Cetacea taxon details

Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758

marine
Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/10277#page/3/mode/1up
page(s): 76 [details]   
Note "Oceano Europaeo"  
From editor or global species database
Type locality "Oceano Europaeo" [details]
Distribution in all oceans; Antarctica/Southern Ocean; East Pacific; Eastern Atlantic Ocean; Indo-West Pacific; Western Atlantic Ocean.  
Distribution in all oceans; Antarctica/Southern Ocean; East Pacific; Eastern Atlantic Ocean; Indo-West Pacific; Western Atlantic Ocean. [details]
Perrin, W.F. (2018). World Cetacea Database. Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/cetacea/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=137119 on 2018-08-20
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2005-03-29 08:12:19Z
changed
2008-08-20 11:25:36Z
checked
2009-01-06 23:07:05Z
changed

original description Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/10277#page/3/mode/1up
page(s): 76 [details]   

original description  (ofPhyseter tursio Linnaeus, 1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/10277#page/3/mode/1up [details]   

original description  (ofPhyseter catodon Linnaeus, 1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/10277#page/3/mode/1up
page(s): 76 [details]   

original description  (ofPhyseter microps Linnaeus, 1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/10277#page/3/mode/1up [details]   

basis of record van der Land, J. (2001). Tetrapoda, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 375-376 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Mead, J. G.; Brownell, R. L. Jr. (2005). Cetacea. In Wilson, D.E. & D.M. Reeder (eds). Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), Johns Hopkins University Press, 2,142 pp. 723--743., available online at http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/ [details]   

additional source Rice, D. W. (1998). Marine mammals of the world. Systematics and distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy Special Publication. 4., available online at http://www.marinemammalscience.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/MarineMammalsOfTheWorld.pdf [details]   

additional source Hershkovitz, P. (1966). Catalog of Living Whales. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. (246): 1-259., available online at https://doi.org/10.5479/si.03629236.246 [details]   

additional source Jefferson, T. A., M. A. Webber and R. L. Pitman. (2008). Marine mammals of the world. Academic Press, Amsterdam. [details]   

additional source IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, available online at http://www.iucnredlist.org [details]   

additional source Perrin, W.F.; Würsig, B.; Thewissen, J.G.M. (2009). Encyclopedia of marine mammals. Second edition. Academic Press: London. ISBN 978-0-12-373553-9. xxix, 1316 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source King, C.M.; Roberts, C.D.; Bell, B.D.; Fordyce, R.E.; Nicoll, R.S.; Worthy, T.H.; Paulin, C.D.; Hitchmough, R.A.; Keyes, I.W.; Baker, A.N.; Stewart, A.L.; Hiller, N.; McDowall, R.M.; Holdaway, R.N.; McPhee, R.P.; Schwarzhans, W.W.; Tennyson, A.J.D.; Rust, S.; Macadie, I. (2009). Phylum Chordata: lancelets, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 431-554. [details]   

additional source Schmidly, D. J. and B. Würsig. 2009. Mammals (Vertebrata: Mammalia) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 1343–1352 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas. [details]   

additional source Liu J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. China Science Press. 1267 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Bearzi, G.; Pierantonio, N.; Affronte, M.; Holcer, D.; Maio, N.; Notarbartolo Di Sciara, G. (2011). Overview of sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus mortality events in the Adriatic Sea, 1555-2009. Mammal Review. 41(4): 276-293., available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2907.2010.00171.x [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). , available online at http://www.itis.gov
page(s): 76 [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofPhyseter tursio Linnaeus, 1758) Schevill, W.E. (1986). The International Code of zoological nomenclature and a paradigm: the name Physeter catodon Linnaeus 1758. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 2(2): 153-157 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source  (ofPhyseter catodon Linnaeus, 1758) Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). , available online at http://www.itis.gov [details]   

basis of record  (ofPhyseter catodon Linnaeus, 1758) van der Land, J. (2001). Tetrapoda, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 375-376 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source  (ofPhyseter catodon Linnaeus, 1758) University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Animal Diversity Web., available online at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/index.html [details]   

source of synonymy  (ofPhyseter microps Linnaeus, 1758) Schevill, W.E. (1986). The International Code of zoological nomenclature and a paradigm: the name Physeter catodon Linnaeus 1758. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 2(2): 153-157 (look up in IMIS[details]   

context source (Deepsea) Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO. The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), available online at http://www.iobis.org/ [details]   

context source (HKRMS) Jefferson TA. (2005). Monitoring of Indo-Pacific Hampback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Hong Kong waters - Data Analysis. Final report. Submitted to the Agriculture &Fisheries and Conservation Department, The Hong Kong SAR Government. [details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
 

From editor or global species database
Diet Deep-water squid, including giant squid and larger fish, also sharks and skates. [details]

Dimensions Length: male 36-65 1/2' (11-20 m), female 27-56' (8.2-17 m), at birth 13' (4m); Weight: 35000-50000 kg. [details]

Distribution in all oceans; Antarctica/Southern Ocean; East Pacific; Eastern Atlantic Ocean; Indo-West Pacific; Western Atlantic Ocean. [details]

Holotype None in existence. [details]

IUCN Red List Category Vulnerable (VU) [details]

Importance Head of the sperm whale contains 3-4 tons of spermaceti, a substance valued as a lubricant for fine machinery and a component of automatic transmission fluid. It is also used in making ointments and fine, smokeless candles (once it solidifies into a white wax upon exposure to air). The sperm whale has also been a target of commercial whaling in years gone by, in areas around the world. The meat of the whale was not generally consumed, except in Japan. Instead, spermaceti was extracted from the head, and the teeth were often used as a medium for the artistic form of engraving and carving known as scrimshaw. The most important product obtained from sperm whales is the oil, once used as fuel for lamps and now used as a lubricant and as the base for skin creams and cosmetics. A gummy substance called ambergris forms in the large intestines of sperm whales and can be found floating on the surface of the water or washed ashore once it is expelled. It was once believed to have medicinal qualities, but it is now used in connection with manufacture of perfumes, based on the fact that when it is exposed to air, it hardens and acquires a sweet, earthy smell. The island Ambergris Cay, just south of the Gulf of Mexico, was given its name because of the great quantities of this substance gathered along its shores. [details]

Morphology The enormous (up to 1/3 of total body length), box-like head of the sperm whale sets it apart from all other species.The blowhole slit is S-shaped and positioned forward on the left side of the head. There are 18-28 functional teeth on each side of the lower jaws, but the upper teeth are few, weak and nonfunctional. The lower teeth fit into sockets in the upper jaw. The gullet of is the largest among cetaceans; it is in fact the only gullet large enough to accomodate a human. The dorsal fin is replaced by a hump and a series of longitudinal ridges on the posterior part of the back. The flippers are quite small, approximately 200 cm. long. Tail flukes are 400-450 cm in width. The blubber layer of the sperm whale is quite thick, up to 35 cm. With respect to coloration, males often become paler and sometimes piebald with age. Both sexes have white in the genital and anal regions and on the lower jaws. [details]

Reproduction Females sexually mature at 8-11 years and males at 10 years, although males do not mate until they are 25-27 years old due to social status. Gestation is 14-16 months and nursing 2 years. Mating season is in the spring in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres and calves are born in the fall. [details]

Type locality "Oceano Europaeo" [details]

From other sources
Habitat oceanic [details]
 

LanguageName 
Afrikaans potvis  [details]
Albanian kashaloti [from synonym]kashalot  [details]
Aleut aggadakhgikadagig  [details]
Arabic anbar  [details]
Catalan catxalot  [details]
Croatian ulješura  [details]
Czech vorvaň tuponosývorvaň obrovský  [details]
Danish spermacethvalkaskelot  [details]
Dutch potvischpotviskaizilot  [details]
English trumpotrompe whalespermacet whalesperm whalechocolate whale  [details]
French grand cachalot [from synonym]cachalot à dents pointuescachalot à dents en faucillecachalot  [details]
Georgian chigat  [details]
German PottwalPottfisch  [details]
Hebrew ראשתן [from synonym]roshtan  [details]
Icelandic tweld-hvalbúrhvalur  [details]
Indonesian paus lodan  [details]
Italian organantefiseterecascialottocapodoglio [from synonym]capodoglio  [details]
Japanese マッコウクジラmakko kujira  [details]
Kalaallisut kigitulikkegutilik  [details]
Korean hyang-gorae  [details]
Koryak koiapchak  [details]
Lithuanian kašalotas  [details]
Malagasy trozona be lohatrozona amam-taimbo  [details]
Maltese gabdoll  [details]
Modern Greek (1453-) Φυσητήραςfysitiras  [details]
Norwegian sue-hvalstorhufdspermhvalpotfiskknobbe-herrekaskelotkascelothuns-hvalburr-hvalburdhvalurbardhvalur  [details]
Norwegian Bokmål spermhval [from synonym]spermasetthval [from synonym]kaskelotthval [from synonym]kaskelott [from synonym]  [details]
Norwegian Nynorsk spermkval [from synonym]spermasettkval [from synonym]kaskelottkval [from synonym]kaskelott [from synonym]  [details]
Polish potwal olbrotowiecolbrotowickkaszalot (zwyczajny) [from synonym]  [details]
Portuguese cachalote  [details]
Russian кашало́т [from synonym]wolkmorskoispermatsetovyi kitkashalotbolshoi plavun  [details]
Sindhi bahran  [details]
Slovenian kit glavač  [details]
Southern Balochi bahran  [details]
Spanish guapofiseterchacalotecachalote común [from synonym]cachaloteballena esperma  [details]
Swedish pottfiskkaskelot [from synonym]  [details]
Tamil ratchatha thimingalam  [details]
Thai plawan huathui  [details]
Turkish kaşalotkasalotispermeçet balinasıispermecet balinasıispermecet balinasiispermeçet  [details]
Ukrainian Кашалот  [details]
Welsh morfil sberm  [details]