Cetacea taxon details

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758 
AphiaID: 137119

Classification: Biota > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAnimalia > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorChordata > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVertebrata > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorGnathostomata > Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTetrapoda > Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorMammalia > Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTheria > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCetartiodactyla > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCetancodonta > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCetacea > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorOdontoceti > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseteridae > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter
Status accepted
Rank Species
Parent Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter Linnaeus, 1758
Synonymised
names
  Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCatodon (Meganeuron) krefftii Gray, 1865 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCatodon australis Wall, 1851 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCatodon colneti Gray, 1850 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCatodon macrocephalus Lacépède, 1804 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorCetus cylindricus Billberg, 1828 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDelphinus bayeri Risso, 1826 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhiseter cylindricus Bonnaterre, 1789 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhiseter mular Bonnaterre, 1789 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhiseter trumpo Bonnaterre, 1789 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhysalus cylindricus Lacépède, 1804 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter andersonii Borowski, 1780 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter australasiensis Desmoulins, 1822 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter australis Gray, 1846 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter maximus G. Cuvier, 1798 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter microps Linnaeus, 1758 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter microps rectidentatus Kerr, 1792 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter novaeangliae Borowski, 1780 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter orthodon Lacépède, 1804 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter tursio Linnaeus, 1758 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseterus sulcatus Lacépède, 1818 (synonym)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTursio vulgaris Fleming, 1822 (synonym)
Sources  original description Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp., available online at http://gdz.sub.uni-goettingen.de/no_cache/dms/load/toc/?IDDOC=265100
page(s): 76 [details]

[show all]
Vernacular
Names
 
Language   Name 
Afrikaans Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorpotvis  [details]
Albanian Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorkashaloti [from synonym]Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorkashalot  [details]
Aleut Checked: verified by a taxonomic editoraggadakhgikChecked: verified by a taxonomic editoradagig  [details]
Arabic Checked: verified by a taxonomic editoranbar  [details]
Catalan Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorcatxalot  [details]
Croatian Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorulješura  [details]
Czech Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorvorvaň tuponosýChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorvorvaň obrovský  [details]
Danish Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorspermacethvalChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorkaskelot  [details]
Dutch Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorpotvischUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorpotvisChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorkaizilot  [details]
English Checked: verified by a taxonomic editortrumpoChecked: verified by a taxonomic editortrompe whaleChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorspermacet whaleUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorsperm whaleChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorchocolate whale  [details]
French Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorgrand cachalot [from synonym]Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorcachalot à dents pointuesChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorcachalot à dents en faucilleChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorcachalot  [details]
Georgian Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorchigat  [details]
German Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorPottwalChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorPottfisch  [details]
Hebrew Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorראשתן [from synonym]Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorroshtan  [details]
Icelandic Checked: verified by a taxonomic editortweld-hvalChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorbúrhvalur  [details]
Indonesian Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorpaus lodan  [details]
Italian Checked: verified by a taxonomic editororgananteChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorfisetereChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorcascialottoUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorcapodoglio [from synonym]Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorcapodoglio  [details]
Japanese Checked: verified by a taxonomic editormakko kujira  [details]
Kalaallisut Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorkigitulikChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorkegutilik  [details]
Korean Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorhyang-gorae  [details]
Koryak Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorkoiapchak  [details]
Lithuanian Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorkašalotas  [details]
Malagasy Checked: verified by a taxonomic editortrozona be lohaChecked: verified by a taxonomic editortrozona amam-taimbo  [details]
Maltese Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorgabdoll  [details]
Modern Greek (1453-) Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorΦυσητήραςChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorfysitiras  [details]
Norwegian Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorsue-hvalChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorstorhufdUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorspermhvalChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorpotfiskChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorknobbe-herreChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorkaskelotChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorkascelotChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorhuns-hvalChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorburr-hvalChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorburdhvalurChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorbardhvalur  [details]
Norwegian Bokmål Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorspermhval [from synonym]Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorspermasetthval [from synonym]Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorkaskelotthval [from synonym]Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorkaskelott [from synonym]  [details]
Norwegian Nynorsk Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorspermkval [from synonym]Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorspermasettkval [from synonym]Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorkaskelottkval [from synonym]Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorkaskelott [from synonym]  [details]
Polish Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorpotwal olbrotowiecChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorolbrotowickUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorkaszalot (zwyczajny) [from synonym]  [details]
Portuguese Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorcachalote  [details]
Russian Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorкашало́т [from synonym]Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorwolkmorskoiChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorspermatsetovyi kitChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorkashalotChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorbolshoi plavun  [details]
Sindhi Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorbahran  [details]
Slovenian Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorkit glavač  [details]
Southern Balochi Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorbahran  [details]
Spanish Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorguapoChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorfiseterChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorchacaloteUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorcachalote común [from synonym]Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorcachaloteChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorballena esperma  [details]
Swedish Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorpottfiskUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorkaskelot [from synonym]  [details]
Tamil Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorratchatha thimingalam  [details]
Thai Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorplawan huathui  [details]
Turkish Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorkaşalotUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorkasalotUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorispermeçet balinasıUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorispermecet balinasıUnreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorispermecet balinasiChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorispermeçet  [details]
Ukrainian Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorКашалот  [details]
Welsh Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editormorfil sberm  [details]
All child
taxa (3)

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Subspecies Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter macrocephalus cinereus Kerr, 1792 (nomen dubium)
Subspecies Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter macrocephalus niger Kerr, 1792 (nomen dubium)

Subspecies Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyseter macrocephalus albicans Kerr, 1792 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDelphinapterus leucas (Pallas, 1776)
Environment marine
Distribution 
From editor or global species database
Southern Ocean
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSubantarctic Waters [details]
(no group)
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAntarctica [details]
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorWorld Oceans [details]
From regional or thematic species database
North Sea
Trusted: edited by a thematic editorBelgian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
From other sources
Belgium
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorDoel [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorKnokke [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorKoksijde [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorZeebrugge [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Comores
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorComores [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Federal Republic of Somalia
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorSomalia [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
France
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorWimereux (doubtful) [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Gulf of Mexico
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorGulf of Mexico [details]
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorGulf of St. Lawrence [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorSt. Lawrence Estuary [details]
Indian Ocean
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorReunion [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Kenya
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorKenya [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Madagascar
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorMadagascar [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Mediterranean Sea
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorMediterranean Sea [details]
Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorGreek Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Mozambique
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorMozambique [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
North Atlantic Ocean
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorAzores [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorAzores Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorEuropean waters (ERMS scope) [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorGulf of Maine [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorNorth West Atlantic [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorPortuguese Exclusive Economic Zone [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorUnited Kingdom Exclusive Economic Zone [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
North Sea
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorBelgian Exclusive Economic Zone [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorWesterschelde [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Seychelles
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorSeychelles [details]
Tanzania
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTanzania [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
(no group)
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorNew Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorPacific Ocean [details]
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorSpanish Exclusive Economic Zone [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Links Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTo Barcode of Life (1 barcode) 
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTo Biodiversity Heritage Library (699 publications) 
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTo Encyclopedia of Life 
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTo IUCN Red List 
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTo Marine Species Identification Portal 
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTo PESI 
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTo ITIS
Notes 
From editor or global species database
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDiet Deep-water squid, including giant squid and larger fish, also sharks and skates. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDimensions Length: male 36-65 1/2' (11-20 m), female 27-56' (8.2-17 m), at birth 13' (4m); Weight: 35000-50000 kg. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDistribution in all oceans; Antarctica/Southern Ocean; East Pacific; Eastern Atlantic Ocean; Indo-West Pacific; Western Atlantic Ocean. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHolotype None in existence. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorIUCN Red List Category Vulnerable (VU) [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorImportance Head of the sperm whale contains 3-4 tons of spermaceti, a substance valued as a lubricant for fine machinery and a component of automatic transmission fluid. It is also used in making ointments and fine, smokeless candles (once it solidifies into a white wax upon exposure to air). The sperm whale has also been a target of commercial whaling in years gone by, in areas around the world. The meat of the whale was not generally consumed, except in Japan. Instead, spermaceti was extracted from the head, and the teeth were often used as a medium for the artistic form of engraving and carving known as scrimshaw. The most important product obtained from sperm whales is the oil, once used as fuel for lamps and now used as a lubricant and as the base for skin creams and cosmetics. A gummy substance called ambergris forms in the large intestines of sperm whales and can be found floating on the surface of the water or washed ashore once it is expelled. It was once believed to have medicinal qualities, but it is now used in connection with manufacture of perfumes, based on the fact that when it is exposed to air, it hardens and acquires a sweet, earthy smell. The island Ambergris Cay, just south of the Gulf of Mexico, was given its name because of the great quantities of this substance gathered along its shores. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMorphology The enormous (up to 1/3 of total body length), box-like head of the sperm whale sets it apart from all other species.The blowhole slit is S-shaped and positioned forward on the left side of the head. There are 18-28 functional teeth on each side of the lower jaws, but the upper teeth are few, weak and nonfunctional. The lower teeth fit into sockets in the upper jaw. The gullet of is the largest among cetaceans; it is in fact the only gullet large enough to accomodate a human. The dorsal fin is replaced by a hump and a series of longitudinal ridges on the posterior part of the back. The flippers are quite small, approximately 200 cm. long. Tail flukes are 400-450 cm in width. The blubber layer of the sperm whale is quite thick, up to 35 cm. With respect to coloration, males often become paler and sometimes piebald with age. Both sexes have white in the genital and anal regions and on the lower jaws. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorReproduction Females sexually mature at 8-11 years and males at 10 years, although males do not mate until they are 25-27 years old due to social status. Gestation is 14-16 months and nursing 2 years. Mating season is in the spring in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres and calves are born in the fall. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorType locality "Oceano Europaeo" [details]

From other sources
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorHabitat oceanic [details]
ImagesChecked: verified by a taxonomic editor 
Physeter catodon - sperm whale
Physeter catodon - spe...
[image from synonym]
Sperm whale
Sperm whale
Van Beneden & Gervais (1880, pl. 18)
Van Beneden & Gerv...
[image from synonym]
Van Beneden & Gervais (1880, pl. 19)
Van Beneden & Gerv...
[image from synonym]
Van Beneden & Gervais (1880, pl. 20)
Van Beneden & Gerv...
[image from synonym]
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Gestrande potvis Theofiel
Gestrande potvis Theofiel
Gestrande potvis Theofiel - detail kaken
Gestrande potvis Theof...
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
Physeter macrocephalus
LSID urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:137119
Taxonomic
Edit history
 
Date   action   by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z  created  van der Land, Jacob
2005-03-29 08:12:19Z  changed  Claus, Simon
2008-08-20 11:25:36Z  checked  Perrin, William
2009-01-06 23:07:05Z  changed  Perrin, William
  
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  Citation: Perrin, W. (2014). Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758. In: Perrin, W.F. (2014) World Cetacea Database. Accessed through: Perrin, W.F. (2014) World Cetacea Database at http://www.marinespecies.org/cetacea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=137119 on 2014-08-01