WoRMS taxon details

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoidae Kinberg, 1858

941 (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:941)
accepted
Family
Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorImajimapholoe Pettibone, 1992
Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLaubierpholoe Pettibone, 1992
Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMetaxypsamma Wolf, 1986
Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe Johnston, 1839
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe anoculata Hartman, 1965
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe assimilis Örsted, 1845
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe baltica Örsted, 1843
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe chinensis Wu, Zhao & Ding, 1994
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe courtneyae Blake, 1995
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe fauveli Kirkegaard, 1983
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe glabra Hartman, 1961
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe inornata Johnston, 1839
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe longa (O.F. Müller, 1776)
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe microantennata Padovanni & Amaral, 2013
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe minuta (Fabricius, 1780)
    » Subspecies Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe minuta caeca Uschakov, 1950
    » Subspecies Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe minuta tecta (Stimpson, 1854)
    » Subspecies Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe minuta anoculata Hartman, 1965 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe anoculata Hartman, 1965 (superseded original combination)
    » Subspecies Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe minuta eximia Johnson, 1839 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe minuta (Fabricius, 1780) (superseded original combination)
    » Subspecies Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe minuta hirsuta Rullier & Amoureux, 1979 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTaylorpholoe hirsuta (Rullier & Amoureux, 1979) (superseded original combination)
    » Subspecies Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe minuta nana Zachs, 1923 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe minuta tecta (Stimpson, 1854) (subjective synonym)
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe minutissima Hartmann-Schröder, 1980
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe pallida Chambers, 1985
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe petersenae Ravara & Cunha, 2016
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe polymorpha (Hartmann-Schröder, 1962)
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe spinosa Hartmann-Schröder, 1991
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe tecta Stimpson, 1854
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe tuamotuensis Hartmann-Schröder, 1992
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe antarctica [check list lapsus] accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNeopolynoe antarctica (Kinberg, 1858) (non-existent combination)
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe antipoda Hartman, 1967 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLaubierpholoe antipoda (Hartman, 1967)
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe brevicornis Panceri, 1875 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSubadyte pellucida (Ehlers, 1864) (subjective synonym)
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe dorsipapillata Marenzeller, 1893 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoides dorsipapillatus (Marenzeller, 1893) (superseded original combination)
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe eximia Johnston, 1865 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe minuta (Fabricius, 1780) (subjective synonym)
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe mendeleevi Averincev, 1978 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoides mendeleevi (Averincev, 1978) (superseded original combination)
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe parva Imajima & Hartman, 1964 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorImajimapholoe parva (Imajima & Hartman, 1964) (superseded original combination)
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe swedmarki Laubier, 1975 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLaubierpholoe swedmarki (Laubier, 1975) (superseded original combination)
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe synophthalmica Claparède, 1868 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe inornata Johnston, 1839 (junior synonym)
    » Subspecies Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe synophthalmica dinardensis Saint Joseph, 1888 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe minuta (Fabricius, 1780) (subjective synonym)
    » Subspecies Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe synophthalmica pontica Czerniavsky, 1882 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe inornata Johnston, 1839 (junior synonym)
  » Species Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe tuberculata Southern, 1914 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe baltica Örsted, 1843 (probable junior synonym)
Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTaylorpholoe Pettibone, 1992
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
recent only
Kinberg, J. G. H. (1857). Annulater [scale worms]. Kongliga Svenska Fregatten Eugenies Resa omkring jorden under befal af C.A. Virgin aren 1851-1853. Zoology. 1(2): 1-32. Vetenskapliga Iakttagelser. Almquist & Wicksells. Uppsala & Stockholm.
page(s): 1 [as Pholoidea] [details]   
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNomenclature A possible source of confusion with Pholoe is...  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNomenclature A possible source of confusion with Pholoe is the sigalionid genus Pholoides, and superseded family name Pholoididae (unnecessarily replacing Peisidicidae in usages). Pholoididae was derived from Pholoides by Fauchald (1977), and unfortunately obviously the result is that it might be confused as a variant spelling of Pholoidae (based on Pholoe). It is not, although the clades are related as scaleworms and may both be members of Sigalionidae (see below) and were both included in Pholoidae by Pettibone (1992). [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNomenclature Kinberg (1858) introduces 'Pholoidea' as part...  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNomenclature Kinberg (1858) introduces 'Pholoidea' as part of his classification of Aphroditea [sic] families, assumed based on genus Pholoe. No type genera are stated for any of the 7 family names, and Kinberg does not record any Pholoidae from the Eugenie Expedition. His definition is "Elytra in segmentis alternantia; cirri dorsuales nulli, nec in segmentis elytris praeditis, nec in segmentis elytris carentibus." [approximately: elytra alternate, no dorsal cirri] [details]
Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (2012). Pholoidae. In: Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2017). World Polychaeta database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=941 on 2017-11-22

Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
db_admin
2007-01-22 09:31:04Z
changed
2008-03-26 11:36:43Z
changed
2010-10-20 00:20:00Z
changed
2012-09-19 03:31:54Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License



original description Kinberg, J. G. H. (1857). Annulater [scale worms]. Kongliga Svenska Fregatten Eugenies Resa omkring jorden under befal af C.A. Virgin aren 1851-1853. Zoology. 1(2): 1-32. Vetenskapliga Iakttagelser. Almquist & Wicksells. Uppsala & Stockholm.
page(s): 1 [as Pholoidea] [details]   

taxonomy source Barnich, R.; Fiege, D. 2003. The Aphroditoidea (Annelida: Polychaeta) of the Mediterranean Sea. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft. 559: 167pp., available online at http://www.schweizerbart.de/publications/detail/isbn/9783510613533/The-Aphroditoidea-Annelida-Polychaeta-of-the-Mediterranean-Sea [details]   

taxonomy source Padovanni, Nathalia; Amaral, Antonia Cecília Z. 2013. New species of the scale worm genus Pholoe (Polychaeta: Pholoidae) from southeast Brazil. Zootaxa 3710 (5): 485–497(5): 485–497
note: one new species, and comments on the validity of the family [details]   

taxonomy source Aungtonya, Charatsee; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny. (2014). Annotated checklist of the taxa of Sigalionidae and Pholoidae (Annelida: Polychaeta. Phuket Marine Biological Center Special publication. 32, 151-185., available online at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268479525_Annotated_checklist_of_the_taxa_of_Sigalionidae_and_Pholoidae_%28Annelida_Polychaeta%29
note: comprehensive checklist [details]   

additional source Struck, Torsten H.; Purschke, Guenter and Halanych, Kenneth M. 2005. A scaleless scale worm: Molecular evidence for the phylogenetic placement of Pisione remota (Pisionidae, Annelida). Marine Biology Research, 1:243-253 [details]   

additional source Rouse, G. W.; Pleijel, F. (2001). Polychaetes. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK [etc.]. ISBN 0-19-850608-2. 354 pp. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 78; note: comment on the Pholoidae/Pholoididae confusion [details]   

additional source Wiklund, Helena, Nygren, Arne, Pleijel, Fredrik and Sundberg, Per 2005. Phylogeny of Aphroditiformia (Polychaeta) based on molecular and morphological data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37: 495-502. [details]   

redescription Pettibone, M. H. 1992. Contribution to the polychaete family Pholoidae Kinberg. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 532: 1-24., available online at http://hdl.handle.net/10088/5683 [details]   

status source Norlinder, E.; Nygren, A.; Wiklund, H.; Pleijel, F. (2012). Phylogeny of scale-worms (Aphroditiformia, Annelida), assessed from 18SrRNA, 28SrRNA, 16SrRNA, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 65(2): 490-500., available online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.07.002
page(s): 499 [details]   

identification resource Barnich, Ruth. (2011). Identification of scale worms in British and Irish waters. NMBAQC 2010 taxonomic workshop, Dove Marine Laboratory. 52 pp., available online at http://www.nmbaqcs.org/scheme-components/invertebrates/literature-and-taxonomic-keys/identification-of-scale-worms.aspx [details]   
From editor or global species database
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNomenclature A possible source of confusion with Pholoe is the sigalionid genus Pholoides, and superseded family name Pholoididae (unnecessarily replacing Peisidicidae in usages). Pholoididae was derived from Pholoides by Fauchald (1977), and unfortunately obviously the result is that it might be confused as a variant spelling of Pholoidae (based on Pholoe). It is not, although the clades are related as scaleworms and may both be members of Sigalionidae (see below) and were both included in Pholoidae by Pettibone (1992). [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNomenclature Kinberg (1858) introduces 'Pholoidea' as part of his classification of Aphroditea [sic] families, assumed based on genus Pholoe. No type genera are stated for any of the 7 family names, and Kinberg does not record any Pholoidae from the Eugenie Expedition. His definition is "Elytra in segmentis alternantia; cirri dorsuales nulli, nec in segmentis elytris praeditis, nec in segmentis elytris carentibus." [approximately: elytra alternate, no dorsal cirri] [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSynonymy An earlier note indicated Genus Pareupholoe Hartmann-Schröder, 1962, erected in Sigalionidae, was indirectly transfered to Pholoidae, as Pareupholoe fimbriata is a synonym of Pholoides asperus. However, Pholoides is now in Sigalionidae, so the genus reverts to its original family (q.v.) [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSynonymy Pholoidae forms a clade with Sigalionidae and is doubtfully distinct from Sigalionidae. Wiklund et al. (2005) suggested that on molecular evidence "Pisione and Pholoe are positioned within Sigalionidae, suggesting that both family names Pisionidae and Pholoidae should be treated as junior synonyms of Sigalionidae." Struck et al (2005) similarly concluded Pisionidae, Pholoidae, and Sigalionidae are closely related. Norlinder et al. (2012) decided to continue to keep Pholoidae separate from Sigalionidae, but synonymised Pisionidae.
Much earlier Pettibone (1992) had included Pholoididae into Pholoidae with both Pholoe and Pholoides included. Hutchings (2000:143) in Polychaetes & allies, intimated only Pholoididae (based on Pholoides) was valid, with Pholoe moved to Sigalionidae. Laubierpholoe etc of Pettibone were to be 'invalid', intended presumably as synonyms of Pholoe, but the article she cited (as in press) to explain this was not published subsequently. Aungtonya & Eibye-Jacobsen (2014) treat these genera as valid in their world checklist, with again both Pholoe and Pholoides in Pholoidae. [details]
 



LanguageName 
English Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorscaleworms  [details]
Japanese Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorフォロエ/ヒメウロコムシ  [details]