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WoRMS taxon details

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoidae Kinberg, 1858 
AphiaID: 941

Classification: Biota > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAnimalia (Kingdom) > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAnnelida (Phylum) > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPolychaeta (Class) > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorErrantia (Subclass) > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPhyllodocida (Order) > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAphroditiformia (Suborder) > Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoidae (Family)
Status accepted
Rank Family
Parent Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorAphroditiformia
Sources  original description Kinberg, J. G. H. (1857). Annulater [scale worms]. Kongliga Svenska Fregatten Eugenies Resa omkring jorden under befal af C.A. Virgin aren 1851-1853. Zoology. 1(2): 1-32. Vetenskapliga Iakttagelser. Almquist & Wicksells. Uppsala & Stockholm.
page(s): 1 [as Pholoidea] [details]

redescription Pettibone, M. H. 1992. Contribution to the polychaete family Pholoidae Kinberg. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 532: 1-24., available online at http://hdl.handle.net/10088/5683 [details]

status source Norlinder, E.; Nygren, A.; Wiklund, H.; Pleijel, F. (2012). Phylogeny of scale-worms (Aphroditiformia, Annelida), assessed from 18SrRNA, 28SrRNA, 16SrRNA, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 65(2): 490-500., available online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.07.002
page(s): 499 [details]

identification resource Barnich, Ruth. (2011). Identification of scale worms in British and Irish waters. NMBAQC 2010 taxonomic workshop, Dove Marine Laboratory. 52 pp., available online at http://www.nmbaqcs.org/scheme-components/invertebrates/literature-and-taxonomic-keys/identification-of-scale-worms.aspx [details]

[show all]
Language   Name 
English Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorscaleworms  [details]
Japanese Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorフォロエ/ヒメウロコムシ  [details]
Direct child
taxa (5)

[show all]
[sort alpha..]
 Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorImajimapholoe Pettibone, 1992
Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorLaubierpholoe Pettibone, 1992
Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorMetaxypsamma Wolf, 1986
Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPholoe Johnston, 1839
Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTaylorpholoe Pettibone, 1992
Environment marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
Fossil range recent only
Links Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTo Biological Information System for Marine Life (BISMaL) 
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTo GenBank  
Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorTo ITIS
From editor or global species database
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNomenclature A possible source of confusion with Pholoe is the sigalionid genus Pholoides, and superseded family name Pholoididae (unnecessarily replacing Peisidicidae in usages). Pholoididae was derived from Pholoides by Fauchald (1977), and unfortunately obviously the result is that it might be confused as a variant spelling of Pholoidae (based on Pholoe). It is not, although the clades are related as scaleworms and may both be members of Sigalionidae (see below) and were both included in Pholoidae by Pettibone (1992). [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNomenclature Kinberg (1858) introduces 'Pholoidea' as part of his classification of Aphroditea [sic] families, assumed based on genus Pholoe. No type genera are stated for any of the 7 family names, and Kinberg does not record any Pholoidae from the Eugenie Expedition. His definition is "Elytra in segmentis alternantia; cirri dorsuales nulli, nec in segmentis elytris praeditis, nec in segmentis elytris carentibus." [approximately: elytra alternate, no dorsal cirri] [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSynonymy An earlier note indicated Genus Pareupholoe Hartmann-Schröder, 1962, erected in Sigalionidae, was indirectly transfered to Pholoidae, as Pareupholoe fimbriata is a synonym of Pholoides asperus. However, Pholoides is now in Sigalionidae, so the genus reverts to its original family (q.v.) [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSynonymy Pholoidae forms a clade with Sigalionidae and is doubtfully distinct from Sigalionidae. Wiklund et al. (2005) suggested that on molecular evidence "Pisione and Pholoe are positioned within Sigalionidae, suggesting that both family names Pisionidae and Pholoidae should be treated as junior synonyms of Sigalionidae." Struck et al (2005) similarly concluded Pisionidae, Pholoidae, and Sigalionidae are closely related. Norlinder et al. (2012) decided to continue to keep Pholoidae separate from Sigalionidae, but synonymised Pisionidae.
Much earlier Pettibone (1992) had included Pholoididae into Pholoidae with both Pholoe and Pholoides included. Hutchings (2000:143) in Polychaetes & allies, intimated only Pholoididae (based on Pholoides) was valid, with Pholoe moved to Sigalionidae. Laubierpholoe etc of Pettibone were to be 'invalid', intended presumably as synonyms of Pholoe, but the article she cited (as in press) to explain this was not published subsequently. Aungtonya & Eibye-Jacobsen (2014) treat these genera as valid in their world checklist, with again both Pholoe and Pholoides in Pholoidae. [details]
LSID urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:941
Edit history
Date   action   by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z  created  db_admin
2007-01-22 09:31:04Z  changed  Barnich, Ruth
2008-03-26 11:36:43Z  changed  Fauchald, Kristian
2010-10-20 00:20:00Z  changed  Read, Geoffrey
2012-09-19 03:31:54Z  changed  Read, Geoffrey
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  Citation: Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (2012). Pholoidae. In: Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2017). World Polychaeta database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=941 on 2017-09-26
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