Skye for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorParacentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mediterranean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus acutus var. mediterraneus Diakonov, 1923 
Mediterranean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus acutus var. norvegicus Düben & Koren, 1844 
Mediterranean Sea for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816) 
North East Atlantic for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBrissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841) 
North East Atlantic for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) 
North East Atlantic for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocardium flavescens (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
North East Atlantic for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 
North East Atlantic for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
North East Atlantic for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus acutus var. flemingii Forbes, 1841 
North East Atlantic for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus acutus var. norvegicus Düben & Koren, 1844 
North East Atlantic for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus elegans Düben & Koren, 1844 
North East Atlantic for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus esculentus Linnaeus, 1758 
North East Atlantic for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPsammechinus miliaris (P.L.S. Müller, 1771) 
North East Atlantic for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpatangus purpureus O.F. Müller, 1776 
North East Atlantic for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSpatangus raschi Lovén, 1869 
North East Atlantic for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816) 
North East Coast of England  for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
North Pacific for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
North Pacific for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) 
North West Atlantic for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
North West Atlantic for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) 
Northern North Pacific for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Norway for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Norway for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) 
Orkney for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) 
Scilly Isles for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorParacentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
Scotland for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Shetlands for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 
Shetlands for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus elegans Düben & Koren, 1844 
Shetlands for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus tenuispinus Norman, 1868 
Shetlands for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Shetlands for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorStrongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) 
West Africa for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
West Ireland for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus elegans Düben & Koren, 1844 
West Ireland for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorEchinus tenuispinus Norman, 1868 
West Ireland for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorParacentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
West Scotland for Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorParacentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Authority

(Forbes M.S. in Thompson, 1840) [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Authority

(Gunnerus, 1767) [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Authority

Ayres, 1851 [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Authority

Koren, 1844 [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Authority

M. Sars, 1861 [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Auricularia larva [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Auricularia larva. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Auricularia larva. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Barrel - shaped, red larvae. Early spring [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Summer. [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Winter-spring. [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Brachiolaria larva. Spring. [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Brood young under membrane [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Broods young in spring [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Broods young. Spring [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Can reproduce by fission [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Direct development? Winter [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Doliolaria larva [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Doliolaria larva. Spring [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Doliolatia larva [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Echinopluteus larva [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer - autumn [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Early sumer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Spring to autumn [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. January to May [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. February to May [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Eggs released, larvae not known. Juveniles of the Arctic species G. eucnemis are known to live on, or in, the ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Eggs, attached to genital pinnules, hatch to barrel-shaped ciliated larva; settlement stage is pentacrinoid. All ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Eggs, shed freely, larvae and pentacrinoid as in A. bifida[details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Hermaphrodite, possibly self-fertilising, viviparous. May-September? [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Hermaphrodite. Planktonic brachiloraia larva. Spring - summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Large eggs, probable direct development [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Large eggs, probably direct development [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Large eggs. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Large eggs; non-pelagic development [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Large eggs; probably direct development [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Large red eggs. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Lecithotrophic, probaly planktonic larva. Spring [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Mature early summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Mature in summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Non-feeding barrel-shaped red larva. February - March [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Spring - Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. April-May [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Autumn. [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Ophipluteus larva. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Planktonic bipinnaria and brachilaria larva. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Probably involves planktonic larva [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Probably involving planktonic larva [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Probably ophiopluteus larva [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Probably planktonic larva. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Protandrous hermaphrodite; eggs are laid in creviices, but are not brooded. Summer [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Simultaneous hermaphrodite. Eggs are laid in masses and are brooded for three weeks under the humped body. May-June. [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Viviparous, can contain several developing young [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Yolky eggs, probably direct development [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Yolky eggs, probably direct development [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Breeding

Yolky eggs. Spring [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

20 to more than 200 m depth, in muddy sand and fine gravel, Irish Sea, Clyde and North Sea [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

20 to more than 200 m depth, in muddy sand and fine gravel, Irish Sea, Clyde and North Sea [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

4 to 20 m depth, in coarse sand, near Helgoland in the southern North Sea (Menker, 1970). The type specimen was ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

40 to 70 m, in muddy sand, northern North Sea; reported from the Isle of Man, 2 m depth [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

A deep water species, found occasionally between 100 and 200 m near the edge of the continental shelf to the west ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

At 10 m in fine glutinous black mud in Strangford Lough, Nnorthern Ireland, also found in mud and shell gravel at ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

At 20 to 30 m depth, crevice-living; apparently rare, found near Plymouth (Devon), Galway (Ireland) and Les ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

At about 10 to 20 m depth, in sand, Galway Bay (Ireland) and Plymouth (southwest England); probably overlooked elsewhere [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

At about 20 m depth in muddy sand or fine gravel; Isle of Man, Galway, probably overlooked elsewhere [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

At about 50 m depth, on sand, apparently rather rare in the Western English Channel, reported from the Isle of Man ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

At depths of 10 to more than 20 m, in soft sediments with shell gravel, all round the Britsh Isles, except perhaps ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

At depths of more than 100 m, on sand and gravel, off northern and western coasts of the British Isles [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

At more than 150 m depth, on mud or muddy sand, near the edge of the continental shelf, off western Ireland [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

At the edge of the continental shelf in depths of 130 m to 200 m, to the west of Ireland and around Shetland [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

Common on the lower shore and sublittoral region of the northern coast of British Isles and down to at least 100 m ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

Deeper than 200 m, on stones and gravel. Vars flemingii and norvegicus occur in the western Channel, off western ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

Epifaunal on soft sediments in Carlingford Lough, Irish east coast; otherwise uncertain because of confusion with ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

Found at about 30 m depth, burrowing in sand, near Plymouth and in werstern Ireland, probably overlooked elsewhere [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

Found in 115 - 120 m depth near the Shetlands and off western Ireland [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

From 10 to more than 200 m depth, buried in sand or muddy san, around the wstern coats of the British Isles, from ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

From 5 to more than 200 m depth, in muddy sand or mud, all round the British Isles, except, possibly, the southeast [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

From 50 to more than 200 m depth, on mud, off western Ireland and western Scotland, including the Minch and the Clyde [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

From about 10 to more than 200 m depth, common on sand, muddy sand and fine gravel, all round the British Isles [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

From low intertidal to nearly 200 m depth, on rock and gravel, on west and southwest coasts of the British Isles, ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

From low intertidal to about 50 m depth, on rocks or stones, with a preference for vertical faces; common around ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, mainly on coarse sand and gravel, all round the British Isles [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, among rocks, stones and seaweed; northern Scotland, Orkeny, Shetland and ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

From low intertidal to 50 m depth, typical of the algal zone. British distribution not completely known, but it ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, on shell or gravel grounds, S. pallidus tends to live within the ... [details]

Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

From low intertidal, down to more than 200 m depth, on rocky and stony shores and offshore rough grounds, Scotland, ... [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editor Distribution

From low intertidal, but mainly in the sublittoral zone, down to 40 m depth, occasionally deeper, on rocks, stones ... [details]


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