Arctic Ocean Diversity
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Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M. (2003). Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review. 41: 47-114.
4179
Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M
2003
Antarctic marine benthic diversity
Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review
41: 47-114
Publication
An unpublished species checklist compiled for background to this paper was used as basis for the Register of Antarctic Marine Species. The paper itself contains no species lists.
Ant'Phipoda Literature database.
Available for editors  PDF available
Species lists have been compiled for all the major groups of Southern Ocean benthic marine invertebrates, eliminating synonymies where possible and providing a subjective estimate of completeness and reliability for each group. Antarctic marine diversity (pelagic and benthic) is relatively high at the phylum and class level, with the gaps mostly comprising minor, meiofaunal or parasitic groups. Most benthic diversity data come from the continental shelves, with relatively few samples from deeper water. Even for the continental shelves, however, sampling is highly patchy with some areas hardly investigated at all. Over 4100 benthic species have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with the most speciose groups being polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. Comparison with tropical and temperate regions suggest that decapods, bivalves and teleost fishes are poorly represented in the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna, whereas pycnogonids, echinoderms and many suspension feeding groups are rich and diverse. Some groups that are currently low in diversity were previously well represented in the Antarctic shallow water marine fauna, notably decapods and many fishes. Other groups have undergone marked radiations in the Southern Ocean, including pycnogonids, amphipods, isopods and teleost fishes; in all cases, however, it is only some lineages that have diversified. This indicates that evolutionary questions concerning the origin, diversification or extinction of the Southern Ocean marine fauna will have no single answer; the evolutionary history of each group appears to reflect a different response to the tectonic, climatic and oceanographic changes to which they have been subject through history. The disposition of southern hemisphere continents makes it difficult to assess whether there is a latitudinal cline in shallow-water marine diversity to mirror that known from the northern hemisphere. Within Antarctica, many species appear to have circumpolar distributions, and the long established biogeographical division into continental Antarctic, Antarctic Peninsula and sub-Antarctic regions have not been challenged by recent sampling. For most groups the frequency distribution of species per genus ratios is typical, though none is well described by the predictions from current evolutionary or null models. Where data are available, size spectra indicate that many Southern Ocean taxa are small, a few spectacular examples of gigantism notwithstanding, and species abundance plots are normal. Knowledge of the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna has reached a stage where we can now ask powerful evolutionary questions, and the development of new molecular techniques provides the mechanism for answering them
Antarctic
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Alcyonidium J.V.F.Lamouroux, 1813 (additional source)
Alcyonidium mytili Dalyell, 1848 accepted as Alcyonidioides mytili (Dalyell, 1848) (additional source)
Amphiblestrum Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Amphiodia Verrill, 1899 (basis of record)
Amphiporidae Oersted, 1844 (additional source)
Amphiporus Ehrenberg, 1831 (additional source)
Bowerbankia Farre, 1837 accepted as Amathia Lamouroux, 1812 (additional source)
Bryozoa (additional source)
Buffonellaria Canu & Bassler, 1927 (additional source)
Bugula Oken, 1815 (additional source)
Bugulidae Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Caberea Lamouroux, 1816 (additional source)
Calloporidae Norman, 1903 (additional source)
Carbasea Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Celleporella Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Celleporidae Johnston, 1838 (additional source)
Ceratonereis (Composetia) Hartmann-Schröder, 1985 represented as Composetia Hartmann-Schröder, 1985 (basis of record)
Chaperiidae Jullien, 1888 (additional source)
Cheilostomatida (additional source)
Cribrilinidae Hincks, 1879 (additional source)
Cyclostomatida incertae sedis (basis of record)
Defrancia Bronn, 1825 accepted as Apsendesia Lamouroux, 1821 (additional source)
Electra Lamouroux, 1816 (additional source)
Electridae d'Orbigny, 1851 (additional source)
Entalophora Lamouroux, 1821 (basis of record)
Escharella Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Escharoides Milne Edwards, 1836 (additional source)
Exidmonea David, Mongereau & Pouyet, 1972 (basis of record)
Exochellidae Bassler, 1935 (additional source)
Fenestrulina Jullien, 1888 (additional source)
Filicrisia D'orbigny, 1853 (additional source)
Flustridae Fleming, 1828 (additional source)
Gellius pilosus Kirkpatrick, 1907 accepted as Hemigellius pilosus (Kirkpatrick, 1907) (additional source)
Golfingia (Golfingia) Lankester, 1885 (basis of record)
Golfingia (Golfingia) elongata (Keferstein, 1862) (basis of record)
Golfingia (Golfingia) margaritacea (Sars, 1851) (basis of record)
Golfingia (Golfingia) margaritacea margaritacea (Sars, 1851) accepted as Golfingia (Golfingia) margaritacea (Sars, 1851) (basis of record)
Gymnolaemata (additional source)
Hemigellius pilosus (Kirkpatrick, 1907) (additional source)
Hippomonavella Canu & Bassler in Bassler, 1934 (additional source)
Hippothoidae Busk, 1859 (additional source)
Hornera Lamouroux, 1821 (additional source)
Idanthyrsus armatus Kinberg, 1866 accepted as Idanthyrsus macropaleus (Schmarda, 1861) (basis of record)
Idmidronea Canu & Bassler, 1920 (additional source)
Idmidronea atlantica (Forbes in Johnston, 1847) accepted as Exidmonea atlantica (Forbes in Johnston, 1847) (additional source)
Lacernidae Jullien, 1888 (additional source)
Lepraliellidae Vigneaux, 1949 (additional source)
Limnoriidae White, 1850 (additional source)
Lineidae (additional source)
Macrostylis G.O. Sars, 1864 (additional source)
Microporellidae Hincks, 1879 (additional source)
Microporidae Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Molgula pedunculata (Herdman, 1881) (basis of record)
Munna Krøyer, 1839 (additional source)
Munneurycope Stephensen, 1912 (additional source)
Mycale Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Mycale (Oxymycale) Hentschel, 1929 (additional source)
Myxilla Schmidt, 1862 (additional source)
Nannoniscus G.O. Sars, 1870 (additional source)
Neofungella Borg, 1933 (additional source)
Paramunnopsis Hansen, 1916 (additional source)
Phascolion (Isomya) Cutler & Cutler, 1985 (basis of record)
Phascolion (Phascolion) Théel, 1875 (basis of record)
Phascolion (Phascolion) strombus (Montagu, 1804) represented as Phascolion (Phascolion) strombus strombus (Montagu, 1804) (basis of record)
Phidoloporidae Gabb & Horn, 1862 (additional source)
Phorbas Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 (additional source)
Plocamia Schmidt, 1870 accepted as Antho (Plocamia) Schmidt, 1870 (additional source)
Reteporella Busk, 1884 (additional source)
Rhodine Malmgren, 1865 (additional source)
Schizoporellidae Jullien, 1883 (additional source)
Smittina Norman, 1903 (additional source)
Smittinidae Levinsen, 1909 (additional source)
Smittoidea Osburn, 1952 (additional source)
Sphaerotylus capitatus (Vosmaer, 1885) (additional source)
Stomatopora Bronn, 1825 (additional source)
Tedania Gray, 1867 represented as Tedania (Tedania) Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Tricellaria Fleming, 1828 (additional source)
Tubulipora Lamarck, 1816 (additional source)
Umbonulidae Canu, 1904 (additional source)
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