WoRMS taxon details

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTurritopsis rubra (Farquhar, 1895)

284469  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:284469)

accepted
Species
marine, terrestrial
(ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorTubiclava rubra Farquhar, 1895) Farquhar, H. 1895. Description of two new gymnoblastic Hydroids. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 27: 208-209, plate 13., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/22767#page/236/mode/1up
page(s): 209 [details]   
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTaxonomy This species has until recently been...  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTaxonomy This species has until recently been synonymized with T. nutricula McCrady, 1857, a medusa from the western Atlantic. Morphological and molecular data, however, showed it to be distinct. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editordescription 
Polyp stage:
Hydroids forming initially...  
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editordescription 
Polyp stage:
Hydroids forming initially stolonial, later erect colonies, arising from attached, ramified stolons. Branching of stems irregular, reaching 15 mm (up to 50 mm in very large colonies). Branches originate at acute angles and are adnate for some distance afterwards, then curving away and becoming free. Branches 160 to 200 mm in diameter, some few expanding distally; perisarc firm, mostly heavily infested with detritus and algae, without annulations, terminating below hydranths. Perisarc double-layered, inner layer corrugated. Hydranths in material from New Zealand intensively orange-red. Relaxed hydranths are spindle shaped and reach 0.8 mm in height, with 12 to 20 filiform tentacles of different length (max. 0.6 mm), highly contractile, scattered over distal 3/4 of hydranth; hypostome conical, hydranth not retractable into perisarc, stressed hydranths contract to egg shape. Medusae buds arise below hydranths in perisarc covered region, mostly one bud, occasionally more. The medusae buds arise from short stems which may also be adnate for some distance after their origin. Also hydranths arising directly from stolons but belonging to an branching colony can bear medusae buds. Nematocysts:
a) microbasic euryteles, (7-8)x(3-4)um, s=0.9.
b) microbasic mastigophores, rare, in body and cauli of larger polyps, (5.5-7)x(3-4)um, s=0.7.
c) desmonemes, discharged with four coils, (4.5-5.5)x(2.5-3)um.

Young medusa:
Newly released medusa spherical, light orange in New Zealand material, manubrium with four perradial lips with nematocyst clusters, manubrial peduncule present, base of manubrium and transition to radial canals with very large vacuolated gastrodermal cells, four interradial orange pads on distal part of manubrium. With four radial canals and circular canal. With eight tentacles, arising from bulbs with an inconspicuous adaxial ocellus. The exumbrella appears granulated and is slightly opaque. Nematocysts:
a) microbasic euryteles in tentacles, (7-8)x(3-4)um.
b) microbasic euryteles of manubrium, (8.5-10)x(3-3.5)um.
c) desmonemes, discharged with four coils, (5-6.5)x (2.5-3.5)um.

Adult medusa:
Adult medusa up to 7 mm high, bell-shaped, higher than wide, jelly thin, at apex thicker. Stomach cross-shaped in axial view, manubrium not longer than bell cavity. Manubrium with intensively red colour. Four radial masses of large vacuolated gastrodermal cells form a compact mass above stomach. Mouth with four lips with nematocyst clusters along margin. Four radial canals which continue through vacuolated gastrodermal masses to manubrium. Gonads on interradial walls of manubrium, in mature females with developing embryos and planulae. Many tentacles (up to 120), arising from closely spaced tentacle bulbs, these with adaxial ocelli. Nematocysts:
a) microbasic euryteles in tentacles, (8-9)x(4-5)um, s=0.9.
b) microbasic euryteles from manubrium, (7-9.5)x(3-4)um, s=0.7.
c) desmonemes of tentacles, (5.5-7)x(3.5-4.5)um. [details]
Schuchert, P. (2012). Turritopsis rubra (Farquhar, 1895). In: Schuchert, P. (2017). World Hydrozoa database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=284469 on 2017-12-14

Date
action
by
2008-01-16 10:35:54Z
created
2011-06-10 08:40:24Z
checked
2012-10-19 06:41:41Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorTurritopsis pacifica Maas, 1909) Maas, O. 1909. Japanische Medusen. - Abhandlungen der bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch physikalische Classe, Supplement Band 1: 1-53, plates 1-3., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/28181#page/5/mode/1up
page(s): 14, pl. 1 figs 6-8, pl. 2 fig. 9 [details]   

original description  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorCorydendrium zelandicum Stechow, 1924) Stechow, E. 1924a. Diagnosen neuer Hydroiden aus Australien. - Zoologischer Anzeiger 59: 57-69.
page(s): 57 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

original description  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorTubiclava rubra Farquhar, 1895) Farquhar, H. 1895. Description of two new gymnoblastic Hydroids. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 27: 208-209, plate 13., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/22767#page/236/mode/1up
page(s): 209 [details]   

original description  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorTurritopsis nutricula var. pacifica Maas, 1909) Maas, O. 1909. Japanische Medusen. - Abhandlungen der bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch physikalische Classe, Supplement Band 1: 1-53, plates 1-3., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/28181#page/5/mode/1up
page(s): 14 [details]   

basis of record Vervoort, W.; Schuchert, P. & van der Land, J. (2000-2007). as a contribution to UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Miglietta, M. P., Piraino, S., Kubota, S., Schuchert, P. (2007). Species in the genus Turritopsis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa): a molecular evaluation. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 45(1): 11-19., available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0469.2006.00379.x [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Cairns, S.D.; Gershwin, L.; Brook, F.J.; Pugh, P.; Dawson, E.W.; Ocaña O.V.; Vervoort, W.; Williams, G.; Watson, J.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Schuchert, P.; Hine, P.M.; Gordon, D.P.; Campbell, H.J.; Wright, A.J.; Sánchez, J.A.; Fautin, D.G. (2009). Phylum Cnidaria: corals, medusae, hydroids, myxozoans. in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 59-101., available online at http://si-pddr.si.edu/handle/10088/8431 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

redescription Schuchert, P., 1996. The marine fauna of New Zealand: Athecate hydroids and their medusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). New Zeal. Oceanog. Inst. Mem. 106 : 1-159.
page(s): 16, fig. 5a-e [details]  OpenAccess publication 

redescription Schuchert, P. (2004). Revision of the European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): families Oceanidae and Pachycordylidae. Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 111 2: 315-369. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

basis of record  (ofChecked: verified by a taxonomic editorTurritopsis pacifica Maas, 1909) Vervoort, W.; Schuchert, P. & van der Land, J. (2000-2007). as a contribution to UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms. (look up in IMIS[details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien 
 

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNontype MHNG MHNG-INVE-33455, locality Auckland (Hauraki Gulf, Devonport, Narrow Neck Beach) [details]
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNontype MHNG MHNG-INVE-34180, locality Tasmania (Hobart, Port of Hobart, Constitution Dock) [details]
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorNontype MHNG MHNG- INVE-33463, locality Wellington (Evans Bay, Greta Point ) [details]
From editor or global species database
Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorBiology polyp colonial, medusa benthic, shallow water to intertidal [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTaxonomy This species has until recently been synonymized with T. nutricula McCrady, 1857, a medusa from the western Atlantic. Morphological and molecular data, however, showed it to be distinct. [details]

Checked: verified by a taxonomic editordescription 
Polyp stage:
Hydroids forming initially stolonial, later erect colonies, arising from attached, ramified stolons. Branching of stems irregular, reaching 15 mm (up to 50 mm in very large colonies). Branches originate at acute angles and are adnate for some distance afterwards, then curving away and becoming free. Branches 160 to 200 mm in diameter, some few expanding distally; perisarc firm, mostly heavily infested with detritus and algae, without annulations, terminating below hydranths. Perisarc double-layered, inner layer corrugated. Hydranths in material from New Zealand intensively orange-red. Relaxed hydranths are spindle shaped and reach 0.8 mm in height, with 12 to 20 filiform tentacles of different length (max. 0.6 mm), highly contractile, scattered over distal 3/4 of hydranth; hypostome conical, hydranth not retractable into perisarc, stressed hydranths contract to egg shape. Medusae buds arise below hydranths in perisarc covered region, mostly one bud, occasionally more. The medusae buds arise from short stems which may also be adnate for some distance after their origin. Also hydranths arising directly from stolons but belonging to an branching colony can bear medusae buds. Nematocysts:
a) microbasic euryteles, (7-8)x(3-4)um, s=0.9.
b) microbasic mastigophores, rare, in body and cauli of larger polyps, (5.5-7)x(3-4)um, s=0.7.
c) desmonemes, discharged with four coils, (4.5-5.5)x(2.5-3)um.

Young medusa:
Newly released medusa spherical, light orange in New Zealand material, manubrium with four perradial lips with nematocyst clusters, manubrial peduncule present, base of manubrium and transition to radial canals with very large vacuolated gastrodermal cells, four interradial orange pads on distal part of manubrium. With four radial canals and circular canal. With eight tentacles, arising from bulbs with an inconspicuous adaxial ocellus. The exumbrella appears granulated and is slightly opaque. Nematocysts:
a) microbasic euryteles in tentacles, (7-8)x(3-4)um.
b) microbasic euryteles of manubrium, (8.5-10)x(3-3.5)um.
c) desmonemes, discharged with four coils, (5-6.5)x (2.5-3.5)um.

Adult medusa:
Adult medusa up to 7 mm high, bell-shaped, higher than wide, jelly thin, at apex thicker. Stomach cross-shaped in axial view, manubrium not longer than bell cavity. Manubrium with intensively red colour. Four radial masses of large vacuolated gastrodermal cells form a compact mass above stomach. Mouth with four lips with nematocyst clusters along margin. Four radial canals which continue through vacuolated gastrodermal masses to manubrium. Gonads on interradial walls of manubrium, in mature females with developing embryos and planulae. Many tentacles (up to 120), arising from closely spaced tentacle bulbs, these with adaxial ocelli. Nematocysts:
a) microbasic euryteles in tentacles, (8-9)x(4-5)um, s=0.9.
b) microbasic euryteles from manubrium, (7-9.5)x(3-4)um, s=0.7.
c) desmonemes of tentacles, (5.5-7)x(3.5-4.5)um. [details]
 

Feeding Type
polyp: carnivore [details]
medusa: carnivore [details]
LanguageName 
English Unreviewed: has not been verified by a taxonomic editorCrimson jelly  [details]