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Asteroidea source details

Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.
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Adriatic Sea for Asterina phylactica Emson & Crump, 1979 
Arctic Ocean for Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 
Arctic Ocean for Crossaster papposus (Linnaeus, 1767) 
Arctic Ocean for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 
Arctic Ocean for Pteraster militaris (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Arctic Ocean for Pteraster pulvillus M. Sars, 1861 
Arctic Ocean for Solaster endeca (Linnaeus, 1771) 
Atlantic Coast of France for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
Azores for Anseropoda placenta (Pennant, 1777) 
Azores for Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) 
Azores for Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 
Azores for Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 
British Isles for Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Crossaster papposus (Linnaeus, 1767) 
British Isles for Echinaster (Echinaster) sepositus (Retzius, 1783) 
British Isles for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) 
British Isles for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 
British Isles for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri celtica A.M. Clark in Clark & Downey, 1992 
British Isles for Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837) 
British Isles for Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837) 
British Isles for Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 
British Isles for Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Solaster endeca (Linnaeus, 1771) 
British Isles for Solaster endeca (Linnaeus, 1771) 
British Isles for Stichastrella rosea (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Canary Islands for Anseropoda placenta (Pennant, 1777) 
Canary Islands for Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) 
Cape Verde for Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) 
Cape Verde for Echinaster (Echinaster) sepositus (Retzius, 1783) 
Cape Verde for Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Central North Sea for Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) 
Denmark for Henricia perforata (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Denmark for Henricia sanguinolenta (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Doggersbank for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 
Dorset for Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) 
East Coast of United States of America for Henricia sanguinolenta (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
English Channel for Anseropoda placenta (Pennant, 1777) 
English Channel for Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) 
English Channel for Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 
Faroe Islands for Henricia perforata (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Faroe Islands for Henricia sanguinolenta (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Greenland for Henricia perforata (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Greenland for Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) 
Iceland for Henricia perforata (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Iceland for Henricia sanguinolenta (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Iceland for Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) 
Iceland for Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Ireland for Echinaster (Echinaster) sepositus (Retzius, 1783) 
Ireland for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 
Irish Sea for Anseropoda placenta (Pennant, 1777) 
Irish Sea for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 
Irish Sea for Stichastrella rosea (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Isle of Man for Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) 
Isle of Man for Asterina phylactica Emson & Crump, 1979 
Mauritania for Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 
Mediterranean Sea for Asterina phylactica Emson & Crump, 1979 
Mediterranean Sea for Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837) 
Mediterranean Sea for Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 
North East Atlantic for Anseropoda placenta (Pennant, 1777) 
North East Atlantic for Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 
North East Atlantic for Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) 
North East Atlantic for Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) 
North East Atlantic for Crossaster papposus (Linnaeus, 1767) 
North East Atlantic for Echinaster (Echinaster) sepositus (Retzius, 1783) 
North East Atlantic for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 
North East Atlantic for Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837) 
North East Atlantic for Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 
North East Atlantic for Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
North East Atlantic for Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
North Pacific for Crossaster papposus (Linnaeus, 1767) 
North Pacific for Solaster endeca (Linnaeus, 1771) 
North West Atlantic for Crossaster papposus (Linnaeus, 1767) 
North West Atlantic for Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) 
North West Atlantic for Solaster endeca (Linnaeus, 1771) 
North West Scotland for Henricia sanguinolenta (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Northern North Pacific for Henricia perforata (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Northern North Pacific for Henricia pertusa (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Northern North Pacific for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 
Northern North Pacific for Pteraster militaris (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Northern North Pacific for Stichastrella rosea (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Norway for Henricia perforata (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Norway for Henricia sanguinolenta (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Norway for Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) 
Norway for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 
Orkney for Henricia sanguinolenta (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Portuguese Atlantic Coast for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
Scotland for Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) 
Shetland Islands for Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) 
Shetlands for Anseropoda placenta (Pennant, 1777) 
Shetlands for Henricia perforata (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Shetlands for Henricia pertusa (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
 Authority

(Forbes M.S. in Thompson, 1840) [details]

 Authority

(Gunnerus, 1767) [details]

 Authority

Ayres, 1851 [details]

 Authority

Koren, 1844 [details]

 Authority

M. Sars, 1861 [details]

 Breeding

Auricularia larva [details]

 Breeding

Auricularia larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Auricularia larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Barrel - shaped, red larvae. Early spring [details]

 Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Summer. [details]

 Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Winter-spring. [details]

 Breeding

Brachiolaria larva. Spring. [details]

 Breeding

Brood young under membrane [details]

 Breeding

Broods young in spring [details]

 Breeding

Broods young. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Can reproduce by fission [details]

 Breeding

Direct development? Winter [details]

 Breeding

Doliolaria larva [details]

 Breeding

Doliolaria larva. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Doliolatia larva [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer - autumn [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Early sumer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Spring to autumn [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. January to May [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. February to May [details]

 Breeding

Eggs released, larvae not known. Juveniles of the Arctic species G. eucnemis are known to live on, or in, the ... [details]

 Breeding

Eggs, attached to genital pinnules, hatch to barrel-shaped ciliated larva; settlement stage is pentacrinoid. All ... [details]

 Breeding

Eggs, shed freely, larvae and pentacrinoid as in A. bifida[details]

 Breeding

Hermaphrodite, possibly self-fertilising, viviparous. May-September? [details]

 Breeding

Hermaphrodite. Planktonic brachiloraia larva. Spring - summer [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs, probable direct development [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs, probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs; non-pelagic development [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs; probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Large red eggs. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Lecithotrophic, probaly planktonic larva. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Mature early summer [details]

 Breeding

Mature in summer [details]

 Breeding

Non-feeding barrel-shaped red larva. February - March [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Spring - Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. April-May [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Autumn. [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophipluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Planktonic bipinnaria and brachilaria larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Probably involves planktonic larva [details]

 Breeding

Probably involving planktonic larva [details]

 Breeding

Probably ophiopluteus larva [details]

 Breeding

Probably planktonic larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Protandrous hermaphrodite; eggs are laid in creviices, but are not brooded. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Simultaneous hermaphrodite. Eggs are laid in masses and are brooded for three weeks under the humped body. May-June. [details]

 Breeding

Viviparous, can contain several developing young [details]

 Breeding

Yolky eggs, probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Yolky eggs, probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Yolky eggs. Spring [details]

 Distribution

20 to more than 200 m depth, in muddy sand and fine gravel, Irish Sea, Clyde and North Sea [details]

 Distribution

20 to more than 200 m depth, in muddy sand and fine gravel, Irish Sea, Clyde and North Sea [details]

 Distribution

4 to 20 m depth, in coarse sand, near Helgoland in the southern North Sea (Menker, 1970). The type specimen was ... [details]

 Distribution

40 to 70 m, in muddy sand, northern North Sea; reported from the Isle of Man, 2 m depth [details]

 Distribution

A deep water species, found occasionally between 100 and 200 m near the edge of the continental shelf to the west ... [details]

 Distribution

At 10 m in fine glutinous black mud in Strangford Lough, Nnorthern Ireland, also found in mud and shell gravel at ... [details]

 Distribution

At 20 to 30 m depth, crevice-living; apparently rare, found near Plymouth (Devon), Galway (Ireland) and Les ... [details]

 Distribution

At about 10 to 20 m depth, in sand, Galway Bay (Ireland) and Plymouth (southwest England); probably overlooked elsewhere [details]

 Distribution

At about 20 m depth in muddy sand or fine gravel; Isle of Man, Galway, probably overlooked elsewhere [details]

 Distribution

At about 50 m depth, on sand, apparently rather rare in the Western English Channel, reported from the Isle of Man ... [details]

 Distribution

At depths of 10 to more than 20 m, in soft sediments with shell gravel, all round the Britsh Isles, except perhaps ... [details]

 Distribution

At depths of more than 100 m, on sand and gravel, off northern and western coasts of the British Isles [details]

 Distribution

At more than 150 m depth, on mud or muddy sand, near the edge of the continental shelf, off western Ireland [details]

 Distribution

At the edge of the continental shelf in depths of 130 m to 200 m, to the west of Ireland and around Shetland [details]

 Distribution

Common on the lower shore and sublittoral region of the northern coast of British Isles and down to at least 100 m ... [details]

 Distribution

Deeper than 200 m, on stones and gravel. Vars flemingii and norvegicus occur in the western Channel, off western ... [details]

 Distribution

Epifaunal on soft sediments in Carlingford Lough, Irish east coast; otherwise uncertain because of confusion with ... [details]

 Distribution

Found at about 30 m depth, burrowing in sand, near Plymouth and in werstern Ireland, probably overlooked elsewhere [details]

 Distribution

Found in 115 - 120 m depth near the Shetlands and off western Ireland [details]

 Distribution

From 10 to more than 200 m depth, buried in sand or muddy san, around the wstern coats of the British Isles, from ... [details]

 Distribution

From 5 to more than 200 m depth, in muddy sand or mud, all round the British Isles, except, possibly, the southeast [details]

 Distribution

From 50 to more than 200 m depth, on mud, off western Ireland and western Scotland, including the Minch and the Clyde [details]

 Distribution

From about 10 to more than 200 m depth, common on sand, muddy sand and fine gravel, all round the British Isles [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to nearly 200 m depth, on rock and gravel, on west and southwest coasts of the British Isles, ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to about 50 m depth, on rocks or stones, with a preference for vertical faces; common around ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, mainly on coarse sand and gravel, all round the British Isles [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, among rocks, stones and seaweed; northern Scotland, Orkeny, Shetland and ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to 50 m depth, typical of the algal zone. British distribution not completely known, but it ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, on shell or gravel grounds, S. pallidus tends to live within the ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal, down to more than 200 m depth, on rocky and stony shores and offshore rough grounds, Scotland, ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal, but mainly in the sublittoral zone, down to 40 m depth, occasionally deeper, on rocks, stones ... [details]

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