WoRMS taxon details

Pholoidae Kinberg, 1858

941  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:941)

accepted
Family
Genus Imajimapholoe Pettibone, 1992
Genus Laubierpholoe Pettibone, 1992
Genus Metaxypsamma Wolf, 1986
Genus Pholoe Johnston, 1839
  » Species Pholoe anoculata Hartman, 1965
  » Species Pholoe assimilis Örsted, 1845
  » Species Pholoe baltica Örsted, 1843
  » Species Pholoe chinensis Wu, Zhao & Ding, 1994
  » Species Pholoe courtneyae Blake, 1995
  » Species Pholoe fauveli Kirkegaard, 1983
  » Species Pholoe glabra Hartman, 1961
  » Species Pholoe inornata Johnston, 1839
  » Species Pholoe longa (O.F. Müller, 1776)
  » Species Pholoe microantennata Padovanni & Amaral, 2013
  » Species Pholoe minuta (Fabricius, 1780)
    » Subspecies Pholoe minuta caeca Uschakov, 1950
    » Subspecies Pholoe minuta tecta (Stimpson, 1854)
    » Subspecies Pholoe minuta anoculata Hartman, 1965 accepted as Pholoe anoculata Hartman, 1965 (superseded original combination)
    » Subspecies Pholoe minuta eximia Johnson, 1839 accepted as Pholoe minuta (Fabricius, 1780) (superseded original combination)
    » Subspecies Pholoe minuta hirsuta Rullier & Amoureux, 1979 accepted as Taylorpholoe hirsuta (Rullier & Amoureux, 1979) (superseded original combination)
    » Subspecies Pholoe minuta nana Zachs, 1923 accepted as Pholoe minuta tecta (Stimpson, 1854) (subjective synonym)
  » Species Pholoe minutissima Hartmann-Schröder, 1980
  » Species Pholoe pallida Chambers, 1985
  » Species Pholoe petersenae Ravara & Cunha, 2016
  » Species Pholoe polymorpha (Hartmann-Schröder, 1962)
  » Species Pholoe spinosa Hartmann-Schröder, 1991
  » Species Pholoe tecta Stimpson, 1854
  » Species Pholoe tuamotuensis Hartmann-Schröder, 1992
  » Species Pholoe antarctica [check list lapsus] accepted as Neopolynoe antarctica (Kinberg, 1858) (non-existent combination)
  » Species Pholoe antipoda Hartman, 1967 accepted as Laubierpholoe antipoda (Hartman, 1967)
  » Species Pholoe brevicornis Panceri, 1875 accepted as Subadyte pellucida (Ehlers, 1864) (subjective synonym)
  » Species Pholoe dorsipapillata Marenzeller, 1893 accepted as Pholoides dorsipapillatus (Marenzeller, 1893) (superseded original combination)
  » Species Pholoe eximia Johnston, 1865 accepted as Pholoe minuta (Fabricius, 1780) (subjective synonym)
  » Species Pholoe mendeleevi Averincev, 1978 accepted as Pholoides mendeleevi (Averincev, 1978) (superseded original combination)
  » Species Pholoe parva Imajima & Hartman, 1964 accepted as Imajimapholoe parva (Imajima & Hartman, 1964) (superseded original combination)
  » Species Pholoe swedmarki Laubier, 1975 accepted as Laubierpholoe swedmarki (Laubier, 1975) (superseded original combination)
  » Species Pholoe synophthalmica Claparède, 1868 accepted as Pholoe inornata Johnston, 1839 (junior synonym)
    » Subspecies Pholoe synophthalmica dinardensis Saint Joseph, 1888 accepted as Pholoe minuta (Fabricius, 1780) (subjective synonym)
    » Subspecies Pholoe synophthalmica pontica Czerniavsky, 1882 accepted as Pholoe inornata Johnston, 1839 (junior synonym)
  » Species Pholoe tuberculata Southern, 1914 accepted as Pholoe baltica Örsted, 1843 (probable junior synonym)
Genus Taylorpholoe Pettibone, 1992
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
recent only
Kinberg, J. G. H. (1857). Annulater [scale worms]. Kongliga Svenska Fregatten Eugenies Resa omkring jorden under befal af C.A. Virgin aren 1851-1853. Zoology. 1(2): 1-32. Vetenskapliga Iakttagelser. Almquist & Wicksells. Uppsala & Stockholm.
page(s): 1 [as Pholoidea] [details]   
Nomenclature A possible source of confusion with Pholoe is the sigalionid genus Pholoides, and superseded family name Pholoididae...  
Nomenclature A possible source of confusion with Pholoe is the sigalionid genus Pholoides, and superseded family name Pholoididae (unnecessarily replacing Peisidicidae in usages). Pholoididae was derived from Pholoides by Fauchald (1977), and unfortunately obviously the result is that it might be confused as a variant spelling of Pholoidae (based on Pholoe). It is not, although the clades are related as scaleworms and may both be members of Sigalionidae (see below) and were both included in Pholoidae by Pettibone (1992). [details]

Nomenclature Kinberg (1858) introduces 'Pholoidea' as part of his classification of Aphroditea [sic] families, assumed based on genus...  
Nomenclature Kinberg (1858) introduces 'Pholoidea' as part of his classification of Aphroditea [sic] families, assumed based on genus Pholoe. No type genera are stated for any of the 7 family names, and Kinberg does not record any Pholoidae from the Eugenie Expedition. His definition is "Elytra in segmentis alternantia; cirri dorsuales nulli, nec in segmentis elytris praeditis, nec in segmentis elytris carentibus." [approximately: elytra alternate, no dorsal cirri] [details]
Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2018). World Polychaeta database. Pholoidae Kinberg, 1858. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=941 on 2018-04-24
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
db_admin
2007-01-22 09:31:04Z
changed
2008-03-26 11:36:43Z
changed
2010-10-20 00:20:00Z
changed
2012-09-19 03:31:54Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description Kinberg, J. G. H. (1857). Annulater [scale worms]. Kongliga Svenska Fregatten Eugenies Resa omkring jorden under befal af C.A. Virgin aren 1851-1853. Zoology. 1(2): 1-32. Vetenskapliga Iakttagelser. Almquist & Wicksells. Uppsala & Stockholm.
page(s): 1 [as Pholoidea] [details]   

taxonomy source Barnich, R.; Fiege, D. 2003. The Aphroditoidea (Annelida: Polychaeta) of the Mediterranean Sea. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft. 559: 167pp., available online at http://www.schweizerbart.de/publications/detail/isbn/9783510613533/The-Aphroditoidea-Annelida-Polychaeta-of-the-Mediterranean-Sea [details]   

taxonomy source Padovanni, Nathalia; Amaral, Antonia Cecília Z. 2013. New species of the scale worm genus Pholoe (Polychaeta: Pholoidae) from southeast Brazil. Zootaxa 3710 (5): 485–497(5): 485–497
note: one new species, and comments on the validity of the family [details]   

taxonomy source Aungtonya, Charatsee; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny. (2014). Annotated checklist of the taxa of Sigalionidae and Pholoidae (Annelida: Polychaeta. Phuket Marine Biological Center Special publication. 32, 151-185., available online at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268479525_Annotated_checklist_of_the_taxa_of_Sigalionidae_and_Pholoidae_%28Annelida_Polychaeta%29
note: comprehensive checklist [details]   

additional source Struck, Torsten H.; Purschke, Guenter and Halanych, Kenneth M. 2005. A scaleless scale worm: Molecular evidence for the phylogenetic placement of Pisione remota (Pisionidae, Annelida). Marine Biology Research, 1:243-253 [details]   

additional source Rouse, G. W.; Pleijel, F. (2001). Polychaetes. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK [etc.]. ISBN 0-19-850608-2. 354 pp. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 78; note: comment on the Pholoidae/Pholoididae confusion [details]   

additional source Wiklund, Helena, Nygren, Arne, Pleijel, Fredrik and Sundberg, Per 2005. Phylogeny of Aphroditiformia (Polychaeta) based on molecular and morphological data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37: 495-502. [details]   

redescription Pettibone, M. H. 1992. Contribution to the polychaete family Pholoidae Kinberg. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 532: 1-24., available online at http://hdl.handle.net/10088/5683 [details]   

status source Norlinder, E.; Nygren, A.; Wiklund, H.; Pleijel, F. (2012). Phylogeny of scale-worms (Aphroditiformia, Annelida), assessed from 18SrRNA, 28SrRNA, 16SrRNA, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 65(2): 490-500., available online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.07.002
page(s): 499 [details]   

identification resource Barnich, Ruth. (2011). Identification of scale worms in British and Irish waters. NMBAQC 2010 taxonomic workshop, Dove Marine Laboratory. 52 pp., available online at http://www.nmbaqcs.org/scheme-components/invertebrates/literature-and-taxonomic-keys/identification-of-scale-worms.aspx [details]   
From editor or global species database
Nomenclature A possible source of confusion with Pholoe is the sigalionid genus Pholoides, and superseded family name Pholoididae (unnecessarily replacing Peisidicidae in usages). Pholoididae was derived from Pholoides by Fauchald (1977), and unfortunately obviously the result is that it might be confused as a variant spelling of Pholoidae (based on Pholoe). It is not, although the clades are related as scaleworms and may both be members of Sigalionidae (see below) and were both included in Pholoidae by Pettibone (1992). [details]

Nomenclature Kinberg (1858) introduces 'Pholoidea' as part of his classification of Aphroditea [sic] families, assumed based on genus Pholoe. No type genera are stated for any of the 7 family names, and Kinberg does not record any Pholoidae from the Eugenie Expedition. His definition is "Elytra in segmentis alternantia; cirri dorsuales nulli, nec in segmentis elytris praeditis, nec in segmentis elytris carentibus." [approximately: elytra alternate, no dorsal cirri] [details]

Synonymy An earlier note indicated Genus Pareupholoe Hartmann-Schröder, 1962, erected in Sigalionidae, was indirectly transfered to Pholoidae, as Pareupholoe fimbriata is a synonym of Pholoides asperus. However, Pholoides is now in Sigalionidae, so the genus reverts to its original family (q.v.) [details]

Synonymy Pholoidae forms a clade with Sigalionidae and is doubtfully distinct from Sigalionidae. Wiklund et al. (2005) suggested that on molecular evidence "Pisione and Pholoe are positioned within Sigalionidae, suggesting that both family names Pisionidae and Pholoidae should be treated as junior synonyms of Sigalionidae." Struck et al (2005) similarly concluded Pisionidae, Pholoidae, and Sigalionidae are closely related. Norlinder et al. (2012) decided to continue to keep Pholoidae separate from Sigalionidae, but synonymised Pisionidae.
Much earlier Pettibone (1992) had included Pholoididae into Pholoidae with both Pholoe and Pholoides included. Hutchings (2000:143) in Polychaetes & allies, intimated only Pholoididae (based on Pholoides) was valid, with Pholoe moved to Sigalionidae. Laubierpholoe etc of Pettibone were to be 'invalid', intended presumably as synonyms of Pholoe, but the article she cited (as in press) to explain this was not published subsequently. Aungtonya & Eibye-Jacobsen (2014) treat these genera as valid in their world checklist, with again both Pholoe and Pholoides in Pholoidae. [details]
 



LanguageName 
English scaleworms  [details]
Japanese フォロエ/ヒメウロコムシ  [details]